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The Scientific method Jena Nyman Psychology 1101

Theory by definition- is an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observation. (dictionary.com)Which means that it predicts what is going to happen. It has been tested and is accepted for what the outcome is no matter what. It predicts something in regular terms. Hypothesis is by definition- a conjecture put forth as a possible explanation of phenomena or relations, which serves as a basis of argument or experimentation to reach the truth. (also dictionary.com) This means that it is a testable specific prediction. Case study is where a researcher observes usually one sometimes more individuals or animals in-depth to figure out something about them or their reaction to something. There are different ways this can be used, first you can use case study on someone who maybe has a traumatic past, you want to find out how this has effect them later in life; so you observe this person either in a observing setting or in a naturalistic setting. One factor in case study is that usually it is an ongoing process. Case study does however, have some drawbacks, one being that the observer could become bias, in terms would mean that they would have inconclusive results.

Naturalistic observation is when the researcher is studying the subject in a naturalistic setting. This type of research is often used in situations where using lab research is unrealistic or it could affect the outcome of the research. Suppose you are doing research on a clinical insane person, you dont want to take that person out of their natural environment, due to the stress you may cause them; so you observe them in their natural environment. There is also the situation, if you want to observe a criminal to find out there body language and how they react to certain things, you would definitely want to do this in a natural environment. There are the disadvantages of this research method as well as any other. One being that the researcher may not be able to identify the exact cause of the behavior, because someone is watching them (the variable or subject) and they may react differently than then normally would. In addition, there is the factor that the researcher may conclude a different conclusion than that is true, due to what the researcher believes.

A survey is to collect certain type of data about a group of people. There are different types of surveys. There is the questionnaire type and there is the interviewing type. They are the least expensive to administer. Surveys are usually standardized to make sure that they are more accurate for all the testers. Standardization is also important so that the results can be generalized to the larger population. An idea for a survey could be- a school wanting to make the children wear uniform; to find out what the parents wanted could be to give out a survey to all the parents to find out there opinion. There are also disadvantages with surveys, one being that someone may not accurately answer the question. Another being that the person may not understand or agree with any of the choices.

A correlation research is used to look for relationships between variables. There are three possible results of a correlational study: a positive correlation, a negative correlation, and no correlation. The correlation is a measure of correlation strength and can range from 1.00 to +1.00. A positive correlation is when the variable goes up or goes down at the same time. A +1.00 is an indication of a strong positive correlation. Negative correlation is when one goes up while the other goes down and vise versa. This is the opposite when this is at or near -1.00 is a negative correlation. No correlation, is when there is nothing between the two variables, a zero correlation. There is research that suggests that there is a relationship between the two, but there is no proof that one actually makes the other move. There are also disadvantages one being that these types of research may take longer timeframes to get a conclusion, therefore making them expensive. There is also experimental research; this is where the use of cause and effect reactions happens. In addition, this is where the theory and the hypothesis come into play; these are used to find the difference between subjects. This is where the independent subject and the control group also come into play. This is the part in the book where it talks about the group administered the shock therapy to the independent variable which are the people answering the questions, when they get one wrong. The difference in this and correlational research, is that the researcher is able to control the variables or people being research or tested. In most cases this experimental is preformed in a lab.

Descriptive research is the same as case study and naturalistic observation. In both case study and naturalistic observation the subject or variable is being observed and there is no exact right or wrong response, its that of their own. There is no real testing a theory or a hypothesis, but that of its own response in this case.

Q2Central nervous system The frontal lobe which is the largest of all the lobes in the brain. This houses three main parts to it including the motor cortex, the prefrontal cortex and the premotor cortex. The motor cortex is the important part of the brain associated with movement, memory, emotions, problem solving and planning. The prefrontal is associated with personality and the premotor involves the voluntary muscle movement. This is located in the front part of the brain. The temporal lobe is located on both sides of the brain near where the temples are. This includes the olfactory cortex, amygdala, and the hippocampus are all located within the temporal lobes. The temporal lobes play an important part in hearing perception, language and speech production, as well as memory. The occipital lobe is associated with visual, color perception, shape and motion of object. This is located on the back of the brain. The parietal lobe is also associated with visual. It also involves the functioning of pain and touch sensation, temperature, speech, information process and cognition. It is located at the top of the brain. There are two sides to this part the right side of this lobe controls the left side of the body and the right side of this lobe controls the left side of the body. Phineas Gage was an American railroad construction worker who survived a piece of large iron rod driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe. This injury changed his whole life but also his personality and behavior. His family and friends no longer knew him as Gage, he only spoke when spoken to and had no responses to

them. Gage, after only a year was up walking. After only a short time, he went back to work. He lived for twelve years after his accident. His skull and the rod that went thru his brain are still on display in Warren Anatomical Museum.