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COMPLEX SENTENCE Complex Sentence (= Kalimat Majemuk Bertingkat): kalimat yang mempunyai Main Clause (= Klausa Induk) dan

Sub(ordinate) Clause (= Klausa Anak). Clause (= klausa): kalimat dalam kalimat. Kalimat: serangkaian kata yang paling sedikit mempunyai subyek (s) dan predikat (p). Main Clause: klausa yang dapat berdiri sendiri dalam arti mempunyai makna yang lengkap tanpa Sub Clause. Sub Clause: klausa yang tidak dapat berdiri sendiri dalam arti tidak mempunyai makna yang lengkap tanpa Main Clause. Sub Clause dapat berfungsi sebagai berikut: Adjective Clause (= Klausa Sifat), Noun Clause (= Klausa Benda), dan Adverbial Clause (= Klausa Keterangan). A.Adjective Clause A Dalam Complex Sentence, Sub Clause dapat berfungsi sebagai Adjective Clause. Adjective (= kata sifat): kata yang menerangkan kata benda. Jadi, Adjective Clause: klausa yang

menerangkan kata benda. Kata benda (= noun) yang diterangkan oleh Adjective Clause disebut Noun Antecedent. .

Contoh: Th ey
S

the kno is my technician He w fixing laptop. S . P P O


O

Th ey
S

kno the w is my w technician ho fixing laptop.


P O S P O Main Clause Noun Antecedent (Person) Sub Clause sebagai Adjective Clause (= yang )

Relative Pronoun sebagai Subyek (Diikuti P)

The lady
S

is my secretary. secretary
P

Sh e
S

is typin g
P

Adjunct

in the room. room

The lady
S

wh is o typin

in the room

is my secretary.

g
P

Adjunct

Sub Clause sebagai Adjective Clause Noun Antecedent Main Clause (= yang ) Relative Pronoun sebagai Subyek

Sh pai e d
S P

the man.
O

She
S

had hired
P

him.
O

Sh pai e d
S P

the man
O

who m
O

she
S

had hired
P

Main Clause Noun Antecedent (Person)

Sub Clause sebagai Adjective Clause (= yang ) Relative Pronoun sebagai Obyek (Relative Pronoun diikuti Subyek dan dapat dihilangkan)

Sh the Paid e man. P S O

She S

had him the money from borrowed . DO P IO

Sh paid e P S

the man O

fro who m m IO

she S

had borrowed P

the money. DO

Main Clause

Sub Clause sebagai Adjective Clause Noun Relative Pronoun sebagai Obyek Preposisi Antecedent (from) (Person) (Relative Pronoun diikuti Subyek) whom she had borrowed the she had borrowed the

(= She paid the man money from ) (= She paid the man money from )

The manager me. yesterday. .

has just called

His secretary offered me a job The manager whose secretary offered me a job yesterday has just called me.

Input and output are handled by machines. The machines are called I / O devices. Input and output are handled by machines which (or that) are called c I / O devices. The data input. is called the

The data is presented to the computer. . The data which (or that) is presented to the computer is called the input. The services are useful.

The workers provide the services . . The services which (or that) the workers provide are useful. a a (= The services provide are useful. the workers

The department

is systems

operations. He works in the department . The department in which he works is systems o operations. (= The department s systems operations) (= The department s systems operations) (= The department s systems operations) which he works in is

that he works in is he works in is

(= The department where he works is systems operations) The laptop is mine.

The color of the laptop is grey. The laptop, the color of which is grey, is mine. ( (Am, E) (= The laptop, of which the colour is grey, is m mine. (Br, E) (= The laptop, whose color is grey, is mine. ( (Informal)

Penggunaan Relative Pronoun whom setelah both of, neither of, either of, dan sebagainya dengan Noun Antecedent Person She has two brothers. Both of them major in IT. She has two brothers, both of whom major in IT. (= yang kedua-duanya mengambil jurusan ) She has two brothers, neither of whom majors in IT. (= yang tak seorangpun ) She has two brothers, either of whom majors in IT. (= yang salah seorang ) Ten people, most of whom were very qualified, applied for the job. Penggunaan Relative Pronoun which setelah both of, neither of, either of, dan sebagainya dengan Noun Antecedent Thing

He has two PCs. Both of them are sophisticated. He has two PCs, both of which are sophisticated. He has two PCs, neither of which is sophisticated. He has two PCs, either of which is sophisticated. Tom made a number of suggestions, most of which were very helpful. They gave us a lot of information, most of which was very useful. Penggunaan Relative Adverb where dengan Noun Antecedent Place The department where he works is systems operation. Penggunaan Relative Adverb when dengan Noun Antecedent Time Do you remember the year when you began working at this company? Penggunaan Relative Adverb why dengan Noun Antecedent Reason

I want to know the reason why she does not like this job. Non Essential Adjective Clause A Dalam Non Essential Adjective Clause, Adjective Clause dipisahkan dengan koma dan penggunaanya bersifat tambahan serta jumlah Noun Antecerdentnya tidak lebih dari yang ada. Tom, whose father is the manager of a company, helped me to get a job. I have two brothers, who work at the Embassy. (Saudara saya hanya dua) Essential Adjective Clause A Dalam Essential Adjective Clause, Adjective Clause tidak dipisahkan dengan koma dan penggunaanya merupakan keharusan serta jumlah Noun Antecerdentnya lebih dari yang ada. The girl whose father is the manager of a company helped me to get a job. I have two brothers who work at the Embassy. (Saudara saya lebih dari dua)

The laptop is mine. Its colour is grey. . The laptop, of which the colour is grey, is mine. (Br.E) ( (
The laptop is mine. The color of the laptop is grey. . The laptop, the color of which is grey, is mine. (Am.E) ( The laptop, whose colour is grey, is mine. (Informal)

English Sentences: 1.Simple Sentence 2.Compound Sentence 3.Complex Sentence: a. Adjective Clause b. Noun Clause c. Adverbial Clause 4.Compound Sentence. and Complex

The economic activities make up the economic system. People undertake these economic activities. THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES people system. ( = THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES people undertake make up the economic system) - The office is a long way from his house. He works at the office. THE OFFICE at which he works is a long way from his house. undertake make which (or that) up the economic

( = THE OFFICE which he works at way from his house) ( = THE OFFICE that he works at way from his house) ( = THE OFFICE he works at from his house) (= THE OFFICE where he works at way from his house)

is a long is a long

is a long way is a long

- Do you remember THE YEAR when you began working at this company? - I want to know THE REASON why she doesnt like this job. - TOM, whose father is the manager of a company, helped me to get a job. THE LADY whose father is the manager of a company, helped me to get a job. Both of / neither of / either of + relative pronoun - I have two brothers. Both of them major in IT. I have TWO BROTHERS, both of whom major

in IT. I have TWO BROTHERS, neither of majors in IT. I have TWO BROTHERS, either of majors in IT. - He has two Pcs. Both of them which which are are is sophisticated. - He has two Pcs, both of sophisticated. - He has two Pcs, neither of sophisticated. - He has two Pcs, either of which is majors in IT. - TEN PEOPLE, most of whom were very qualified, applied for the job. - Tom made A NUMBER OF SUGGESTIONS, most of which were very helpful. - They gave us LOT OF INFORMATION, most of which was very useful. whom whom

PARTICIPLE PHRASE AS ALTERNATIVES FOR ADVERBIAL CLAUSES 1. I HAVE NO MONEY. I will not go. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu I) HAVING NO MONEY, I will not go. (= Because I have no money, I will not go.) 2. I HAVE NO MONEY. I will go. (2 Simple Sentence dengan 2 subject yang sama, yaitu I) HAVING NO MONEY, I will go. ( = Although I have no money, I will go.) 3. I HAVE NO MONEY. I cannot do much. (2 simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu I) HAVING NO MONEY, I cannot do much. (= IF I have no money, I cannot do much.) 4. I HAVE NO MONEY. I must buy this book. (2 simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu I) HAVING NO MONEY, I must buy this book.) (= While I have no money, I must buy this book.) 5. WE HAD NOTHING TO DO. We went home. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu WE) HAVING NOTHING TO DO, We went home. (= As we had nothing to do, we went home.) 6. HE WAS SICK. He didnt go to school. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu HE) BEING SICK, he didnt go to school. (= Because he was sick, he didint go to school.) 7. MY FATHER WAS SICK. I didnt go to school. (2 Simple Sentence dengan subject yang tidak sama. Subject kalimat pertama MY FATHER dan subject kalimat kedua I) MY FATHER BEING SICK, I didnt go to school. (= because my father was sick, I didnt go to school.) 8. THEY WERE IMPRESSED BY THE YOUNG MANS QUALIFICATIONS. They offered him a good job. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu THEY. Kalimat pertama kalimat pasif dan kalimat kedua kalimat aktif.) IMPRESSED BY THE YOUNG MANS QUALIFICATIONS, They offered him a good job. (= Because they were impressed by the young mans qualification, they offered him a job.) 9. SHE WAS TALKING IN THE PARK. She suddenly had a heart attack. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu SHE.) WALKING IN THE PARK, she suddenly hahd a heart attack. (= While she was walking in the park, she suddenly had a heart attack.) 10. HE DID NOT KNOW THE ANSWER OF THE TEST ITEM. He asked his teacher a

question. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu SHE. Kalimat pertama kalimat negatif.) NOT KNOWLING THE ANSWER OF THE TEST ITEM, he asked his teacher a question. (= Because they did not know the answer of the test item, he asked his teacher a question.)

THE WORD IT A. IT Mengacu pada Kata Sebelumnya We saw film last Saturday. IT was very interesting. I enjoy IT very much. When he had metal. IT expands. IT grows bigger than was before. B. IT sebagai subjecy kosong 1. Waktu 4. Jarak How far is IT to from ? IT is smoky IT is dirty. IT is a shame IT is awful IT is high tide. IT is low tide. C. Preparatory IT sebagai Subject 1. Impotance IT is essential TO BOOK IN ADVANCE. IT is important THAT HE COMES STRAIGHT TO ME WHEN SHE ARRIVES. IT is not easy TO GET HER TO CHANGE HER MIND. IT must be hard TO LIVE ON SALARY. IT is possible TO GO BY LAND IT is probable THAT WELL BE A LITTLE LATE. IT is not very useful TO READ THE WHOLE BOOK. IT is pointless TO GO THERE ON MONDAY there is a public holiday. 5. Lingkungan What time is IT now IT is six oclock. What day is IT today? IT is Sunday. IT is fine today. IT is raining. IT is 37 degrees celcius.

2. Cuaca

3. Suhu

6. Situasi Sekarang

7. Pasang / Surut Air

2. Difficulty

3. Possibility

4. Usefulness

5. Normality IT is unusual TO SEE JOHN WITH A GIRL. IT took me two hours TO GO HOME LAST NIGHT. IT is interesting TO SEE DIFFERENT CULTURES AND WAY OF LIFE. IT is really astonishing THAT SHE REFUSED TO TALK TO YOU. IT shocked me THAT JOHN DIDNT TELL WHERE HE WAS. Is IT true THAT SHE IS ILL? Will IT suit you TO COME TOMORROW EVENING ? IT occurred to me THAT SHE MIGHT HAVE FORGOTTON THE DATE. IT appears THAT JOHN MIGHT CHANGE HIS MIND. IT seems obvious THAT WE CANT GO ON LIKE THIS. IT is pointless for + all of us + TO GO THERE. One will be enough. IT is essential for + the papers + TO BE READY BEFORE FRIDAY. IT is a must for + us + TO PERFORM OUR DUTY. IT is no good PRETENDING TO BE INTELEGENT. IT is (there is) no use CRYING OVER SPILT MILK. Let by gone be gone. Is IT (is there) any use INFORMING THEM ABOUT YOUR PLANS. IT is no use ASKING HER he doesnt know anything. IT is useless MAKING SUCH A PLAN WITHOUT BEING SUPPORTED BY ADEQUATE PLAN. 14. IT dengan adjectives of urgency IT is important THAT EVERYBODY SHOULD BE TOLD THE FACTS. (British) IT is important THAT EVERYBODY BE TOLD THE FACTS. (American) 15. Di samping IT dengan THAT-CLAUSES diatas, ada juga IT dengan clauses lainnya yang ditandai dengan WHO, WHICH, WHETHER, WHEN, WHAT, AS IF / AS THOUGH. HOW MANYB / HOW MUCH dan sebagainya. IT was John WHO / THAT CAME ON SATURDAY. (Penekanan pada John. IT was on Saturday THAT JOHN CAME. (Penekanan pada on Saturday) IT was John dog THAT / WHICH BIT ME. IT doesnt interest me WHETHER YOU SUCCEED OR NOT. IT doesnt matter WHEN YOU ARRIVE just come when you can. 6. Time taken 7. Emotional reaction

8. Truth 9. Convenience 10. Ideas coming into ones head 11. Appearance

12. IT dengan for + object + infinitive

13. IT dengan ing-forms

IT wasnt very clear THAT SHE MEANT. D. Preparatory sebagai Object

I think IT important THAT WE SHOULD KEEP CALM. I find IT difficult TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT ANYTHING SERIOUS.

A. Supply the correct forms of verbs in parentheses. 1. The invention of new types of memory devices never (cease). 2. The issuer of credits card (provide) a short-term loan to the cardholder. 3. The main question on most peoples minds (be) why e-mail security is necessary. 4. The best in most widely used type of encrytion (utilize) a pair of mathematically related number. 5. Companies with excess computing capacity (be) able to market information services as a new business opportunity. 6. A review of the procedures (require) our attention. 7. Her letter, together with the enclosures, (be) here. 8. Any one of the applicants (be) capable of doing it. 9. Fifty dollars (be) the amount he owes. 10. The director, not the staff members, (be ) late every morning last week. 11. The computer programmer, as well as his assistants, (be) busy lately. 12. He, not I, (be) going to the interview the applicant. 13. Six years before retirement (seem) like a long time. 14. Manpower, rather than natural recources, (be) more important. 15. This PC, unlike those ones, (be) really powerful. 16. (Be) John or Jane coming to the meeting? 17. Not the staff members but the director (be) wrong. 18. The computers or the sofware (be) crucial. B. Put each of the verbs in parentheses in the following sentences in its correct from. 1. Microsoft (release) Access in 1991. 2. Database processing (change) continuously since 1970. 3. There (be) a lot of advances in computer technology since 1945. 4. By 1990, some vendors (develop) object-oriented DBMS products. 5. By the end of this year, they (work) on Information Management for approximately eight months. C. Supply the correct passive voice forms of the verbs in parentheses to complete the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Multi-user databases (manage) by a piece of software called a database management system. Fiber-0ptic cable (install) on a large scale since 1980. The order (send) before the cancellation was received. Alternatively, databases can (create) from axtracts of other databases. All micro DBMS products (eliminate) by Microsoft Access in the early 1990s.

do

do

be done (= dikerjakan) do (= mengerjakan) have done (= done(=mengerjakan) have (= V3sudah(=sudah mengerjakan) sudah dikerjakan) have been doing be doing been V3 sedang mengerjakan) V3 (dalam rentang waktu) Infinitive tanpa to Bentuk Infinitive tanpa to Kata kerja Bentuk aktif

Bentuk pasif

Kata sifat

punctual be punctual (= tepat waktu) able be able ( = dapat/mampu) Kata benda (kelompok kata benda) (= pemrogram komputer) Keterangan tempat in the office be in the office (= di kantor) Penggunaan infinitive tanpa to 1. Setelah auxiliary verbs Shall/should, will/would, can/could, may/might, must, do/does/did. & need. Contoh : I / We shall/will drop you a line (= mengabari) as soos as (= segera setelah) I/we get to (= sampai di) London. I think the government should do something about the economy. At nine oclock tomorrow, the manager will be addressing (= berpidato dalam) the business meeting. A computer programmer be a computer programmer

By the end of this year, he will have graduated from Amikom college. The sales meeting will be held soon; you should plan to be attendance. Jane will have been employed for 25 years before she retires. By the end of this years, he will have been studying at Amikom college for approximately two years. He promised he would be punctual in payment for his rent. I wish somebody would give me a job. You can get into with (= menghubungi) me by telephone at 371415. After the success of Windows 95, Microsoft could outsell (= menjual lebih banyak dari) any competitor. To improve your spoken English, we wish all of you could join us in AECC (Amikom English Conservation Club). Doctors may be able to operate on patients at a distance in future. Dont call on him at 8:30. He may/might be expecting (= menjamu) guests. He may be in the office now. I dont know what his occupation is. He may be a computer programmer. Could/Can/May I look at your newspaper? /have a light? /etc. You musnt make unauthorized copies of software. You have been working hard all day. You must be tired. Do you/Does he have the courage to ask your/his employer for a raise in a pay? How much did you put aside (= menabung) every month while you were working abroad? You neednt learn how to program in HTML (HyperText Markup Language) before designing webpages.

2. Setelah ungkapan tertentu You had better (= sebaiknya) mind your own business. As you are unemployed, you might as well (= sebaiknya) accept the job offer. She would rather (= lebih suka) have a laptop than a palmtop.

3. Setelah Why ? Why not ? Why put off (= menunda) the plain until tomorrow ? Why not carry it out (= melaksanakan) right now?

4. Pada idiom tertentu I hear say (= kabarnya) the price of a computer is going up. Its foolish to let slip (= melewatkan) such an opportunity. They made believe (= berlagak) they knew everything. We have to make do with (= mencukup-cukupkan dengan) the money we have.

5. Untuk pelengkap obyek Graphical User Interface lets you point to (= menunjuk ke) icons and click a mouse button to execute a task. The new director made all of the staff members work hard. I had them cope with (= memecahkan) the problem themselves. We have never known our manager lose his temper (= marah) I never find my assistant neglect (= mengabaikan) ghis work. * The police found him hacking into (= membobol) a computer system. We heard him talk (talking) about this incident. I listened to them talk (talking) over (= membahas) the problem. She smelt something burn (burning) (= berbau sesuatu terbakar). I saw you peep (peeping) through (= mengintip) the window of the teaching staff room.

6. Untuk kalimat perintah Be careful. Arrange (= susunlah) the icons. Adjust ( = aturlah) the speaker volume. Shut down ( =hentikanlah aktivitas) the system. Debug (= hilangkan kesalahan dari) the program. Display (= tampilkanlah) the date. Click on the Find button to start the search. Select (= pilihlah) the appropriate programming language. Lets (us) go home now.

They know the technician. He is fixing my laptop. They know the technician who is fixing my laptop. The lady is my secretary. She is typing in the room. The lady who is typing in the room is my secretary. She paid the man. She had hired him. She paid the man whom she had hired. She paid the man. She had borrowed the money from him. She paid the man from whom she had borrowed the money. (= She paid the man whom she had borrowed the money from) (= She paid the man she had borrowed the money from) The manager has just called me. His secretary offered me a job yesterday. The manager whose secretary offered mea job yesterday has just called me. Input and output are handled by machines. The machines are called Input and output are handled by machines which (or that) are called The data is called the input. The data is presented to the computer. The data which (or that) is presented to the computer is called the input. The services are useful. The workers provide the services. The services which (or that) the workers provide are useful. The department is systems operations. He works in the department. The department in which he works is systems operations. (= The department which he works in is systems operations) (= The department that he works in is systems operations) (= The department he works in is systems operations) (= The department where he works is systems operation) The laptop is mine. The color of the laptop is grey. The laptop, the color of which is grey, is mine. (= The laptop, of which the colour is grey, is mine) (= The laptop, whose colour is grey, is mine) (informal) Penggunaan Relative Pronoun whom setelah both of, neither of, either of, dan sebagainya dengan

Noun Antecedent Person She has two brothers. Both of them major in IT. She has two brothers, both of whom major in IT. She has two brothers, neither of whom majors in IT. She has two brothers, either of whom majors in IT. Ten people, most of whom were very qualified, applied for the job. Penggunaan Relative Pronoun which setelah both of, neither of, either of, dan sebagainya dengan Noun Antecedent Thing He has two PCs. Both of them are sophisticated. He has two PCs, both of which are sophisticated. He has two PCs, neither of which is sophisticated. He has two PCs, either of which is sophisticated. Tom made a number of suggestions, most of which were very helpful. They gave us a lot of information, most of which was very useful. Penggunaan Relative Adverb where dengan Noun Antecedent Place The department where he works is systems operation. Penggunaan Relative Adverb when dengan Noun Antecedent Time Do you remember the year when you began working at this company? Penggunaan Relative Adverb why dengan Noun Antecedent Reason I want to know the reason why she does not like this job. Non Essential Adjective Clause Dalam Non Essential Adjective Clause, Adjective Clause dipisahkan dengan koma dan penggunaanya bersifat tambahan serta jumlah Noun Antecerdentnya tidak lebih dari yang ada. Tom, whose father is the manager of a company, helped me to get a job. I have two brothers, who work at the Embassy. (Saudara saya hanya dua) Essential Adjective Clause Dalam Essential Adjective Clause, Adjective Clause tidak dipisahkan dengan koma dan penggunaanya merupakan keharusan serta jumlah Noun Antecerdentnya lebih dari yang ada. The girl whose father is the manager of a company helped me to get a job. I have two brothers who work at the Embassy.