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1. To measure the inductance of a coil using Anderson Bridge. 2. To measure the capacitance of a capacitor using schering bridge. 3. To measure the strain using strain gauge. 4. To measure the displacement using LVDT. 5. To measure the frequency of a signal using Lissajous Patterns 6. To measure the temperature using RTD and Thermister. 7. To measure the PH value of various samples using pH meter. 8. To measure speed of a motor by using photoelectric transducer. 9. To study the piezo-electric tranducer.

EXPERIMENT NO:01 AIM: To measure the self - inductance of a given coil by Andersons bridge method.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: Inductor, standard capacitor, resistors ( fixed resistances and variable pot as given in the circuit ) signal generator, head phone and connecting terminals.

THEORY: Andersons bridge is the most accurate bridge used for the measurement of self inductance over a wide range of values, from a few micro-Henries to several Henries. In this method the unknown self-inductance is measured in terms of known capacitance and resistances, by comparison. It is a modification of Maxwells L C bridge. In this bridge, double balance is obtained by the variation of resistances only, the value of capacitance being fixed.


PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Make a circuit as per the circuit diagram. Connect the unknown inductance to the bridge. Adjust S to any value. Adjust r,sand R resistance dial to balance the bridge. After balancing the bridge note down the various reading. Find out the unknown inductance usin the a bove mentioned formula.

PRECAUTIONS: 1.All connection should be right and tight. 2.All the varying knob must be kept at minimum position. 3.Potentiometer should be varying slowly.


EXPERIMENT NO:07 AIM :To measure the PH value of various samples using pH meter
APPARATUS REQUIRED: PH meter , various sample of different PH values ,
tissue paper,distill water.

THEORY: pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Pure water is

said to be neutral, with a pH close to 7.0 at 25 C (77 F). Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline. pH measurements are important in medicine, biology, chemistry, agriculture, forestry, food science, environmental science, oceanograpHy, civil engineering and many other applications .pH is defined as a negative decimal logarithm of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution.

where aH+ is the activity of hydrogen ions in units of mol/L (molar concentration). (Thus, the units of pH are log(L/mol), A pH meter is an electronic instrument used for measuring the pH (acidity or alkalinity) of a liquid (though special probes are sometimes used to measure the pH of semi-solid substances). A typical pH meter consists of a special measuring probe (a glass electrode) connected to an electronic meter that measures and displays the pH readingThe pH probe measures pH as the activity of the hydrogen cations surrounding a thin-walled glass bulb at its tip. The probe produces a small voltage (about 0.06 volt per pH unit) that is measured and displayed as pH units by the meter.


s. no.


PH value

PROCEDURE:1).calibrate the PH meter by various standard solution of some defined value. 2). after calibrating the meter,take the unknown sample whose PH is to be determined. 3). Put the electrode in same unknown sample and observe the reading in PH meter. 4). Wait for the reading of PH meter until it get constant.When the reading get constant,note down that reading .This will be the PH value of the given sample.. 5).After having a measurement ,clean the electrode by tissue paper before next measurement. PRECAUTION: 1).Standard solution must not be get distilled by water. 2).Electrode if is not in use , it must be put in solution of PH value 7. 3).Use clean tissue paper to clear the electrode. 4).First meter should be calibrated and the it shoun be use in measure mode. RESULT:PH value of various samples has been measured.


AIM: To measure the frequency of a signal using Lissajous Patterns APPARATUS REQUIRED:CRO,function generators,connecting probes,etc. THEORY: The pattern traced out by a point undergoing two or more kinds of motions
is termed its Lissajous Pattern.Lissajous curves are the family of curves described by the parametric equations (1) (2) sometimes also written in the form (3) (4) They are sometimes known as Bowditch curves after Nathaniel Bowditch, who studied them in 1815. They were studied in more detail (independently) by Jules-Antoine Lissajous in 1857 (MacTutor Archive). Lissajous curves have applications in physics, astronomy, and other sciences. The curves close if is rational.

Special cases are summarized in the following table, and include the line, circle, ellipse, and section of a parabola. parameters , , , , , , curve line circle ellipse section of a parabola

It follows that equations

gives a parabola from the fact that this gives the parametric , which is simply a horizontally

offset form of the parametric equation of the parabola LISSAJOUS FIGURE:

OBSERVATION TABLE: s. no. Frequency at channel X(Khz) Ratio (a/b) Frequency at channel Y(Khz)


1).Connect the function generator with the CRO at both the channel X and channel Y. 2).Put the CRO in the XY mode. 3).set the frequency of function generator which is in channel X to 1Khz. 4).set the frequency of function generator which is in channel Y to 2Khz. 5).Observe the Lissajous pattern in the CRO. 6).Take the ratio of intercept of Y axis and X axis.Let it call x/y. 7).It shows that the frequency at channel Y will be a/b times the frequency at X axis.

PRECAUTION: 1).Function generator must be be of stable frequency. 2).There must not be any phase difference in both the signal. 3).CRO must be put in the XY mode.

RESULT;Unknown frequency has been measured by using Lissajous figures.


AIM.To measure the displacement using LVDT.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: LVDT,connecting probes,etc

THEORY: LVDT stands for Linear Variable Differential Transformer. An LVDT is also
referred to as a linear displacement transducer, or linear position transducer. This sensor device measures linear displacement (or linear position) very accuratelyAn LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) is a reliable and accurate sensing device that converts linear position or motion to a proportional electrical output. The basic LVDT design, as shown in the accompanying drawing, consists of three elements; 1. One primary winding 2. Two identical secondary windings 3. A movable magnetic armature or "core" The primary winding is excited with an AC supply generating a magnetic field which, when the core is placed in the central or "null" position, induces equal voltages in both of the secondaries. The secondaries are wired series opposed so that their combined output represents the difference in the voltage induced in them, which in this case is zero. As the core is moved left or right, the difference in induced voltages produces an output that is linearly proportional in magnitude to the displacement of the core. Its phase changes 180 from one side of the null position to the other.



Output voltage(V)

PROCEDURE: 1).switch on the power supply. 2). Put the core in the middle position i.e. in the null position such that output voltage will be 0volts 3).Slowly move the core in right direction with 2mm displacement and obtain the reading. 4). Slowly move the core in left direction with 2mm displacement and obtain the reading. 5).Plot the graph between displacement and output voltage.

RESULT:Displacement characterstics of LVDT has been determined experimentally.


AIM:To measure capacitance of a capacitor using schering bridge.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:trainer kit,patch cord,head phone.

THEORY: A Schering Bridge is a bridge circuit used for measuring an unknown electrical capacitance and its dissipation factor. The dissipation factor of a capacitor is the the ratio of its resistance to its capacitive reactance. The Schering Bridge is basically a four-arm alternating-current (AC) bridge circuit whose measurement depends on balancing the loads on its arms. Figure 1 below shows a diagram of the Schering Bridge.

Figure 1. The Schering Bridge In the Schering Bridge above, the resistance values of resistors R1 and R2 are known, while the resistance value of resistor R3 is unknown. The capacitance values of C1 and C2 are also known, while the capacitance of C3 is the value being measured. To measure R3 and C3, the values of C2 and R2 are fixed, while the values of R1 and C1 are adjusted until the current through the ammeter between points A and B becomes zero. This happens when the voltages at points A and B are equal, in which case the bridge is said to be 'balanced'. When the bridge is balanced, Z1/C2 = R2/Z3, where Z1 is the impedance of R1 in parallel with C1 and Z3 is the impedance of R3 in series with C3. In an AC circuit that has a capacitor, the capacitor contributes a capacitive reactance to the impedance. The capacitive reactance of a capacitor C is 1/2fC. As such, Z1 = R1/[2fC1((1/2fC1) + R1)] = R1/(1 + 2fC1R1) while Z3 = 1/2fC3 + R3. Thus, when the bridge is balanced: 2fC2R1/(1+2fC1R1) = R2/(1/2fC3 + R3); or 2fC2(1/2fC3 + R3) = (R2/R1)(1+2fC1R1); or

C2/C3 + 2fC2R3 = R2/R1 + 2fC1R2. When the bridge is balanced, the negative and positive reactive components are equal and cancel out, so 2fC2R3 = 2fC1R2 or R3 = C1R2 / C2. Similarly, when the bridge is balanced, the purely resistive components are equal, so C2/C3 = R2/R1 or C3 = R1C2 / R2


RESULT: the unknown capacitance of capacitor has been found using schering bridge


EXPERIMENT NO:03 AIM: To measure strain using strain gauge

APPARATUS REQUIRED:strain gauge,weights, etc

THEORY: A strain gauge (also strain gage) is a device used to measure the strain of an object.
Invented by Edward E. Simmons and Arthur C. Ruge in 1938, the most common type of strain gauge consists of an insulating flexible backing which supports a metallic foil pattern. The gauge is attached to the object by a suitable adhesive, such as cyanoacrylate. As the object is deformed, the foil is deformed, causing its electrical resistance to change. This resistance change, usually measured using a Wheatstone bridge, is related to the strain by the quantity known as the gauge factor. strain gauge takes advantage of the physical property of electrical conductance and its dependence on the conductor's geometry. When an electrical conductor is stretched within the limits of its elasticity such that it does not break or permanently deform, it will become narrower and longer, changes that increase its electrical resistance end-to-end. Conversely, when a conductor is compressed such that it does not buckle, it will broaden and shorten, changes that decrease its electrical resistance end-toend. From the measured electrical resistance of the strain gauge, the amount of applied stress may be inferred. A typical strain gauge arranges a long, thin conductive strip in a zig-zag pattern of parallel lines such that a small amount of stress in the direction of the orientation of the parallel lines results in a multiplicatively larger strain over the effective length of the conductorand hence a multiplicatively larger change in resistancethan would be observed with a single straight-line conductive wire. Strain gauges measure only local deformations and can be manufactured small enough to allow a "finite element" like analysis of the stresses to which the specimen is subject. This can be positively used in fatigue studies of materials.




S. NO.



RESULT: strain has been measured using strain gauge.



AIM:To measure temperature using RTD and THERMISTER. APPARATUS REQUIRED:trainer kit, patch cord etc THEORY: RTD: Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are sensors used to measure temperature by correlating the resistance of the RTD element with temperature. Most RTD elements consist of a length of fine coiled wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass core. The element is usually quite fragile, so it is often placed inside a sheathed probe to protect it. The RTD element is made from a pure material whose resistance at various temperatures has been documented. The material has a predictable change in resistance as the temperature changes; it is this predictable change that is used to determine temperature. As they are almost invariably made of platinum, they are often called platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs). They are slowly replacing the use of thermocouples in many industrial applications below 600 C, due to higher accuracy and repeatability

. THERMISTER: A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly with temperature, more so than in standard resistors. The word is a portmanteau of thermal and resistor. Thermistors are widely used as inrush current limiters, temperature sensors, selfresetting overcurrent protectors, and self-regulating heating elements. Thermistors differ from resistance temperature detectors (RTD) in that the material used in a thermistor is generally a ceramic or polymer, while RTDs use pure metals. The temperature response is also different; RTDs are useful over larger temperature ranges, while thermistors typically achieve a higher precision within a limited temperature range, typically 90 C to 130 C RTD AND THEMISTER CHARACTERSTICS




RESULT:Temperature measurement has been done using RTD and Thermister


AIM: . To measure speed of a motor by using photoelectric transducer. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Trainer kit, patch cord etc THEORY: These sensors use light sensitive elements to detect objects and are made up of an emitter (light source) and a receiver. Four types of photoelectric sensors are available. Direct Reflection - emitter and receiver are housed together and use the light reflected directly off the object for detection. In the use of these photocells, it is important to bear in mind the color and the type of surface of the object. With opaque surfaces, the sensing distance is affected by the color of the object. Light colors correspond to the maximum distances and vice versa. In the case of shiny objects, the effect of the surface is more important than the color. The sensing distance in the technical data is related to matte white paper. Reflection with Reflector - emitter and receiver are housed togetherand requires a reflector. An object is detected when it interrupts thelight beam between the sensor and reflector. These photocells allowlonger sensing distances, as the rays emitted are almost totally reflectedtowards the receiver. Polarized Reflection with Reflector - similar to Reflection with Reflector,these photocells use an anti-reflex device. The use of such adevice, which bases its functioning on a polarized band of light, offersconsiderable advantages and secure readings even when the object to be sensed has a very shiny surface. They are not in the technical dataaffected by random reflections. Thru Beam - emitter and receiver are housed separately and detect an object when it interrupts the light beam between the emitter and receiver. These photocells allow for the longest distances.


total no. of counts *17.8mm/sec Time taken in seconds




1 2 3 4 5 6 7

RESULT:speed of motor has been determined using photoelectric transducer.


EXPERIMENT NO:10 AIM: . To study the piezo electric transducer APPARATUS REQUIRED: Trainer kit, patch cord etc. THEORY:. Piezoelectric Effect Crystals which acquire a charge when compressed, twisted or distorted are said to be piezoelectric. This provides a convenient transducer effect between electrical and mechanical oscillations. Quartz demonstrates this property and is extremely stable. Quartz crystals are used for watch crystals and for precise frequency reference crystals for radio transmitters. Rochelle salt produces a comparatively large voltage upon compression and was used in early crystal microphones. Barium titanate, lead zirconate, and lead titanate are ceramic materials which exhibit piezoelectricity and are used in ultrasonic transducers as well as microphones. If an electrical oscillation is applied to such ceramic wafers, they will respond with mechanical vibrations which provide the ultrasonic sound source. The standard piezoelectric material for medical imaging processes has been lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Piezoelectric ceramic materials have found use in producing motions on the order of nanometers in the control of scanning tunneling microscopes. The word piezo is Greek for "push". The effect known as piezoelectricity was discovered by brothers Pierre and Jacques Curie when they were 21 and 24 years old in 1880.



RESULT: Piezoelectric transducer have been studied.