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A. INDONESIAN PEOPLE Indonesia's population increased from 119,208,000 in 1971 to 147,500,000 in 1980, to 179,300,000 in 1990, and to 203,456,000 in 2000. In the meantime the fertility rate declined from 4.6 per thousand women to 3.3; the crude death rate fell at a rate of 2.3 percent per year; and infant mortality declined from 90.3 per thousand live births to 58. The fertility rate was projected to fall to 2.1 percent within another decade, but the total population was predicted to reach 253,700,000 by 2020. As of the middle of the twentieth century, Indonesia's population was largely rural, but at the beginning of the twenty-first century, about 20 percent live in towns and cities and three of five people farm. Cities in both inner and outer islands have grown rapidly, and there are now twenty-six cities with populations over 200,000. As in many developing countries, Indonesia's population is still a young one. The above patterns are national, but there are ethnic and regional variations. Population has grown at different rates in different areas owing to such factors as economic conditions and standard of living, nutrition, availability and effectiveness of public health and family planning programs, and cultural values and practices. Migration also plays a part in population fluctuations. Increased permanent or seasonal migration to cities accompanied economic development during the 1980s and 1990s, but there is also significant migration between rural areas as people leave places such as South Sulawesi for more productive work or farm opportunities in Central Sumatra or East Kalimantan. According to the last census the total Muslim population is approximately 88% of total population, making Indonesia the largest Muslim society in the world. Indonesian population consists of many ethnicities- 45% Javanese, 14% Sudanese, 7.5% Madurese and 26% other ethnic groups.

There are about 583 languages and dialects spoken in the Indonesia. They normally belong to the different ethnic groups of the population. Some of the distinctly different local languages are: Acehnese, Batak, Sundanese, Javanese, Sasak, Tetum of Timor, Dayak, Minahasa, Toraja, Buginese, Halmahera, Ambonese, Ceramese, and several Irianese languages. To make the picture even more complex and colorful, these languages are also spoken in different dialects. Bahasa Indonesia is the national language, which is akin to Malay, written in Roman script and based on European orthography. In all the tourist destinations English is the number one foreign language. In big cities Dutch is still spoken, while popularity of French is increasing at good hotels and restaurants.

B. THE CULTURE OF INDONESIA Indonesia Culture can be defined as all local cultures that have existed prior to shape Indonesia in 1945. Throughout the local culture from diverse cultural ethnic groups in Indonesia are an integral part of Indonesian culture. Although the Indonesian culture varied, but basically formed and influenced by other great cultures such as Chinese culture, Indian culture, and Arab culture. Indian culture is mainly coming from the spread of Hinduism and Buddhism in the archipelago long before Indonesia was formed. Kingdoms breath Hinduism and Buddhism was dominated archipelago in the 5th century AD marked the founding of the oldest kingdoms in the archipelago, namely Kutai until the end of the 15th century AD. Most Indonesians are ethnically Austronesian, particularly in central and western Indonesia, although much of eastern Indonesia is Melanesian. There are, however, around 300 distinct native ethnicities in Indonesia and 742 different languages and dialects. Small but significant populations of ethnic Chinese, Indians and Arabs are concentrated mostly in urban areas. An almost universally shared sense of Indonesian nationhood overlays this vast diversity and steadfastly maintained regional identities, providing a largely harmonious society. A Minangkabau woman in traditional dress.Indonesia, however, is not without social tensions with religious and ethnic differences triggering sometimes horrendous violence. The transmigration program contributed to the spread of people from highly populated Java and Madura to eastern Indonesia. Ethnic and religious differences between these immigrants and

the local peoples have been blamed for numerous difficulties, sometimes culminating in bloody conflicts such as the massacre of hundreds of Madurese by a local Dayak community in West Kalimantan, and conflicts in Maluku, Central Sulawesi, and parts of Papua and West Irian Jaya. Chinese Indonesians are arguably the most influential ethnic minority in Indonesia. Although the Chinese make up only 2% of the population, the majority of the locally-owned businesses and wealth in the country is Chinese-controlled. This has caused considerable resentment despite the fact that it is only a small proportion of Chinese that hold great wealth, and that a large middle class of prosperous, non-Chinese has developed. The riots in Jakarta in 1998, much of which was aimed Chinese culture in and influence the culture of Indonesia due to the interaction of intense trade between Chinese merchants and Nusantara (Srivijaya). In addition, there are many that go along with Chinese nomads who came from southern China and settled in the archipelago. They settled and married local residents and generate a mix of local Chinese culture and unique. Cultures such as these then become one of the roots of modern local culture than in Indonesia such as Javanese and Betawi culture. Belief Systems / Religion In Indonesia consists of five major religions, namely Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Religion in Indonesia plays an important role in public life. This is stated in the ideology of Indonesia, Pancasila: "Belief in God Almighty". A number of religions in Indonesia are collectively influence on politics, economics and culture. In 1998, approximately 88% of the 222 million population of Indonesia is Muslim, 5% Protestant, Roman Catholic 3%, 2% Hindu, 1% Buddhist, and 1% other beliefs. So it can be concluded that the adherents of Islam in Indonesia is more dominant than the other four religions.In the 1945 Constitution stated that "each resident is given the freedom to choose and practice the faith" and "guarantee everything will be free to worship, according to religion or belief". The government officially recognizes only five religions, namely Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. With the abundance of religion or belief in Indonesia, inter-religious conflict is often inevitable. Not that that always happens suppression of other religions. But it began to

decrease since democracy in Indonesia began to be enforced. Moreover, the political leadership in Indonesia plays an important role in the relationship between group or class. Transmigration program has indirectly led to a number of conflicts in eastern Indonesia. But, one thing that really stands out is that freedom is upheld in this case. All live in peace. This is what makes the nation Indonesia is famous for its diversity. Although the Indonesian constitution guarantees religious freedom for all citizens, the Government officially only recognizes six religions, namely Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism and Confucianism. Indonesia is the worlds most populous Muslim-majority nation with almost 86% of Indonesians declared Muslim according to the 2000 census. 11% of the population is Christian (of which roughly twothirds are Protestant), 2% are Hindu, and 1% Buddhist. Before the arrival of the Abrahamic faiths of Christianity and Islam, the popular belief systems in the region were thoroughly influenced by Indic religious philosophy through Hinduism and Buddhism. The influence of Hinduism and classical India remain defining traits of Indonesian culture; the Indian concept of the god-king still shapes Indonesian concepts of leadership and the use of Sanskrit in courtly literature and adaptations of Indian mythology such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata. The vast majority of Hindus are Balinese who, similar to abangan Muslims, follow a version of Hinduism fused with existing cultural and religious beliefs and markedly distinct from orthodox Hinduism. The Sumatra-based Sriwijaya kingdom of the seventh century AD was an early center of Buddhism in Indonesia. Most Buddhists in modern-day Indonesia, however, are ethnic Chinese. Islam was first brought to northern Sumatra by Arab traders in the thirteenth century and had become Indonesia's dominant religion by the fifteenth century. Although Islam was once mainly practiced in Java and Sumatra, Indonesia-wide emigration has increased the number of Muslims living in Bali, Borneo, Sulawesi, Maluku, and Papua. Like other religions in Indonesia, Islam has blended with local traditional beliefs such as those practiced by the Abangan Muslims on Java and with other belief systems in northern Sumatra and Kalimantan. Such syncretic practises draw on distinctly Indonesian customs and typically differ from more Orthodox Islam by favoring local customs over Islamic law. One notable difference includes a generally greater level of freedom and higher social status for women. The majority of Indonesian Muslims are generally accepting of differing religious practices and interpretations within their own faith. Although the form of worship may differ, Muslims

in Indonesia are typically devout; many have made the pilgrimage to Mecca, for example. More Orthodox Muslims believing in a stricter adherence to Sharia make up a smaller but growing percentage of the population;[citation needed] the wearing of a jilbab, for example, is becoming more common.[citation needed] There is a small but outspoken hard-line Islamist presence in Indonesia, some of which seek to establish Indonesia as an Islamic state. Most Indonesian Muslims, however, are wary of these movements. Catholicism was first brought to Indonesia by early Portuguese colonialists and missionaries, and the Protestant denominations are largely a result of Dutch Calvinist and Lutheran missionary efforts during its colonial time. Missionary efforts did not extend to Java or other predominantly Muslim areas. As with Islam and Hinduism, Christian beliefs in Indonesia are sometimes combined with animism and other traditional beliefs and cultural practices. Economics and Livelihoods It is uncertain whether Indonesia to adapt the overall capitalist economic system as a whole or not at the time of the old order. However, based on several articles in the Constitution of 1945 and in several articles in the Act can be concluded that Indonesia uses a system of taxation with the tax rate is quite high, and the government still intervenes in the production of several activities that affect the community many and which may lead to economic instability. This indicates that Indonesia does not fully adapt to the capitalist economic system, but also combine them with the basic principles of the state of Indonesia, Pancasila. According to some sources, Indonesia had to use the economic system of money and land rent and taxes, starting in the UK coming to Indonesia at the beginning of the 19th century by Raffles as governor generals. By that, Indonesia just need to adapt and improve existing systems. Indonesia's economic system is also supported by the launch Oeang Repoeblik Indonesia (ORI), which became the first currency of the Republic of Indonesia, then changed into yen.

Indonesia's economy suffered a setback at the end of the 1990s economic crisis that hit most of Asia at that time. The economy has stabilized somewhat since then. Indonesia has vast natural resources outside Java, including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper, and gold. Indonesia's second largest natural gas exporter in the world, although lately he had first become a net importer of crude oil. The main crops include rice, tea, coffee, spices, and rubber.Indonesia's major trading partners are Japan, the United States and its neighbors countries, namely Malaysia, Singapore and Australia.Although rich in natural and human resources, Indonesia is still facing major problems in the field of poverty is largely due to the rampant corruption in government. Talking about livelihoods, livelihoods generally Indonesia currently wrestling in the fields of arts, law, medicine, military, trade, tourism, capital markets, and others. But with so many livelihoods is not to say that Indonesia has been independent of unemployment and poverty. There are many masyarakt Indonesia inside a circle of unemployment and under the poverty line. Language and Art Indonesian is the official language and linguistic unity of the Republic of Indonesia which is listed in the RI Constitution 1945, Article 36 and implied in the Youth Pledge October 28, 1928. Language was inaugurated in 1945, just at the time of independence of Indonesia. However, Indonesia is not a lot of people who use it as the Indonesian language as everyday because people prefer to use regional languages. Indonesian itself is a dialect of Malay language became the official language of the Republic of Indonesia, but has undergone many changes and improvements. The official national language, Indonesian (Indonesian: Bahasa Indonesia), is universally taught in schools and is spoken by nearly every Indonesian. It is the language of business, politics, national media, education and academia. Yet, in isolated areas even on the major islands it is not uncommon to find villagers who are not familiar with Indonesian.[83][84] It was originally a lingua franca for most of the region, including present-day Malaysia and is thus closely related to Malay. It was first promoted as a national language in 1928 by the Indonesian National Party (PNI), accepted by the Dutch as the de facto language for the colony, and then declared the official language after independence. Most Indonesians speak at least one of the several hundred local languages (bahasa daerah),

often as their first language. Of these, Javanese is the most widely-spoken language, as it is the language of the largest ethnic group.[64] Papua on the other hand, has as many as five hundred or more indigenous Papuan or Austronesian languages in a region of just 2.7 million people. Indonesian language is a dynamic language, which until now continues to produce new words, either through the creation, as well as the absorption of foreign languages and area. Sociologically, it can be said that Indonesian presence was received on October 28, 1928. Legally, the new date of August 18, 1945 Indonesian was officially recognized. Phonology and grammar of Indonesian is easy enough. Indonesian is also the language used as the conductive education at universities in Indonesia. Meanwhile, the type of art in Indonesia can be categorized in several classifications such as: dance, music, martial arts, the art of fashion, and much more. Most art is influenced by several cultures. Dance of Java and Bali are renowned contain aspects of Hindu culture and mythology. In the field of fashion heritage is known throughout the world of batik. Unique martial arts also came from Indonesia. This martial art is sometimes displayed at events that are usually followed by performances of traditional music of Indonesia gamelan music and other traditional arts according to region of origin. And also the art of music in Indonesia, both traditional and modern very much stretching from Sabang to Merauke one example is the dangdut music Indonesia has around three hundred ethnic groups, each with cultural differences that have shifted over the centuries. Modern-day Indonesian culture is a fusion of this diversity. Indonesia has also imported cultural aspects from Arabic, Chinese, Malay and European sources. Traditional Javanese and Balinese dances, for example, contain aspects of Hindu culture and mythology as does the Javanese and Balinese wayang kulit ("shadow puppet") shows, depicting mythological events. Cloth such as batik, ikat and songket are created across Indonesia with different areas having different styles and specializations. The most dominant influences on Indonesian architecture have traditionally been Indian, however, Chinese, Arab, and, particularly from the 19th century, European architecture has had a significant influence. Pencak Silat is a unique martial art originating from the archipelago.

Derived from centuries of exchange with Chinese, European, Middle Eastern and Indian influences, Indonesia has developed its own distinctive cuisine, which varies across its regions. Rice is the staple food of most Indonesian dishes and is served with several side dishes of meat and/or vegetables. In comparison to the infused flavors of Vietnamese and Thai food, flavors in Indonesia are kept relatively separate, simple and substantial.[93] Spices, notably chilli, and coconut milk are fundamental ingredients as is fish and chicken, although red meat tends to be expensive. Indonesian music varies within cities and groups as people who live in the countryside would listen to a different kind of music than people in the city. Although rock was introduced to Indonesia by the Indonesian rock band God Bless (see Ian Antono), native Indonesian music is still preserved. Examples of Indonesian traditional music are Gamelan and Keroncong. Dangdut is a hugely popular contemporary genre of pop music partly derived from Arabic, Indian, and Malay folk music. The Indonesian movie industry's popularity peaked in the 1980s and dominated cinemas in Indonesia, although it fell significantly in the early 1990s. As of 2000, however, the industry has improved gradually with a number of successful movies released. Media freedom in Indonesia increased considerably after the end of President Suharto's rule, during which the now-defunct Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media and restricted foreign media. The TV market includes ten national commercial networks and provincial networks that compete with public TVRI. Private radio stations carry their own news bulletins and foreign broadcasters can supply programs. Internet use is increasing; Bisnis Indonesia reported in 2004 that there were 10 million users.[citation needed]

C. THE SOCIAL INDIVIDUAL CLASS IN INDONESIA The experiences of population mobility in the archipelago underscore the continuing importance of social stratification in Indonesia. In 1992 the definition and function of social classes in Indonesia, however, was a matter of considerable controversy. Scholars and policy analysts debated the degree to which social classes could be defined in ethnic, economic, religious, or political terms. Although few would dispute that Indonesia was a highly stratified society, it was nonetheless difficult to identify an "upper class." Hereditary ruling

classes and traditional elites- -reinforced by their positions in the Dutch colonial bureaucracy- no longer possessed unchallenged access to political power and wealth. Indeed, they could not even claim to be an elite culture in the late twentieth century. The powerful generals (mostly Javanese) and capitalists (mostly ethnic Chinese capitalists--cukong) of the postindependence period were newcomers to their positions, and, apart from extravagant conspicuous consumption, they demonstrated few clear institutional and cultural patterns that suggested they were a unitary group in the early 1990s (see Political Dynamics , ch. 4; Personnel , ch. 5). Defining a lower class in Indonesia is equally difficult. Even before the banning of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) in 1965, Indonesia's poor formed alliances that had less to do with class than with economics, religion, and community ties. In some cases, the poor peasantry identified across class lines with orthodox Muslim (santri--see Glossary) landowners on the basis of their common religious affiliation. This alliance was particularly evident in lowland East Java. In other cases, small landowners united against both the Islamic right wing and Chinese entrepreneurs. There also were divisions between the indigenous, or long-settled peoples (pribumi--see Glossary) and later Chinese and Arab immigrants. The oil boom of the 1970s effected society and income distribution in ways that benefited the landed peasantry and the urban middle class. However, no independent social groups based on lower class affiliations emerged as a major political force. Although income disparities remained a major cause of concern, the number of poor Indonesians decreased in the 1970s and 1980s. Between the nation's poor and privileged classes lay a complex mosaic of middle class groups. Although the very existence of a bourgeoisie in any traditional sense was questioned by some, others, like economist Howard W. Dick, argued that there was a middle class united not by any political vision, economic interests, ethnic identification, or even income levels, but by patterns of consumption. This group liked to buy television sets, motorcycles, newspapers, and video cassettes. What set this middle class apart in 1992 was not how much its members consumed, but how they did it. "Among the rakyat [lower class]," reported Dick, "consumer durables are shared: it is antisocial to restrict the access of one's neighbors. Middle class households, by contrast, confine the enjoyment of such goods to members of the household. Fences are raised, doors locked and windows barred." In this view, the middle class of the early 1990s defined itself in relation to lower (not upper) classes, and did so by the way it consumed goods. The role of Islam, women, and regional

ethnic identifications in this developing national culture, however, was very poorly understood. Aristocratic states and hierarchically-ordered chiefdoms were features of many Indonesian societies for the past millennium. Societies without such political systems existed, though most had the principle of hierarchy. Hindu states that later turned to Islam had aristocracies at the top and peasants and slaves at the bottom of society. Princes in their capitals concentrated secular and spiritual power and conducted rites for their principalities, and they warred for subjects, booty and land, and control of the sea trade. The Dutch East India Company became a warring state with its own forts, military, and navy, and it allied with and fought indigenous states. The Netherlands Indies government succeeded the company, and the Dutch ruled some areas directly and other areas indirectly via native princes. In some areas they augmented the power of indigenous princes and widened the gap between aristocrats and peasants. In Java, the Dutch augmented the pomp of princes while limiting their authority responsibility; and in other areas, such as East Sumatra, the Dutch created principalities and princely lines for their own economic and political benefit. In general, princes ruled over areas of their own ethnic group, though some areas were multiethnic in character, particularly larger ones in Java or the port principalities in Sumatra and Kalimantan. In the latter, Malay princes ruled over areas consisting of a variety of ethnic groups. Stratified kingdoms and chiefdoms were entrenched in much of Java, the Western Lesser Sundas and parts of the Eastern Lesser Sundas, South Sulawesi, parts of Maluku, parts of Kalimantan, and the east and southeast coast of Sumatra. Members of ruling classes gained wealth and the children of native rulers were educated in schools that brought them in contact with their peers from other parts of the archipelago. Not all Indonesian societies were as socially stratified as that of Java. Minangkabau society was influenced by royal political patterns, but evolved into a more egalitarian political system in its West Sumatran homeland. The Batak of North Sumatra developed an egalitarian political order and ethos combining fierce clan loyalty with individuality. Upland or upriver peoples in Sulawesi and Kalimantan also developed more egalitarian social orders, though they could be linked to the outside world through tribute to coastal princes.


The aristocratic cultures of Java and the Malay-influenced coastal principalities were marked by ceremonial isolation of the princes and aristocrats, tribute by peasants and lesser lords, deference to authority by peasants, sumptuary rules marking off classes, the maintenance by aristocrats of supernaturally powerful regalia, and high court artistic and literary cultures. The Dutch in turn surrounded themselves with some of the same aura and social rules in their interaction with native peoples, especially during the late colonial period when European women came to the Indies and Dutch families were founded. In Java in particular, classes were separated by the use of different language levels, titles, and marriage rules. Aristocratic court culture became a paragon of refined social behavior in contrast to the rough or crude behavior of the peasants or non-Javanese. Indirection in communication and self-control in public behavior became hallmarks of the refined person, notions that spread widely in society. The courts were also exemplary centers for the arts music, dance, theater, puppetry, poetry, and crafts such as batik cloth and silverworking. The major courts became Muslim by the seventeenth century, but some older Hindu philosophical and artistic practices continued to exist there or were blended with Muslim teachings. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries a more complex society developed in Java and some other parts of the Indies, which created a greater demand for trained people in government and commerce than the aristocratic classes could provide, and education was somewhat more widely provided. A class of urbanized government officials and professionals developed that often imitated styles of the earlier aristocracy. Within two decades after independence, all principalities except the sultanates of Yogyakarta and Surakarta were eliminated throughout the republic. Nevertheless, behaviors and thought patterns instilled through generations of indigenous princely ruledeference to authority, paternalism, unaccountability of leaders, supernaturalistic power, ostentatious displays of wealth, rule by individuals and by force rather than by lawcontinue to exert their influence in Indonesian society. Generally, greetings among all Indonesians are conducted with stateliness and formality, in a slow, deliberate manner. A hurried introduction will be perceived as disrespectful. Especially among Indonesian Chinese, handshakes are the standard greeting. Most Indonesian handshakes have a gentle grasp and last for 10-12 seconds. For subsequent meetings, it may also be appropriate to bow rather than initiate further handshakes. Bow your


head, lower your eyes, and smile while saying the Indonesian greeting Selamat, which means peace. The traditional Hindu greeting involves a slight bow with the palms of the hands together, as if praying. Older, traditional Hindus often use this greeting, called the Namaste. It is also an acceptable alternative to a handshake when a Western businesswoman greets a Hindu man. With the exception of handshakes, there is no public contact between the sexes in Indonesia. Hugging and kissing, even between husbands and wives, are forbidden in public. Moreover, if a woman touches a Muslim man, he must ritually cleanse himself before praying again. Conversely, physical contact between people of the same sex is perfectly acceptable. Youll likely observe men holding hands with men or even walking with their arms around each other. These displays are viewed strictly as gestures of friendship.Be aware that many Indonesians believe that the head is the seat of the soul. Consequently, never touch someones head, not even to good-naturedly pat the hair of a child. Among both Muslims and Hindus, the left hand is considered unclean so, whenever possible, should not be used in public. The right hand should be used exclusively to eat, accept gifts, hold cash, and touch people. These guidelines apply even if you are left-handed. However, you may use your left hand when there are absolutely no other realistic alternative. Since the foot is also considered unclean, do not use this part of the body to point at, move or touch things. Also, refrain from resting your feet on desks or table. Do not show the soles of your feet or shoes. You can cross your legs at the knee, but not with one ankle over your knee. Point with an open hand rather than with your index finger, which is considered rude. Chewing gum in public is discouraged. There is a belief in Indonesia that the office is the only place to discuss business. Therefore, refrain from discussing business in a social situation, unless your Indonesian companions bring up the subject. Meals are often enjoyed with very little conversation.


To successfully hold a conversation, its essential for Indonesians to know if they are speaking with a person who is their superior, inferior or equal. Generally, they will feel uncomfortable until they learn your status, so there is a tendency to ask very personal questions. Be careful when asking an Indonesian Chinese a question. For example, English speakers would give a negative answer to the question Isnt the document available? by responding no. The Chinese interpretation is opposite. The answer would be yes, meaning Yes, the document is not available. Although many government officials will speak some English, they may prefer to hold meetings in Bahasa Indonesia. Fortunately, English-speaking translators are usually easily accessible. Presentation material and company literature should be also translated into Bahasa Indonesia. When you receive another persons card, make a show of carefully examining it for a few moments and then remarking upon it before putting it in your card case or on a nearby table. Accepting a business card and then immediately stuffing it into your back pocket will be perceived as disrespectful. Indonesians tend to be very friendly and you should reciprocate this immediate friendliness. They are more likely to buy from people who they genuinely like. Taking the time to develop solid, long-term personal relationships is of vital importance. In Indonesian business culture, relationships are based on respect and trust. Meetings tend to be formal. The Indonesian participants will enter the room based on their hierarchical position and then take a seat. You will be expected to remain standing until this ritual concludes. The majority of Indonesian businesspeople are Chinese, and they are likely to be prompt for meetings and appointments. Other businesspeople and many government officials are ethnic Malays, and they may place less of an emphasis on efficiency, punctuality and deadlines.


Welcome Topics of Conversation

Indonesian traditions, culture, and architecture Families and friends is always a welcome topic Food, especially discussing the variety of local cuisine Sports in general is always a good topic The success and or future plans of your organization

Conversation to Avoid

Commenting on Indonesian customs that you find unusual Human rights, politics, the Military influence, bureaucracy, corruption Sex and roles of the sexes Over emphasizing your personal successes Its best to avoid religion and your personal religious preferences



Indonesia is one of the nation located in Asia. Life in Indonesia has the potential of nature and culture are very high, so that Indonesia is not only known in terms of cultural and natural potential alone but also in terms of patterns of life of all citizens.Occupies almost the entire people of Indonesia archipelago in Indonesia, which became one entity. By the influence of emigration, there are also people who lived in Indonesia outside of Indonesia. In addition, matched well with the state transportation very well and smoothly, whether by land, sea, or air. The national population from the 2000 national census is 206 million. The country's Central Statistics Bureau and Statistics Indonesia quoted 222 million as the population for 2006. 130 million people live on the island of Java, the world's most populous island. Despite a considerably successful family planning program over the last four decades, the population is expected to grow to around 315 million in 2035 based on the current estimated annual growth rate of 1.25%. Bahasa Indonesia is the national language, which is akin to Malay, written in Roman script and based on European orthography. In all the tourist destinations English is the number one foreign language. In big cities Dutch is still spoken, while popularity of French is increasing at good hotels and restaurants. Indonesian culture has been shaped by long interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple foreign influences. Indonesia is central along ancient trading routes between the Far East and the Middle East, resulting in many cultural practices being strongly influenced by a multitude of religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism and Islam, all strong in the major trading cities. The result is a complex cultural mixture very different from the original indigenous cultures.



William H. Frederick and Robert L. Worden, editors. Indonesia: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1993. http://countrystudies.us/indonesia/35.htm http://indonesiacultural.blogspot.com/2008/01/culture-of-indonesia.html http://www.circlesofexcellence.com/blog/tag/understanding-the-culture-in-indonesia/