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DEFINITION A dental impression is an imprint of hard (teeth) and/or soft tissues, formed with specific types of impression materials

that is used in different area of dentistry including prosthetics (such as making dentures, inlays and plastic models), restorative, diagnosis and Oral and Maxillofacial surgery for both intra oral and or extra oral aims. The required type of material for taking an impression and the area that it covers will depend on the clinical indication. A correct taken dental impression will describ a part or all of a person's dentition and other areas of the oral cavity. The dental impression forms an imprint (i.e. a 'negative' mould) of those teeth and soft tissues, which can then be used to make a cast or 'positive' model of the dentition. This may be used for the fabrication of dentures, crowns or other prostheses and orthodontics. An impression is carried out by placing a viscous liquid material into the mouth, usually in a customised dental impression tray. The material, usually an alginate, then sets to become an elastic solid, and, when removed from the mouth, provides a detailed and stable reproduction of teeth. Common materials used for dental impressions are sodium alginate, polyether and silicones - both condensation-cured silicones and addition-cured silicones, such as polyvinyl siloxane. Historically plaster of Paris, zinc oxide eugenol and agar have been used. Ideal Properties of Impression Materials (1) Non toxic and non irritant (2) Acceptability to the patient:

(3) Accuracy : both (4) Use of material :

(a)Setting time, (b)Taste, (c)Consistency (a) Surface reproducibility (b) Dimensional stability (a) Ease of mixing (b) Working time (c) Setting time (d) Handling of the material

(5) Compatible with model materials (6) Economics of material (a) Cheap (b) Long shelf life (c) Accuracy (save redoing impression)

Mucostatic vs Mucodisplacive Impression materials, in the fluid or plastic state, are carried to the mouth in a suitably sized tray. Hardening of the material takes place either on cooling or through a chemical reaction. There is no clear line between mucostatic and mucodisplacing impression materials. Mucodisplacive : compound, high viscosity alginates, high viscosity elastomers. These viscous impressions materials are called mucocodisplacive impression materials. These record an impression of the mucosa under load. This results in a wider distribution of load during function, making it more stable it also compensates for the differing compressibility of the denture bearing area reducing the risk of a fracture due to flexion. However the retention of the dentures may be compromised as the soft tissues wish to return to their original position at rest. Mucostatic : plaster, zinc oxide eugenol, low viscosity alginates. Materials which are more fluid displace the tissues less - these are known as mucostatic impression materials. These essentially record an impression of the undisplaced mucosa. This results in better retention of the denture because of closer adaptation to the mucosa at rest. However instability of the denture may occur during function as the tissues distort.There is no clear line between mucostatic and mucodisplacing impression materials. POLYSULFIDE ELASTOMERIC IMPRESSION MATERIAL: First elastomeric impression material to be introduced, also known as mercaptan / thymol, it is a type of Rubber based impression material Supplied as Base paste (white) Accelerator (brown/grey) Available in 3 viscosities: Light bodied Medium bodied Heavy bodied Composition: Base paste: Liquid polysulfide polymer Inert fillers (titanium oxide, zinc sulfate, silica)

80-85% 16-18%

Reactor Paste: Lead dioxide Dibutyl phthalate Sulfur Other substances (like magnesium stearate) and deodorants Setting reaction: HS R SH -PbO2+ S-> HS R- S S R SH + H2O

60-69% 30-35% 3% 2%

Properties: 1) Setting time 5-8 min. colder climate increases setting time. Drop of water accelerates the reaction. 2) Excellent detail reproduction. 3) Dimensional stability curing shrinkage 0.45% due to continued reaction. Shrinkage due to loss of byproduct. 4) Permanent deformation 3-5% highest amongst elastomers. 5) High tear strength 7000gm/cm2 6) Good flexibility of 7%, allows elastic recovery of the material. 7) Hydrophobic- tissue should be thoroughly dried before making the impression. 8) Can be electroplated with copper. Advantages: 1. long working time. 2. proven accuracy 3. high tear resistance. 4. inexpensive to use 5. less hydrophobic 6. longer shelf life. Disadvantages: 1. must be poured with dental stone immediately. 2. potential for significant distortion. 3. odor is offensive. 4. messy & stains clothes. 5. second pour is less accurate.

Polyether In these materials, the base polymer is a cyclic ether in terminal groups, imino groups (triangles are similar to epoxy but with nitrogen instead of oxygen in a vertex)

ADA Specification

Composition

Mixing time

Working time

Setting time

Advantages

No 19

Base plate tube Pre polymerethylene amine Inert filler-silica Plasticiser glycolether Catalyst paste Ester derivatives of aromatic sulphonic acid Plasticiszer phthalate Thinner-octyl phthalate Methylcellulose

3045 sec on ds

2-3min 3 0 4 5 s e c

5-6 min

No special equipment Finish line easily read Pleasant odor Can be poured more than once Hydrophilic Good shelf life Fast setting

PROPERTIES Flexibility of 3.3% Elastic Recovery 99% Contraction from 0 .2% 0.3% at 24 hrs

Special Considerations. Hydrophilic The two pastes are colors that contrast each other, which facilitates efficient mixing. It is important that the print is placed in position and kept still to avoid tensions that can lead to distortion. The polymerization is completed in 5 minutes. It comes in a single consistency. Low acceptance is coming in a single consistency. Its use should only cover up to 4 teeth and these must not have periodontal disease and being too rigid cause discomfort to the withdrawal. This aimed at elaboration of fixed prosthetics (crowns and bridges ADVANTAGES Excellent dimensional stability. High level of fidelity. Tear strength

DISADVANTAGES Smell and taste unpleasant. Difficult handling. Hard rigid material removal from mouth