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SMK Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang.

Name

Kavin A/L Arunasalam

Class

5S1

IC Number :

950914-05-5243

Teacher

Pn. Chua Chin Chee

Content

Acknowledgement
The project is the effort of many parties including mine. Without them, this project would have never been finished. First of all, I would like to thank my parents for their support and also my family members who made sure that I didnt get distracted while doing this project. Thanks to their understanding I was able to finish this project with ease. Next I would like to express my utmost gratitude to my dear additional mathematics teacher, Pn. Chua Chin Chee for providing the guidelines and explanation about the process of this project work. Her guidance and co-operation is much appreciated. Not to forget, my friends Kugendran, Muhd Ammar Hafiz, Pravin who were with me during the process of this project. I would also like to thank _______ for helping me to start my project. Her encouragement and guidance has proven to be most helpful. Last but not least, I would like to express my gratitude to those who have helped me directly and indirectly, during the course of this project. Thank you all, once again.

Objecctive The aims of carrying out this project work are :

i)

to apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve problems.

ii)

to promote effective mathematical communication.

iii)

to improve thinking skills

iv)

to develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increases students interest and confidence.

v)

to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.

vi)

to develop positive attitude towards mathematics.

Introduction
In geometry a polygon ( /pln/ ) is a flat shape consisting of straight lines that are joined to form a closed chain or circuit. Polygon is traditionally a plane figure that is bounded by a closed path, composed of a finite sequence of straight line segments (i.e., by a closed polygonal chain). These segments are called its edges or sides, and the points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices (singular: vertex) or corners. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides. The interior of the polygon is sometimes called its body. A polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions. The basic geometrical notion has been adapted in various ways to suit particular purposes. Mathematicians are often concerned only with the closed polygonal chain and with simple polygons which do not self-intersect, and may define a polygon accordingly. Geometrically two edges meeting at a corner are required to form an angle that is not straight (180); otherwise, the line segments will be considered parts of a single edge however mathematically, such corners may sometimes be allowed. In fields relating to computation, the term polygon has taken on a slightly altered meaning derived from the way the shape is stored and manipulated in computer graphics (image generation). Polygons have been known since ancient times. The regular polygons were known to the ancient Greeks, and the pentagram, a non-convex regular polygon (star polygon), appears on the vase of Aristophonus, Caere, dated to the 7th century B.C.Non-convex polygons in general were not systematically studied until the 14th century by Thomas Bradwardine. In 1952, Geoffrey Colin Shephard generalized the idea of polygons to the complex plane, where each real dimension is accompanied by an imaginary one, to create complex polygons. Numerous regular polygons may be seen in nature. In the world of geology, crystals have flat faces, or facets, which are polygons. Quasicrystals can even have regular pentagons as faces. Another fascinating example of regular polygons occurs when the cooling of lava forms areas of tightly packed hexagonal columns of basalt, which may be seen at the Giant's Causeway in Ireland, or at the Devil's Postpile in California. The most famous hexagons in nature are found in the animal kingdom. The wax honeycomb made by bees is an array of hexagons used to store honey and pollen, and as a secure place for the larvae to grow. Other echinoderms, such as sea urchins, sometimes display similar symmetries. Though echinoderms do not exhibit exact radial symmetry, jellyfish and comb jellies do, usually fourfold or eightfold. Radial symmetry (and other symmetry) is also widely observed in the plant kingdom, particularly amongst flowers, and (to a lesser extent) seeds and fruit, the most common form of such symmetry being pentagonal. A particularly striking example is the starfruit, a slightly tangy fruit popular in Southeast Asia, whose cross-section is shaped like a pentagonal star. Moving off the earth into space, early mathematicians doing calculations using Newton's law of gravitation discovered that if two bodies (such as the sun and the earth) are orbiting one another, there exist certain points in space, called Lagrangian points, where a smaller body (such as an asteroid or a space station) will remain in a stable orbit. The sun-earth system has five Lagrangian points. The two most stable are exactly

60 degrees ahead and behind the earth in its orbit; that is, joining the center of the sun and the earth and one of these stable Lagrangian points forms an equilateral triangle.

Answers PART 1 (a)

(b)

Definition :

In geometry a polygon is a flat shape consisting of straight lines that are joined to form a closed chain or circuit. A polygon is traditionally a plane figure that is bounded by a closed path,

composed of a finite sequence of straight line segments (i.e., by a closed polygonal chain). These segments are called its edges or sides, and the points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices (singular: vertex) or corners. The interior of the polygon is sometimes called its body. A polygon is a 2dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions. History : Polygons have been known since ancient times. The regular polygons were known to the ancient Greeks, and the pentagram, a non-convex regular polygon (star polygon), appears on the vase of Aristophonus, Caere, dated to the 7th century B.C.] Nonconvex polygons in general were not systematically studied until the 14th century by Thomas Bradwardine.In 1952, Geoffrey Colin Shephard generalized the idea of polygons to the complex plane, where each real dimension is accompanied by an imaginary one, to create complex polygons.

(c)

Suggested answers to calculate the area of a triangle :

1 base height 2 1 2. Area = a b sin C 2 1. Area = 3. Area = s( s a)( s b)( s c ) , 4. Area = 1 x1 2 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 x1 y1 where s = 1 (a + b + c) , or the semi-perimeter. 2

5. Using graphical method.

PART 2 (a) (b) Cost = RM 20 300 = RM 6000. First method

pm

q m m mm 100 m c Diagram 1

Using cosine rule, cos =

a2 + b2 c2 2ab

1 Area = ab sin 2 o 0 38.2145 44.8137 49.5826 55.7711 57.6881 58.9924 59.7510 59.9901 60 Area (m2 ) 0 2598.15 3092.33 3464.10 3968.63 4130.68 4242.64 4308.42 4329.26 4330.13

p ( m) 50 60 65 70 80 85 90 95 99 100 (c) (d)

q ( m) 150 140 135 130 120 115 110 105 101 100

The herb garden is an equilateral triangle of sides 100 m with a maximum area of 4330.13 m 2 . (i) ( ii) 50 < p < 150, 50 < q < 150 p + q 100

( iii ) The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the length of the third side. Triangle Inequality Theorem.

PART 3 (a) Quadrilateral 2x + 2y = 300 m2 x + y = 150 m2 Area = x y y Area = x y

ym xm x

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 75

140 130 120 110 100 90 80 75

1400 2600 3600 4400 5000 5400 5600 5625

The maximum area is 5625 m2. (b) Regular Pentagon 5a = 300 a = 60 t 30 t = 30 tan 54 = 41.2915 m 1 Area = ( 41.2915 60) 5 = 6193.73 m 2 2 tan 54 = (c) A Semicircle a a

a 54o

72o t a 54o

rm

(d) A Circle

2r + r = 300 300 r= 2+ 1 300 2 Area300 = 2r = = 5347.55m 22+ 150 r= 1 150 2 Area = (2 ) = 7161.97 m 6a = 300 2
a = 50 Area =

rm

(e)

A Regular Hexagon a a 60 a a a

50 m a

Conclusion: A circle produces a maximum area.

(b)

3 suggested types of herb :

i)

Serai Wangi / Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon nardus )

Lemongrass is native to India and tropical Asia. It is widely used as a herb in Asian cuisine. It has a subtle citrus flavor and can be dried and powdered, or used fresh. Lemongrass is commonly used in teas, soups, and curries. It is also suitable for poultry, fish, beef, and seafood. It is often used as a tea in African countries such as Togo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Latin American countries such as Mexico. Lemongrass oil is used as a pesticide and a preservative. Research shows that lemongrass oil has anti-fungal properties.[1]

Citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus and Cymbopogon winterianus) grows to about 2 meters (about 6.5 feet) and has red base stems. These species are used for the production ofcitronella oil, which is used in soaps, as an insect repellent in insect sprays and candles, and also in aromatherapy, which is famous in Bintan Island, Indonesia. Therefore it's assumed that its origin is from Indonesia. The principal chemical constituents of citronella, geraniol andcitronellol, are antiseptics, hence their use in household disinfectants and soaps. Besides oil production, citronella grass is also used for culinary purposes, in tea and as a flavoring. Lemon Grass Oil, used as a pesticide and preservative, is put on the ancient palm-leaf manuscripts found in India as a preservative.

ii)

Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon stamineus)

Orthosiphon stamineus is a traditional herb that is widely grown in tropical areas. The two general species, Orthosiphon stamineus"purple" and Orthosiphon stamineus "white" are traditionally used to treat diabetes, kidney and urinary disorders, high blood pressure and bone or muscular pain. Also known as Java tea, it was possibly introduced to the west in the early 20th century. Misai Kucing is popularly consumed as a herbal tea. The brewing of Java tea is similar to that for other teas. It is soaked in hot boiling water for about three minutes, and honey or milk is then added. It can be easily prepared as garden tea from the dried leaves. There are quite a number of commercial products derived from Misai Kucing. Sinensetin is a polyphenol found in O. stamineus

iii)

Mas cotek (Ficus deltoidea)

Mas Cotek is a small perennial herb, growing up to about 2 m tall.[2] The different shapes of the leaves represent different varieties some having a rounded shape and others having an elongated egg shape. The color at the top of the leaf is shining green while underneath, the surface color is golden yellow with black spots in between the leaf veins. Mas Cotek plant species are male and female. The leaves of female species are big and round in shape, while the male species are small, round and long in shape. Mas Cotek plants grow wild in eastern peninsular Malaysia and it is popular among traditional medical practitioners. The trees can be found in the jungle in Kelantan, Terengganu,Sabah, Sarawak and Kalimantan. It also can be found grew in the oil palm plantation in Perak, Selangor and Johor.

Mas Cotek, also known as "mistletoe fig", has been scientifically researched by various institutions, including University of Malaya, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, the Malaysian Agriculture Research And Development Institute (MARDI). Research results show that Mas Cotek possessestriterpenoids and natural phenols (flavonoids and proanthocyanins, a type of condensed tannins).[citation needed] Traditionally used as a postpartum depression treatment to help in contracting the muscles of the uterus and in the healing of the uterus and vaginal canal, it is also used as a libido booster by both men and women.[1] The leaves of male and female plants are mixed in specific proportions to be taken as an aphrodisiac.[citation needed] Among the traditional practices, Mas Cotek has been used for regulating blood pressure, increasing and recovering sexual desire, womb contraction after delivery, reducing cholesterol, reducing blood sugar level, treatment of migraines, toxin removal, delay menopause, nausea, joints pains, piles pain and improving blood circulation.[citation needed] Mas Cotek products are formulated and sold in the form of extracts, herbal drinks, coffee drinks, capsules, and massage oil.

Conclusion

Polygons tend to be studied in the first few years of school, as an introduction to basic geometry and mathematics. But after doing research, answering questions, completing table and some problem solving, I found that the usage of polygons is important in our daily life. It is not just widely used in fashion design but

also in other fields especially in building of modern structures. The triangle, for instance, is often used in construction because its shape makes it comparatively strong. The use of the polygon shape reduces the quantity of materials needed to make a structure, so essentially reduces costs and maximizes profits in a business environment. Another polygon is the rectangle. The rectangle is used in a number of applications, due to the fact our field of vision broadly consists of a rectangle shape. For instance, most televisions are rectangles to allow for easy and comfortable viewing. The same can be said for photo frames and mobile phones screens. In conclusion, polygon is a daily life necessity. Without it, mans creativity will be limited. Therefore, we should be thankful of the people who contribute in the idea of polygon

Reflection

While I conducting this project, a lot of information that I found. I have learnt how polygons appear in our daily life. Apart from that, this project encourages the student to work together and share their knowledge. It is also encourage

student to gather information from the internet, improve thinking skills and promote effective mathematical communication. Not only that, I had learned some moral values that I practice. This project had taught me to responsible on the works that are given to me to be completed. This project also had made me felt more confidence to do works and not to give easily when we could not find the solution for the question. I also learned to be more discipline on time, which I was given about a month to complete this project and pass up to my teacher just in time. I also enjoy doing this project I spend my time with friends to complete this project and it had strengthen our friendship. Last but not least, I proposed this project should be continue because it brings a lot of moral value to the student and also test the students understanding in Additional Mathematics.

Reference

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