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CASE STUDY

INTRODUCTION
In this Staircases Work study, we in a group are needed to come to the construction site to make some research about what we had study in the staircase topic practically. Besides, we also want to gain a new knowledge and experience on how the construction of staircase made on the site. We had decided to choose Sri Pulai Perdana 2 as our site to make this research. We choose Sri Pulai Perdana 2 as our project site because it was among the nearest construction site from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia that built up the residential area. Besides, the side was doing our part of research which is staircase while we searching for sites. The construction sites members also very kind for giving us permission to complete our project and help to answer all our questions about staircases work.

FIGURE 29 : FRONTVIEW OF THE SITE

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BACKGROUND
Sri Pulai Perdana 2 is a premium upmarket housing development catering to the discerning and privileged. Comprising a development mix of contemporary housing design to meet the needs of an aspiring state, Sri Pulai Perdana 2 embraces the concept and lifestyle of garden resort living in a relaxed and care-free setting where distinctive feature of an exclusive Clubhouse with swimming

pool and gym will make garden resort living a healthy and truly enjoyable experience for residents and guest. The upmarket residential component will be fully equipped with gated and guarded facilities and Sri Pulai Perdana 2 will be another showpiece of Iskandar Malaysia. This beautiful freehold residence has easy access to the North-South Highway, Sultan Ismail Airport, the Second Link and other surrounding housing areas. It also provides an easier way to go shopping (Jusco, Taman Universiti and U mall) which can be accessed only with 10 minutes. It is among the nearest residential area with the high class university (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia).

FIGURE 30 : LOCATION MAP

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CONSTRUCTION TEAM

Company

Sri Pulai Perdana 2 is under company Mah sing Group Properties project. The corporate headquarters is located at Wisma Mah Sing, Penthouse Suite 1, No 163, Jalan Sungei Besi, 57100 Kuala Lumpur. Mah Sing Group is an investment holding company while its subsidiaries principle activities involve property developments and investments. It was incorporated since 1991 and listed on the Main Board of the Bursa Malaysia. Mah Sing Group Berhad is Malaysias leading developer at the forefront of building quality homes and prime commercial projects in strategic locations.

Site Manager

Encik Azman is the site manager of this project. He needs to monitor all the work made by contractor. He also manages all the materials orders that arrived at the site. He is the one we deal with for coming at this site. He told us lots of thing about how staircases work being carried on site. We did get lot of information from him.

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STAIRCASES WORK

TYPE OF STAIR USED According to the site manager, Mr. Azman, the type of stair used at this construction site of Sri Pulai Perdana 2, is a closed treads and risers straight flight stairs. There is a landing at each consecutive floor.

FIGURE 31 : THE STRAIGHT FLIGHT STAIRS

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MATERIALS USED AT THE CONSTRUCTION SITE 1. CONCRETE Ready mix concrete is being used as the concrete for this construction site. The grade of concrete used is Grade 25 which using the ratio of 1:1:5:3 1 cement : 1 sand : 5 aggregates : 3 water

FIGURE 32 : READY MIX COCNRETE

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2. REINFORCEMENT Using mild steel and high tensile Used to be foundation for the staircase, supports and keeps strengthen of the staircase and also functions to receive the load of the staircases.

FIGURE 33 : REINFORCEMENT OF STAIRCASE

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3. FORMWORK Using plywood and timber Gives shape to the staircase

FIGURE 34 : FORMWORK 4. HAMMER Used to knock the nails into the formwork

FIGURE 35 : HAMMER

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5. NAILS AND SCREWS To join the formwork of the staircases

FIGURE 36 : SCREWS

FIGURE 37 : NAILS

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6. FLOAT TROWEL Smoothening the surface of concrete

FIGURE 38 : FLOAT TROWEL

7. SAW To cut the formwork into the size which suite the best

FIGURE 39 : SAW

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8. BINDER To bind the spacer and the reinforcement

FIGURE 40 : BINDER

9. SPACER Being tied with the reinforcement to give space for the concrete to flow in the middle of them.

FIGURE 41 : SPACER
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10. MEASURING TAPE To measure the height and width of risers and treads of each of the stairs.

FIGURE 42 : MEASURING TAPE 11. SPIRIT BUBBLED To make sure that the level of the staircase constructed is just the same

FIGURE 43 : SPIRIT BUBBLED

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MACHINE BEING USED TO CONSTRUCT STAIRCASE 1. SKIP Transport concrete mixture from ground floor to the upper floor.

FIGURE 44 : SKIP 2. VIBRATOR Vibrate the concrete that had been poured into the formwork so that the concrete is compressed.

FIGURE 45 : VIBRATOR

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CONSTRUCTION OF STAIRCASES First, the supports such as soffits and struts have to be set up. This supports must strong enough to support the load from formwork and concrete. Then, the formwork which made of timbers and ply woods will be installed. The formwork acts like a mould. It gives shape to the staircase.

FIGURE 32 : FORMWORK FOR STAIRS

FIGURE 33 : SCALFOLDING OF STAIRS

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After the formwork is already installed, the spacers will be put at the formwork first. The reinforcement will be put in the formwork. Spacers will be tie together with reinforcement so that the reinforcement will be in the middle of the concrete. Reinforcement at the ground floor slab will be connected to the reinforcement of the staircase. Reinforcement from the slab will be tied up with the staircases reinforcement. Reinforcement from the slab is important to make sure that the staircase always connects to the slab and will not fall over. Then reinforcement will be tied up using the wires and mild steel. The reinforcement will be put layer by layer to make sure that the stair is strong to withstand the loads. The function of the reinforcement is to give internal support to the concrete stair.

FIGURE 34 : SPACER THAT TIED WITH REINFORCEMENT

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FIGURE 35 : REINFORMENT IS INSTALLED

FIGURE 36 : INSTALLATION OF REINFORMENT

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FIGURE 37 : LAYERED OF REINFORCEMENT

FIGURE 38 : MILD STEEL TIED THE HIGH TENSILE REINFORCEMENT

After the reinforcement is already putted in the formwork, the risers is being installed. The horizontal formwork will install first because they will act as the mould to steps

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FIGURE 39 : FORMWORK OF RISER IS BEING INSTALLED

FIGURE 40 : COMPLETE INSTALLED FORMWORK

After that, the concreting process is followed. . The process of concreting will start from the up to down. The concrete will be pour from upper level to the lower level. This enables the concrete flows through the risers and the space below the risers. After that, the concrete is vibrated so that the concrete is compressed.

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FIGURE 41 : POURING AND VIBRATING THE CONCRETE

After that, the concrete is smoothening by using the float and left to dry for few days. After the hardening and drying process of the concrete, the formwork of the stairs will be opened. The side formwork will be opened first followed by the horizontal formwork. The complete concrete staircase is done.

FIGURE 42 : COMPLETE STAIRS AFTER FORMWORK BEING REMOVED For the finishes of the stairs, they only used the cement screeds as shown below.

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FIGURE 43 : CEMENT SCREEDS FOR THE STAIRS

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