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II

2006

802.0 : / . .. ; . . -. , 2006 ISBN 5-7679-0828-1 -: .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , ..

- , , , . , , , . - . : . . , . .. (. . ) : . . , . .. . . , . ..
. . 020300 12.02.97. 11.10.05. 6084 1/16. . . . . 17,4. .-. . 10,1.

2000 .

300600, . , . , 92 300600, . , . , 151.

ISBN 5-7679-0828-1
2

-, , 2006 , 2006

CONTENTS
Unit 1 Grammar: 1. Verbals. The Participle 2. Participle Constructions Texts: A. The Birth of Electrical Engineering B. Electronics in the Industrial Age C. The Information Age Conversation: Town Unit 2 Grammar: 1. The Gerund 2. The Gerundial Construction 3. The Gerund and the Participle Texts: A. The Internet B. The Language of Computers C. Socializing on the Internet Conversation: Moscow Unit 3 Grammar: 1. The Infinitive, its forms and functions 2. The Objective Infinitive Construction 3. The Subjective Infinitive Construction Texts: A. What is a Star? B. Space Exploration C. The Last Man to Discover a Planet Conversation: Russia 99 102 106 109 65 70 72 75 84 84 87 89 24 32 38 55 55 60 61 5 7 7 14

Unit 4 Grammar: 1. Conditional Sentences 2. Wish Clauses 3. The Subjunctive Mood Texts: A. Realms of Engineering B. C. From the History of Architecture D. Concrete Facts Conversation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Unit 5 Grammar: 1. The Compound Sentences 2. The Complex Sentences 3. Types of Clauses Texts: A. A Healthy You Can Cope with Work Stress B. The Nutritional Aspects of Stress Management C. There Are Many Kinds of Food D. Sensational Discovery Conversation: London Texts for Supplementary Reading Text 1. Marie Curie and the Discovery of Radium Text 2. Is It Possible to Make Prediction? Text 3. Nano-technology and Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS) Systems of Systems Text 4. Wandering Continents Text 5. Our Solar Family Text 6. The Old Lady of the Universe Text 7. What Size Collision Formed the Moon? Text 8. The A to Z of Astronomy Text 9. Views of Universe Text 10. London Bridge Text 11. Why Does Frozen Food Keep Well? Text 12. You Cant Live without It Text 13. Canned Food Text 14. The Beatles Text 15. RocknRoll & Beatlemania Keys Literature
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122 122 125 126 132 138 140 140 141 151 151 152 152 164 169 172 175 179 196 196 198 199 200 202 204 205 206 207 208 210 211 213 214 216 218 220


, I, 2001.. - , , , , . 5 - (units 1-5), : , , , , .; - ; , ; ; , . , , , . , , . - . - , . . . . : , , , . , . B, C, D , , .

, , . , . , , . - . , , , . Conversation . , , , . , . Just for Fun , . Texts for Supplementary Reading , . 130 150 . , , .

UNIT 1
Grammar: 1. Verbals. The Participle 2. Participle Constructions Texts: A. The Birth of Electrical Engineering B. Electronics in the Industrial Age C. The Information Age Conversation: Town


VERBALS. THE PARTICIPLE . (Participle I, Participle II), (The Gerund), (The Infinitive). : 1. : ; ; . 2. , , , , . 3. (Active, Passive) (Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous). () , -. , , -. 4. . 5. : , , , . 6. , . The Participle. , .
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: Participle I (the Present Participle) Participle II (the Past Participle). Participles I II, , . , , , (a revolving part ; the invented engine ), (a big part ). Participle I Active Voice asking writing having asked having written Participle II Passive Voice being asked being written having been asked having been written asked written

Indefinite Perfect

Participle I , : people entering the room , : entering the room, he said ,

Participle II , : a broken window a frightened woman

Participle II : written stolen ! 1. Participle II , . 2. Participle II , Perfect: He has come. She has been working since morning.

1. I , , -. () I , -: Reading this English book he wrote , out new words. . I , -: Having read this book he returned , it to me. . 2. I . Whats the name of the police in- spector questioning this woman? , (Active Voice) ? Whats the name of the woman , being questioned? (Passive Voice) ? 3. I . Reading this book I used a diction- , ary. . 4. I . Speaking loudly they approached , the square. . Being well adjusted, the machine works well. , .

: ( ), . 1. : (-, -, -)? , ( ). Participle I : 1. , -, -. 2. . a thinking machine ,

The man delivering a lecture is our , professor. . Participle II :

1. , , , . 2. . The lecture delivered by our pro- , fessor was very interesting. , . ! ed , Participle II , Past Indefinite. The equipment tested required fur- , ther improvement. , .

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. I . - Participle I Indefinite ( doing, reading), , , -. , The students translating this arti, - cle used dictionaries. . , . , - The student who has written , . (wrote) this article is here. () () doing who did who has done who had done

2. ( when, while, if) ? ? . ! Participle I when, while; Participle II when, if. : 1. , , . 2. . While working in the laboratory , we made experiments. .

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When tested that device showed good results. . ( , ) ! Participle II , , . When asked the student answered , well. . If used this method will help us to increase the output. , . 3. . Participle I Continuous. The system is not working. .

He has been translating the article 12- since 12 oclock. . Participle II : ) ; ) Perfect. The problem is being solved. .

A group of engineers has designed a new device. . Participle I Participle II .

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! to be to have . Participle I Participle I : being used, having used, having been used (. Participle I). ! 1. being used (Indefinite Passive) , , , , ; having used, having been used (Perfect Active/Passive) , , , , -. The devices being used in our , work are up-to-date. , . Having finished his experiments , he compared the results. . 2. . : The method being used by this en- , gineer is very effective. , . : Having finished the series of ex- , periments they published the results. . Having been translated into many , languages the book became very , popular. .
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PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTIONS. 1. The Objective Participle Construction. ( ) I II. : 1) , : to see to hear to feel to notice to find to watch to observe I saw her crossing the street. , . , .

We watched the rocket launched.

2) , : want, wish, would like. I want the letter posted at once. , .

3) have smth. done. , , - . I had my suit cleaned. . ( ).

. , .

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She made a dress.

() . ( ). ( ) . ( , ).

She had a dress made.

, , , . . I saw him running along the street. , . The Absolute Participle Construction. () . () . The engineer testing the engine is , a good specialist. , . , , , , . () . . The engineer having tested the en- , gine, we were sure that its per- , formance would be perfect. , . ! , , . . 15

, : 1. , ( ) Participle I (Participle II), , () . 2. () , , . 3. , . 4. , : ) , : ; ; ; , ; ; ) , : , , , , . : Steel being a very strong material, we find wide application of it in , engineering. . The plan was discussed in detail, , many workers taking part in this discussion. .

! 1. , , with: The operator was adjusting the , machine, with other workers watching him. . 2. Participle I to be:
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The lesson (being) over, everybo- , dy left the classroom. . there being ( there is ) it being (it is): There being little time at our disposal, we had to take a taxi. , . It beeing very dark, I could see , nothing. . . .

EXERCISES I. Define the forms of the following participles. Consult the table Forms of Participles: a) using, being used, having used, having been used; developing, having developed, being developed, having been developed; building, being built, having built, having been built; making, having made, being made, having been made; b) conducting, having done, being employed, having been chosen, doing, having been employed, having chosen, being conducted, employing, having conducted, being done, having employed. II. Read participles: a) having passive meaning; b) expressing priority of action: introducing, having developed, deciding, being moved, isolated, being equipped, having obtained, measuring, having been destroyed, having determined, regarded. III. Translate the following: a) the matter obtained, the substance applied, the test conducted, the example given, the results published, the tools used; b) the scientist studying, the student determining, the event occurring, the teacher explaining, the laboratory developing, the book including;
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) the workers doing, the work done; the man identifying, the property identified; the delegation representing, the country represented; the program including, the data included; the chemist applying, the law applied. IV. Match the two halves. 1. Our laboratory is now developing a new semiconductor device. 1. , , . 2. , . 3. .

2. Developing a new semiconductor device our laboratory had to solve many problems. 3. The laboratory developing a new semiconductor device has to solve many problems.

V. Give as many versions of the translation as possible. Model:


reading a book ( ) - (, )

having read -

- ()

developing a new design they testing the equipment they delivering the lecture the professor having come to the University the student having obtained the substance the engineer having lifted the weight he
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VI. Define the forms and functions of the participles. Translate the sentences. A. 1. The girl is finishing her work. 2. The work is being finished by the girl. 3. The girl finishing her work is my group-mate. 4. Finishing her work, the girl spoke to her friend. 5. Having finished her work, the girl went for a walk. 6. Having been finished in time, the work was given to the teacher. 7. The student was translating an article on electricity. 8. The student has translated an article. 9. The article was translated by the student. 10. The article is being translated by the student. 11. The article translated by the student is difficult. 12. The translated article is devoted to electrical devices. 13. Having been asked to translate the article, the student translated it with great interest. B. 1.Speaking of the electrically operated devices, one can mention the refrigerator. 2. Having mentioned the name of Volta, the teacher spoke about his invention. 3. The first source of continuous current constructed by Volta appeared in 1800. 4. Studying the various phenomena of nature Newton discovered the law of gravitation. 5. A thermometer is a device measuring temperature. 6. Being widely used in industry electrical motors are used in every home. 7. Going along the streets, one can see running trams, trolley-buses, buses and cars. VII. Choose the correct form. At our University there are several subjects (studied, studying) optionally. Students (taking, taken) exams next week should come to the deans office. The engineer (represented, representing) this factory is a good specialist. Scientists (applied, applying) new methods will obtain interesting results. (Having graduated, graduating) from the Institute, he began to work at an office. 6. The problems (discussing, discussed) at the conference are of great importance for future research. 7. Students (studying, studied) foreign languages should read special literature in the original. 8. Specialists (training, trained) at our University work in various fields of the national economy. 9. (Having written, writing) the letter, she posted it. 10. (Building, having built) a new house they used all modern methods of construction. VIII. Paraphrase the following sentences. A. Model: The girl who is speaking to you is my friend. The girl speaking to you is my friend. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

1. Water is a substance which consists of hydrogen and oxygen. 2. The law which defines the properties of inertia was formulated by I. Newton. 3. The professor who is delivering this lecture works at our University. 4. All objects which surround
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us in nature are composed of different substances. 5. Sugar is a hard brittle substance which has color and taste. B. Model: The equipment which was installed at the plant is quite new. The equipment installed at the plant is quite new.

1. The experiment which was made in the laboratory is very important. 2. The students who were examined last week got good marks. 3. All elements consist of tiny particles which are called atoms. 4. Specialists who are trained at higher schools work in various fields of the national economy. 5. The equipment which was tested required some improvement. IX. Translate the following phrases. Mind the position of Participle II: the materials tested possessed the work performed showed the results obtained showed the equipment tested required the problem solved proved the equation obtained resulted in the experiment discussed proved . X. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to Participle II. 1. The temperature of the liquid obtained remained constant. 2. The method applied improved the quality of production. 3. The tools used showed good results. 4. The machine tool developed required some improvement. 5. The device tested showed the desired results. 6. The techniques applied increased the rate of production. 7. The progress achieved resulted in a remarkable technical improvement. 8. The theory formulated is of great importance for our research. 9. The results discussed supported the significance of the experiment. 10. The equipment tested required some improvement. XI. Translate the Russian words and word combinations given in brackets. Use Participle I or II. The research work () at the laboratory is of great importance. The engineer ( ) this research is a talented physicist. The students () these lectures are from various faculties. The lecture ( ) by these students was on mathematics. The substance () water consists of two gases: hydrogen and oxygen. 6. The students () this problem will take part in the scientific conference. 7. The problems () at the conference are very complicated.
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

XII. Read and translate the sentences with participles as adverbial modifiers. Model: When heated, the molecules move more intensely. , . 1. While being a student Newton was greatly interested in the discoveries which had been made before. 2. Though conducted with care the test didnt give the expected results. 3. While solving a problem one must take into consideration all the methods related to the problem in question. 4. One should be very attentive when comparing the results of two experiments conducted by different methods. 5. If properly conducted the experiment must bring the desired results. 6. When passed through a motor, electric current can do work. 7. Unless repaired, this part cant be used in the radio set. 8. If cooled, the water becomes ice. 9. Unless treated properly, this material wont be a good insulator. 10. When heated, solids expand little as compared with liquids. XIII. Analyze the sentences with the Objective Participle Construction. Translate. 1. I heard him speaking at the conference. 2. They observed us making experiments. 3. I found him writing a report. 4. We saw the device tested. 5. We watched the car being examined. 6. We want our translations corrected. 7. She got her photo taken. 8. He had the engine of his car examined. XIV. Compare the couples of sentences with and without the Absolute Participle Construction. 1. a) Having brought the dictionaries from the library, the students began to translate the article. b) The dictionaries having been brought from the library, the students began to translate the article. 2. a) Having finished my translation, I gave it to the teacher. b) The translation having been finished, I gave it to the teacher. 3. a) Having finished the experiment, the students left the laboratory. b) The experiment having been finished, the students left the laboratory. 4. a) The professor delivering the lecture is a famous scientist. b) The professor delivering the lecture, the students listened to him with great interest. XV. Translate the sentences with the Absolute Participle Construction. 1. My friend was reading an English article, his brother watching television.
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2. Electrical devices find a wide application in every house, a refrigerator being one of them. 3. The energy sources of the world decreasing, the scientists have to look for new sources of energy. 4. There are different sources of energy, the sun being an unlimited source of all forms of energy. 5. Industrial applications of energy increasing, more and more energy is needed every year. 6. Molecules are constantly in rapid motion, the motion becoming more rapid with an increase of temperature. 7. The atoms of different substances have different weights, their properties being also different. 8. The atomic energy being developed in a reactor in the form of heat, we can get both heat and power. 9. Power is the basis of civilization, all industry and transport being dependent upon power. 10. An electric conductor being moved in a magnetic field, an electric current is generated. 11. There are many different types of transformers, the principles of action being the same in each case. 12. The proposal being unconstitutional, the committee rejected it. 13. England being a constitutional monarchy, the Queen of England is only a formal ruler. 14. The final round of the negotiations over, a joint communiqu was signed. 15. London is not only the center of commerce and finance but also a great port, with many of the imported and exported goods passing through it. 16. It being Sunday, the shops were closed. 17. There being a lot of things to discuss, the conference lasted long. XVI. Combine two sentences into one using the Absolute Participle Construction. Model: The article was written; they sent it to the journal. The article being written, they sent it to the journal. , . The train has left; we went home. The book was read; we decided to discuss it. The first part of the work was completed; the results were published. The journal contained a number of interesting articles; one of them was devoted to cybernetics. 5. Many specialists work on the problem of corrosion; special attention is paid to the problems of protection of steel surfaces from corrosion. 6. The articles on plasma chemistry were published; the students got interested in them.
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1. 2. 3. 4.

7. Electrons move through a wire; electrical energy is generated. 8. The temperature of a wire is raised; the motion of the electrons increases. XVII. Complete the sentences using the Absolute Participle Construction.

1. There are a few ways of generating electric current, ( ). 2. The atoms and electrons are usually in a state of rapid motion, ( ). 3. The name electronics is derived from the word electron, ( ). 4. ( ), a direct current results. 5. ( ), the conductivity of that substance increases. 6. The article deals with optical electronics, ( ). 7. ( , ), we could use it in our work. 8. The lecturer spoke on the problems of space research, ( ). XVIII. Revise the grammar material on participles and participle constructions. Translate the sentences. A. 1. Theres always something sad about two ships passing each other during the night. 2. The English spoken by most educated people in Britain is known as the Queens English or Standard English. It is the English taught in universities and schools and the kind heard on the BBC. 3. Money saved is money gained. 4. A trouble shared is a trouble halved. 5. The project being realized was proposed by a team of scientists. 6. Entering or leaving a room with ladies, dont rush before them. Remember the golden rule of every gentleman: Ladies first. 7. When asked if he realized the danger, he said he did. 8. Youll see more of the country-side traveling by coach. 9. Being a poor speller, he didnt like writing letters. 10. Having read the note, he folded it and put it away. 11. Arriving at the station, he consulted the time-table again. 12. When crossing the street in London, look first to the right, then to the left. 13. While playing tennis, be sure you hold the racket in the right way. 14. Based on a real life event, the story aroused everybodys interest. 15. Looked at from a different angle, the problem didnt seem very difficult. B. 1. Explained again, the rule became quite clear to everybody. 2. The rule explained, we started doing the exercises. 3. The rule being explained is not easy. 4. The rule explained is difficult. 5. We would like it explained again. 6. If explained, the rule will not seem difficult. C. 1. The man saved was a Norwegian sailor. 2. The man saved a Norwegian sailor. 3. All the children having been saved, everybody felt relieved. 4. Having saved
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the boys life, the doctor felt relieved. 5. I want him saved. 6. The passengers are being saved. XIX. Write in English. Use participles where possible. , . , . , , . , , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , , . 8. , . 9. , ; , . 10. , , . 11. , , . 12. , , , . 1. 2. 3. 4.

Text A.

THE BIRTH OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Historians label the period in Europe between the 14th and 16th centuries as the Renaissance a period of rebirth. In the Renaissance Period the magnitude of scholarly and artistic activities was greatly enhanced in Europe. New knowledge was acquired which gave rise to new technologies, and the Industrial Age soon followed. The Industrial Age developed as mankind learned to harness the energy created from the burning of hydrocarbons, such as coal and petroleum. Mechanics emerged as a new science in universities. Except for the magnetic compass, electric and magnetic energy remained a curiosity, having little practical application, until the invention of the battery by Alessandro Volta in 1800. This invention gave scientists a new tool with which to experiment, and soon the laws of electricity and magnetism were discovered. In 1831 Faraday discovered that rotating a conductor in a magnetic field gave rise to an electric potential, and the electric generator and motor became a reality. However, the development of the electric power industry was really spurred by the invention of a practical incandescent electric light bulb in 1879 by Thomas Edison.
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The electrification of cities soon followed. Alternating current and the transformer allowed electric energy to be transported over large distances, and electrical engineering as a profession was born. The first professional society for electrical engineers was founded in 1884. The discovery of the laws of electricity and magnetism in the 1800s also gave birth to two new information industries, the telegraph and telephone industries. However, the electric power industry remained a dominant force in the first half of the 20th century. Two new non-electrical information industries were also created in the 1800s through advances in the chemical sciences. The photographic film process was perfected and the photographic industry was born soon to be followed by the motion picture industry. ======================VOCABULARY=================== label, v rebirth, n magnitude, n scholarly and artistic activities enhance, v acquire, v give rise to harness, v emerge, v curiosity, n law, n spur, v incandescent electric bulb alternating current direct current advance, n ; , ; , , , , ( ) , ; , , , ,

I. Transcribe the following words. Consult the dictionary: Europe, renaissance, compass, motor, technology, mechanics, society. II. Mark the stress in the following words: present to present, increase to increase, decrease to decrease,
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progress to progress, process to process. III. Read the following international words and guess their meaning. Consult the dictionary: historian, period, activity, technology, industry, energy, mechanics, compass, battery, experiment, electricity, magnetism, potential, generator, motor, reality, electrification, transformer, distance, profession, information, telegraph, telephone, film. IV. Translate the nouns with the suffix er (-or) derived from the verbs: invent use transform generate operate develop found process receive conduct inventor user transformer generator operator developer founder processor receiver conductor

V. Form nouns from the following verbs and translate them: to label, to know, to develop, to create, to emerge, to invent, to discover, to generate, to electrify, to transport, to found, to inform, to power, to advance. VI. Form adjectives from the following words and translate them: electricity, industry, magnet, practice, chemistry, science, distance, reality, power, profession, photography. VII. Match the adjectives and the nouns. Make up as many combinations as possible: adjectives new industrial electric magnetic practical professional chemical
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nouns society generator motor potential field tool compass application

energy science age technologies VIII. Make sure you know the terms below:

technology

1) 2) 3) 4) ; 5) , ; 1) , ; , 2) ; 3) ; 1) 2) 3) 4) , , 5) 6) * * *

technique(s)

engineering

chemical engineering civil engineering communications engineering electrical engineering mechanical engineering military engineering nuclear engineering power engineering railroad engineering space engineering general engineering subjects

- e,

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IX. Read and translate the following word combinations: a period of rebirth; to give rise to; to harness the energy; except for the magnetic compass; electric power industry; to be transported over large distances; electrical engineering; professional society; information industries. X. Read the text The Birth of Electrical Engineering. Point out the most important discoveries mentioned in the text. XI. Answer the questions below. Use the text. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What period do historians call the period of rebirth? What age followed the Renaissance Period? What is the development of the Industrial Age connected with? Who invented the first source of continuous current? When? What did Faraday discover in 1831? When did the electric generator and motor become a reality? Who invented an incandescent electric lamp? What gave birth to the telegraph and telephone industries? What new non-electrical information industries were created in the 19th century?

XII. Translate the words given in brackets. 1. The discovery of the Voltaic cell gave scientists the basis ( ). 2. Mankind learned to harness the energy created from the burning of ( ). 3. Electric and magnetic energy remained (). 4. In 1831 Faraday discovered that rotating a conductor in a magnetic field ( ). 5. ( ) was spurred by the invention of a practical incandescent electric light bulb. 6. The first professional society for (- 1884 ). 7. The discovery of ( ) gave birth to two new information industries, the telegraph and telephone industries. XIII. Translate the sentences with emphatic construction. 1. It was the battery that Alessandro Volta made in 1800. 2. It was the Renaissance Period which spurred the development of new technologies. 3. It was in 1831 when Faraday discovered the phenomenon of electro-magnetic induction.
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4. It was Ampere who showed the difference between the current and the static charges. 5. It was in 1879 when Thomas Edison invented an incandescent electric lamp. 6. It was the 19th century which gave birth to electrical engineering. XIV. Match the words and their definitions: a battery mechanics magnetism a transformer a conductor an electric light bulb an electric lamp the science of magnetic phenomena and properties a portable cell for supplying electricity the science of motion and force an apparatus that increases or decreases the voltage of an electric power supply a substance that conducts heat or electric current

XV. Make up the plan of the text The Birth of Electrical Engineering. Retell the text according to your plan. XVI. Write in English. 1. . 2. . 3. , . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. . XVII. Render in English. 1872 . .. . ; . 29

lighting incandescent filament lamp glass bulb carbon rod

. 18731874 . .. , , , . 1879 . . . 1909 . ( ), 3-4 . , (, ), . XX . . 1876 .. . , .. 1878 . . , , .

to heat to become fluorescent

carbon filament tungsten wire to fill in an inert gas

carbon arc lamp

XVIII. Speak about P.N. Yablochkov and A.N. Lodygin, the two Russian inventors. The text given below will help you. (1847-1923) , , , . . . , . 1872 . , . , , . , 30

. . , . . 1872 . . . . 2 , 1874 ., () , . . . . . . . , , . . . . , . . . , . (18471894) , , . . . , , . 12 . - , , . . , . , , . , , . : , , . . . , . , , . , . , . 23 1876 . . : , .


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. . - . Text B. ELECTRONICS IN THE INDUSTRIAL AGE

In 1873 James Clerk Maxwell published his famous treatise on electricity and magnetism. Being a theoretician, he developed four equations which explained all the experimental results in electricity and magnetism observed up until that time, and his equations have withstood the test of time and continue to serve as a basis for all electromagnetic calculations. His equations inspired Hertz to experiment with electromagnetic radiation. In 1895 A. Popov and in 1899 Marconi demonstrated the first wireless communication systems. Wireless communication got the boost with the invention of the triode by De Forest in 1906 and the development of practical radio circuits by Armstrong. Engineers having developed radio circuits, research laboratories turned their attention to the transmission of video as well as audio, and practical television systems were developed in the 1930s. During World War II electronic systems were developed for radar, sonar, fire control, navigation, communications, computation, and data processing. Shortly after the war the computer industry was born. In 1947 Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley invented the transistor. This device could perform all the functions of a vacuum tube triode with much lower device power dissipation. Two more profound inventions occurred shortly thereafter. Kilby and Noyce invented the integrated circuit in 1959. Secondly, the ruby, gas, and semiconductor lasers were invented in 1959, 1960 and 1961, respectively. The integrated circuit allowed for a 106 or more increase in circuit density, decrease in device cost, decrease in device power, and increase in circuit reliability. With the invention of the laser a few communication experts recognized the bandwidth potential of light wave communication. Transmission of light waves in the atmosphere proved unreliable, and so attention was focused on light wave transmission over glass fibers. The development of low-loss optical fibers followed. Today most long distance calls are transmitted by optical fibers. ======================VOCABULARY=================== treatise, n equation, n withstand, v (withstood) inspire, v wireless, n wireless, a get the boost
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, , ;

, ; ; , ; density, n , reliability, n , fiber (fibre), n ====================================================== I. Make sure you know the words given above. II. Read the following words. Pay attention to the stress displacement: magnet magnetic, atom atomic, electron electronic, dynamo dynamic, theory theoretic, biology biological, history historical, mechanism mechanics. III. Read the text Electronics in the Industrial Age. Find out what inventions the following dates deal with: 1873, 1895, 1947, 1959, 1960, 1961. IV. Say if the following statements are true (T) or false (F). Consult the text Electronics in the Industrial Age. 1. In 1873 James Clerk Maxwell published his famous treatise on philosophy. 2. Maxwell developed equations which serve as a basis for all electromagnetic calculations. 3. The computer industry was born before World War I. 4. The integrated circuit was invented in 1969. 5. With the invention of the IC electronic devices have become cheaper and more reliable. 6. Today most long distance calls are transmitted by wire. V. Find in the text Electronics in the Industrial Age sentences with Participle I and Participle II. State their forms and functions. Translate the sentences. VI. Match the names and the inventions 1) Maxwell a) the integrated circuit
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circuit, n vacuum tube fire control power dissipation occur, v integrated circuit ruby, n semiconductor, n respectively, adv

2) Hertz 3) A. Popov and Marconi 4) De Forest 5) Bardeen, Brattain and Shockley 6) Kilby and Noyce

b) the invention of the triode c) four equations for electro-magnetic calculations d) electromagnetic radiation e) wireless communication system f) the transistor

VII. Retell the text Electronics in the Industrial Age. VIII. Read the following text without a dictionary. Try to understand it. The path to Popovs great discovery was marked by the investigations of many scientists in different countries. Popovs scientific accomplishment was the culmination of the efforts of several generations of scientists, whose works make up the early history of radio which began with the investigations of Faraday. Faradays discovery of electromagnetic rotation and electromagnetic induction laid the foundation of present-day electrical engineering. His natural-scientific conceptions created a revolution in the understanding of electrical phenomena, and are extremely important because they directed all attention to the medium surrounding the electrified body. Faradays theory of magnetic and electric lines of force proved to be exceedingly fruitful, and served as a starting point for J. C. Maxwell to deduce mathematically (and Hertz to detect experimentally) the existence of free electric waves. Later it was found that as early as 1832 Faraday himself was close to what triumphed in science more than half a century later. Faradays scientific views were developed by his successor Maxwell, who worked in many fields of physics, mechanics, and even astronomy. However, his chief works are investigations in electromagnetism and in the kinetic theory of gases. Continuing Faradays work, Maxwell subjected his ideas to mathematical treatment and arrived at far-reaching conclusions when he advanced the electromagnetic theory of light, one of the greatest achievements of science of the 19th century. Maxwell considered light to be an electromagnetic phenomenon; he predicted mathematically that electric waves ought to propagate at a velocity equal to the ratio of electromagnetic and electrostatic units; as we know, this value coincides with the velocity of light (approximately 300,000 km. a second). Of extraordinary value to radio was Maxwells conception of free electromagnetic waves, whose real existence was proved to the scientific world by the experimental investigations of Hertz. But this was a whole decade after the death of J. Clerk Maxwell who did not live to see his views accepted. Deeply convinced of the truth of the Faraday-Maxwell theory, Hertz set himself the task of proving experimentally the existence of free electromagnetic waves; he established the fact that they are governed by the same laws (reflection, refraction and polarization) as light waves. One of the most brilliant experimenters in the history of natural science (let us not forget that he had not yet reached the age of 37 when he died), Hertz made experiments that served as a basis for the invention of
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wireless telegraphy. These experiments had to do with the Hertz vibrator and resonator described in his first work entitled Concerning Extremely Rapid Electric Oscillations. The scientific value of Hertz discovery, however, is not the less though he did not find a practical application for it. Hertz discovery was immediately recognized throughout the world, and Popov was one of the first to begin elaborating further this extremely important scientific advancement. He read papers and delivered public lectures, always pointing out that this new achievement of science is not only of theoretical value, that it may find a practical application. May 7 (April 25, old style) 1895 is considered to be the date of the invention of radio. It was on this day that Popov read a paper in the Physics Department of the Russian Physical and Chemical Society entitled On the Relation of Metal Powders to Electric Oscillations. However, Popov arrived at his discovery much earlier; not at once, of course, but as a result of extensive research which he had conducted over a period of several years studying electric waves and oscillations. The May 7th address was a legal confirmation of Popovs right as the inventor of wireless telegraphy. Popov was undoubtedly an original and experienced experimenter. But in addition, Popov was the first radio specialist to construct radio instruments as well as radio stations in Russia. This side of his activities was above all closely connected with the Navy, the most prominent representatives of which valued Popov especially as a practical specialist in installing radio in the Navy. In March 1897, he delivered a lecture at the Kronstadt Naval Officers Club, dealing with the possibility of wireless telegraphy through the use of his method. Popovs project was well received and was approved by the higher authorities. The year of 1897 was that of a considerable victory for the inventor of radio, who began experimenting on a large scale. The first radiogram was received on the island of Gogland on January 24. It was an order of the Head of the Chief Naval Staff, Vice-Admiral Avelan, on the rendering of aid to Finnish fishermen who had been carried out to sea on an ice-floe. It ran as follows : To the commander of the ice-breaker Yermak. An ice-floe with 50 fishermen on it broke away near Lavensari. Render immediate aid to save these people. The accident was reported by telephone to St. Petersburg, and from there a telegram was sent to Kotka, whence the order was radioed to Gogland. The chief of the Gogland station, Zalevsky, wrote that the report was received clearly, and was immediately passed on to the Yermak. At four the next morning the Yermak set out on the search for the men and returned at 5 oclock in the afternoon with all of them on board. News of the fishermen being saved from imminent death through the use of wireless telegraphy, which conveyed to the Yermak the message, spread throughout Russia. The very next day after the saving of the fishermen Popov was swamped with telegrams of congratulation expressing pride and admiration for this achievement of
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Russian science. The victory of Gogland also belonged to Makarov who designed the Yermak and on whose initiative it was built. All the more dear to Popov were the lines of Makarovs telegram of congratulation sent to him on January 26. On behalf of all the Kronstadt sailors I heartily congratulate you on the brilliant success of your invention. The opening up of communications by wireless telegraphy between Kotka and Gogland over a distance of 43 versts is a victory of the greatest scientific importance. IX. Read the text again. Identify the key words and write them out. X. Find the key sentence in each paragraph of the text given above. XI. Use the key words and key sentences to make up a summary of the text. XII. Suggest a headline to the text above. Text C. THE INFORMATION AGE

In the past few centuries technological developments have created isolated information industries. The major inventions and industries which developed as a result of these inventions are listed in Table 1. Electrical and computer engineers play a major role in four of these six industries, and they will likely play a major role in all six industries.
Table 1. Evolution of the Information Industry.

Invention Printing Press The Electric Battery Film Electronics Computer Laser/Fiber

Industry Publishing Telegraph/Telephone Photography/Cinema Broadcasting/Cable Data Processing Broadband Systems

These inventions have greatly impacted our lives through the creation of new industries and the easy access to information around the world. However, none of these discoveries has impacted our lives as greatly as the integrated circuit (IC). The IC has created the information age. Already the IC has had a profound impact on our society. The slide rule, mechanical calculator, and typewriter industries are dead and their products have been relegated to museums. Text, data, graphics, voice and video can be electronically processed, transmitted, and stored at a cost most citizens can afford. The boundaries
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between the traditional information industries are being blurred, and their survival is in doubt. Already numerous collaborative agreements and mergers are taking place among these industries. Will the photographic industry survive in the information age? Will the printing industry go the way of the dinosaur? Telephone, cable, and broadcasting networks are fighting for survival in the information age. Most likely the traditional information industries will be realigned along the functional lines in Table 2. There is no doubt that we will witness profound changes in the traditional information industries over the next decade. Even more profound is the impact that the IC has had on global politics, e.g. the formation of the European Economic Community at the expense of national autonomy, the push toward open markets, the rise of global industries, and the decline of manufacturing jobs. Wars will be fought in the information age, both bloody and unbloody, but ultimately in the information age we will see more transparent national boundaries, less national autonomy, and a higher world order. This is so because with the powerful technologies at our disposal, this is the only path to survival as a people. It will not be an easy road. Change never is. Globally industry and governments are going through a period of rebirth, a period of a global renaissance. This renaissance is the result of the scientific discoveries and technological advances of the past two centuries, the IC having perhaps the most profound impact on society that the world has ever experienced.
Table 2.

The New Information Industry Players 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Generation and production of information Transmission networks Information processing systems Information storage systems Display system

I. Read the text The Information Age. Write out all the words you dont know. Look them up in the dictionary. II. Find in the text The Information Age the sentence with the Absolute Participle Construction. Translate it. III. Make a written translation of the text The Information Age. IV. Speak about the evolution of the information industry. Use Table 1.

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CONVERSATION TOWN =====================VOCABULARY==================== acquire, v , appearance, n , applied arts blacksmith, n busy, a ( ) circus, n craftsman, n , defend, v , dirty, a district, n , enterprise, n eternal, a eternal flame issue, v , , to issue a decree goods, n , gunsmith, n inhabitant, n , level, n native, a palace, n population, n region, n , , () rifle, n , sights, n sightseeing, n to go sightseeing skill, n , , society, n square, n , traffic, n , trade, n ; , ======================================================

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word combinations to be famous for to be full of to be of great interest to be proud of to be called after continuous steel casting iron and steel works coal mining industry metal processing places of interest - - -, - , TULA Situated south of Moscow in the central part of the East European plain on the Middle Russian Hills, the Tula region covers an area of 25,700km 2 (1.5% of Russias territory). The regions territory embraces 21 cities and towns and 50 urban settlements. Total population is 1,840,000, out of which urban population accounts for 81,4%. The center of the region is the city of Tula with the population over half a million. Tula, which is first mentioned in the chronicles in 1146, was founded on the banks of the Upa river. In the Middle Ages it was the central strategic point in the defense of Moscow. This had a decisive influence on the specifics of the regions industrial development. Tula has long been famous for its blacksmiths and gunsmiths. The trade of the blacksmiths began to develop in Tula in the 16th century. Tula blacksmiths specialized in making rifles The whole families and even streets were engaged in making this or that part of the rifle. That is why many streets of Tula are still called after the parts of the rifle Zamochnaya, Kurkovaya, Stvolnaya, etc. By the 16th 17th century, Tula had grown into a developed center of weaponmaking crafts and metal treatment. In 1712 following a decree issued by Peter the Great a state gun-making plant was founded in Tula. Tula was the first place in Russia to develop ferrous metallurgy and metalprocessing industry. In metal-processing Tula craftsmen acquired great skill. But most of the enterprises were handicraft artels and small plants producing samovars and different handmade goods. With the development of capitalism in Russia industrial enterprises in Tula increased in number. By the end of the 19th century Tula had about 200 enterprises with 13 thousand workers. At present there are many plants and factories in Tula. Being part of the Central Economic Region, the Tula region has close economic ties with other regions of the Russian Federation.
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The basic industries are machine-building, chemical, ferrous metallurgy, building materials industry, coal mining, light and food industries, power engineering and electronics. Machine-building and metal-working account for 21.9% of the total industrial output, chemistry and petrochemistry 20.8%, metallurgy 17.1%, electric power generation 11.9%, food industry 13%, and light industry 3.9%. The machine-building branch is represented by large enterprises manufacturing agricultural machinery, machine tools, equipment for the light and food industries, units and parts for gas pipelines, pumps, cranes, construction and transportation machinery, domestic gas fittings, scooters etc. Chemical industry enterprises produce fertilizers, synthetic rubber, plastics and plastic articles, detergents, synthetic vitamins and other products. The old gun-making plant produces hunting rifles and sport guns which help our sportsmen to win victories at international competitions. The Tulachermet Concern, a leading metallurgical enterprise in Russia, has made a great contribution to the development of world metallurgy. The enterprise has been the first in the world to master the method of continuous steel casting, the process of metal powder manufacture, plasma spraying, and production of alloys with specific properties. The old traditions of making famous Tula rifles, samovars, bayans (accordions) and spice cakes live on. Primary attention in agriculture is given to the production of grain, potatoes, sugar beet, milk and meat. Todays Tula is not only an industrial but also a cultural, scientific and educational center of our country. Tula has many educational establishments such as Tula State University and Tula State Pedagogical University, many colleges and secondary schools. Dozens of research institutes and design bureaus concentrate a considerable scientific potential. These institutions are engaged in long-term research in technologies of machine-building, metallurgy, polymers, control systems, town planning etc. The city has four theatres, a regional philharmonic society, some clubs, palaces of culture, libraries, and publishing houses that issue about a hundred newspapers and magazines. Tula has many places of interest, the Museum of Arms is well known not only in our town. It was established in 1724. In the museum we can see the products of skillful Tula gunsmiths. It has models of Russian weapons beginning with the Kulikovo Battle in 1380 to the years of the Great Patriotic War. There are also tiny engravings which one can see only through a microscope. The museum of Regional Studies is of great interest too. It presents to its visitors the heroic past of our town. The Art Gallery has a collection of rare pictures, sculptures and items of applied arts. Not far from Tula is Yasnaya Polyana. Here the great Russian writer Leo Tolstoy lived and worked for almost all his life. Now it is a museum. Many people not only from our country but also abroad visit Yasnaya Polyana every day. The Kremlin, the Victory Square with its eternal flame, the monument to the defenders of Tula, the vast central park belong to the sights of Tula. The picture will not be complete if we forget our central stadium with its sports play grounds, the indoor stadium and the famous cycle-drome.
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The appearance of our city has greatly changed. From a dirty provincial town with wooden houses and narrow streets it has turned into a modern city. The main street of our city and many other tree-lined streets are always full of people and the traffic is rather heavy (busy). In the streets we can see many cars, buses, trolleybuses, trams, taxis. Tula grows from day to day. Old houses and back-yards have almost completely disappeared giving way to new high buildings. New modern-style districts have appeared in the former suburbs of Tula. The citizens of Tula are proud of their city which is becoming more beautiful from day to day. I. Read the text 'Tula'. Find the sentences that might be the answers to the questions below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. When was Tula founded? What river is Tula situated on? What is the population of Tula at present? What had a decisive influence on the industrial development of Tula? Who founded a state gun-making plant in Tula? What are the basic industries in Tula? What is Tula famous for? What sights are there in Tula?

II. Write the following words in transcription. Translate them: acquire, appearance, area, artel, avenue, blacksmith, circus, craftsman, cycle, enterprise, eternal, issue, model, museum, provincial, region, sculpture, sightseeing, society, specialize, square, suburb. III. Translate the following a)word combinations; b)sentences: a) 1. the central part of Russia; 2. to cover an area; 3. on the banks of the Upa river; 4. the parts of the rifle; 5. a decree issued by Peter the Great; 6. a state gun-making plant; 7. ferrous metallurgy; 8. metal processing industry; 9. handmade goods; 10. to master the method of continuous steel casting; 11. machine tools; 12. metal powder manufacture. b) 1. Tula was founded in 1146. 2. Tula has long been famous for its blacksmiths and gunsmiths.
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3. Tula blacksmiths specialized in making rifles. 4. The whole families were engaged in making this or that part of a rifle. 5. Many streets in Tula are called after the parts of a rifle. 6. Tula craftsmen acquired great skill. 7. At present there are many plants and factories in Tula. 8. The old gun-making plant produces hunting rifles and sport guns. 9. The machine-building plants produce various machine tools. 10. In the Tula region there are many coal mining enterprises. IV. Complete the sentences: 1. The streets of Tula are full of ; ; ; .

2. Many streets of my city are ; ; called after . 3. This city is famous for ; ; ; . ; ; . ? ? ? -? ? ? is of great interest.

4. Moscovites are proud of

5. Have you ever been to

6. What places of interest

7.

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V. Fill in the missing words. 1. Many streets of Tula / / the parts of a rifle. 2. The citizens of Tula // their city which becomes more // from day to day. 3. Tula is a modern city with many industrial // such as /, , , / and others. 4. / / of Tula with its eternal flame stands in the Victory Square. 5. The Kremlin, the vast central park, // and many monuments belong to the // of our city. 6. The Arms Museum // not only in our city. 7. / / in our city is rather //. 8. There are many // buildings in the new districts of our city. VI. Say in English. Use the given word combinations: to be proud of 1. 2. 3. 4. . . . . to be famous for 1. 2. 3. 4. . () . . . to be of great interest (for) 1. 2. 3. 4. . . . .

VII. Make up questions. Let your fellow students answer them. Model 1. Have you ever been to ? Yes, I have. When were you there (last)? Last summer.
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Model 2.

Have you ever been to ? No, I havent. Would you like to go there? Rather. the Kremlin? the Art Gallery? the Victory Square? Yasnaya Polyana? the gun-making plant? the Central Park? our Philharmonic society? the stadium Arsenal? the Museum of Regional Studies? the Arms Museum?

Have you ever been to

VIII. Correct the statements. Begin with: I am afraid you are not right. Sorry, but you are mistaken (wrong). I cant agree with you. 1. Many streets in Tula are called after the parts of the accordion. 2. The machine-building plants produce iron and steel. 3. Historically Tula was famous as an agricultural center. 4. There are no industrial enterprises in Tula. 5. Tula was founded on the banks of the Volga river. 6. The gun-making plant produces radio lamps. 7. The Museum of Arms is in Boldin Street. 8. Tula blacksmiths specialized in making samovars. 9. There are no higher educational establishments in Tula. 10. The great Russian writer Ivan Turgenev lived and worked in Yasnaya Polyana. IX. Fill in the blanks with prepositions. 1. There are many places interest in our city. 2. The main street of Tula is always full people. 3. In Tula there is a monument Peter the Great, the founder of a state gunmaking plant. 4. Tula was founded 1146 the banks of the Upa river. 5. The citizens Tula are proud their guns and rifles. 6. This street is called Gleb Uspensky, a well-known Russian writer born in Tula. 7. Moscow is famous its numerous theatres.
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X. Ask your fellow students: 1) what city he (she) lives in; 2) what city he (she) was born in; 3) what street he (she) lives in; 4) when Tula was founded; 5) what Tula is famous for; 6) what industries are developed in Tula; 7) if there are some places of interest in Tula; 8) what collection the Art Gallery has; 9) what he (she) knows about Yasnaya Polyana; 10) if he (she) can list the sights of Tula; 11) who founded the central park; 12) if there are some educational establishments in Tula; 13) what museums, theatres and concert halls he (she) knows. XI. Translate into English. 1. . 2. , , , , , . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. . XII. Read the text The Tula Kremlin and answer the questions: 1. What was the history of Tula linked with? 2. What happened in 1380? 3. What did the Kulikovo Battle lead to? 4. What happened in 1503? 5. What material was the first Tula fortress made of? 6. What outline has the Kremlin? How is this fact explained in the text? 7. How many towers has the Kremlin? 8. What battle did the Tula Kremlin withstand in 1552? 9. Who had the larger army? 10. Who helped the Tula defenders? 11. How long did the peasants under Ivan Bolotnikov defend themselves within the Kremlin walls? 12. What did the attackers do with the army of Bolotnikov and Bolotnikov himself?
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THE TULA KREMLIN


For a number of centuries the history of Tula was closely linked with the formation of the Russian state. In 1380 the famous Kulikovo Battle which led to the expulsion of the Tartar-Mongolian hordes from the Russian territory was fought to the South-East of Tula. After joining the Moscow state in 1503, Tulas importance increased greatly. It became a strong fortress in the defence line of the Moscow state. A wooden fortress was built and by 1521 the Tula Kremlin had been completed. The Tula Kremlin differs from others in that its outline is almost rectangular. The square lay-out of the Tula Kremlin walls is explained by the fact that when they were built the development of artillery made it more convenient to deliver direct fire from symmetrically disposed towers. The walls are up to three metres thick and almost 11 metres high. Four towers out of nine have gates. The walls and towers have about 300 loop-holes. Usually the Kremlin was not heavily garrisoned but due to its strength and reliability it could stand up to long sieges. Within the Kremlin stands the Cathedral of the Assumption* built in 1762-64. Its five cupolas are typical of Russian cathedrals of the 17-th century. Its frescoes, painted by masters from Yaroslavl are the last copies of frescoes in ancient Russian churches. In 1552 the Tula Kremlin withstood a severe onslaught by the Crimean Khan Devlet Girei, whose troops several times outnumbered the fortress defenders. The towns inhabitants and a garrison of 200 men beat off all attacks of 30-thousandstrong troops. Moscow troops, which approached the town two days later, drove off the enemy and defeated him near Tula. Fifty years later the Tula Kremlin became the stronghold of the troops of Ivan Bolotnikov, a peasant leader. For four months rebels against the princes and boyars defended themselves within the Kremlin walls against the tsars troops. When the long siege did not wear down the defenders, the attackers flooded the town by damming the river and forced them to surrender. Ivan Bolotnikov was kept prisoner and killed. In the Kremlin one can see the monument to the peasant leader.
*

Cathedral of the Assumption .

XIII. Make a written translation of the text. Use a dictionary. THE CITY RECEIVES HONOUR TO ITS RESISTANCE TO NAZIS The city of Tula with its population doubled to 500,000 since World War II was awarded the Hero City honour, the eleventh city to get it. The award was given for Tulas role, as a defense bastion against the Nazis as they neared Moscow from the
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south. It was under siege for 45 days, but the fascists were not able to step into city limits. The city takes pride that throughout its 800-year history, no enemy has ever penetrated it. Historically, the city was famed as the samovar manufacturing center and for its gun-making for the armies of Czar. But its metal-working history, whether on samovars or guns, has also made it a city famed for metal mechanics. Today Tula is one of the major machine manufacturing cities. In Tula, as in most old cities of Russia, the people cherish their history and tradition, and stress it to visitors. And it is not only good-natured talk about the superiority of tea from their charcoal-burning samovars, with the special Tula cakes. They take pride that Tolstoy lived and wrote in Yasnaya Polyana, his estate just outside Tula. You must see it! they tell every visitor. XVI. Read the following selections using a dictionary. DO YOU KNOW THAT the Tula guberniya was established in 1777, and in 1937, it was renamed Tula region. The regions coat of arms, inherited from the former guberniya and officially approved in 1778, shows crossed silver blades, a rifle barrel and two hammers on a field of red, which symbolizes Tula as a weapons forge and Russias defender. the regions inhabitants revere their cultural heritage. Major historical and cultural relics and monuments include the Kulikovo Field (the site of the historical battle in 1380 between the troops of Moscows Prince Dmitry Donskoi and TatarMongol hordes), the Kremlin (1514-1521) with an Assumption cathedral (17621764), an Annunciation church (1692), the museum estate of the great Russian writer Leo Tolstoy at Yasnaya Polyana, and the national reserve and memorial museum of the outstanding Russian artist Vasily Polenov at Polenovo. There are many memorials associated with heroic deeds performed during the Great Patriotic War of 19411945. the bathing health resort at Krainka, 107 km west of Tula, offers a network of rest homes, boarding houses and tourist centres on the banks of rivers in the vicinity of Yasnaya Polyana. many legends are associated with Tula skilful workers. Nikolai Leskovs tale Levsha is an example. not a single enemy has ever been to Tula. Our city has always been a fortress in the defence of our Motherland. Leo Tolstoy lived in Yasnaya Polyana for 60 of his 80 years.

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the famous composer Dargomizhsky and the well-known pedagogue Ushinsky were born in the Tula region. not far from Tula is the village of Mishenskoye the native place of the great poet of the 19th century V.A. Zhukovsky. Many years of his life he spent in Tula. to the South of Efremov there was an estate of M. Lermontovs father. Near the railway station Chern there was an estate of I.S. Turgenevs father. Many great Russian writers and poets visited our city. the famous Russian artist Polenov lived and worked in the Tula province. Not far from Tula on the banks of the Oka river is the Museum of Polenov. the history of Tula pryanic begins in the 17th century. At present as in the old days the traditions of Tula pryanic makers are still alive. Tula printed pryanic is not only tasty but a beautiful souvenir and a present. XV. Speak about: 1) the past of Tula; 2) the industries of Tula; 3) Tula of today; 4) the places of interest in Tula; 5) the educational establishments in Tula. XVI. Imagine you are a guide. Make a tour around Tula. Invite your friends to follow you. The plan of the centre of Tula will help you.

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XVII. Ask your friend to give you as much information as possible about his (her) native town. XVIII. Write the composition The town (city) I was born in. DIALOGUES I. Read the dialogues in pairs and reproduce them. I A. What is the best way to see the sights in a strange city? B. It depends. You may either walk along the streets and look around or make a guided tour of the city. A. What should one do to know more about a strange city? B. If you want to know more about a strange city, you should buy a guide-book to the city and study the recommended sightseeing routes or you should ask a resident of the city to show you round. II A. What should you do if you dont know how to get to some place? B. I usually look up a map of the city or ask someone to direct me to the place. A. If you are not sure whether you are going in the right direction, what should you ask a resident of the city? B. Not to lose my way in a strange city I usually ask someone Am I right for? or Shall I reach if I go straight ahead? III A. I wonder if you could tell me the way to the nearest hotel. Im a stranger here. B. If you walk, itll take you about twenty minutes to get there. But youd better take a bus. A. Where must I get off? B. The bus will take you straight to the hotel. IV A. I say, we are so pressed for time. What do you think we should see in your city first? B. The city is known for its numerous places of interest and memorials. Lets make a guided tour of the city. A. Can we see most of them in one tour? B. I think we can. V A. Excuse me, could you tell me the way to the Museum of Arms? B. Im terribly sorry. I really dont know. I am a stranger here myself. Youd better ask the militiaman over there.
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VI A. I see your city is quite a new one. B. Oh, no. Its foundation dates back to the 12th century A.D. We are simply in a new district of the city. A. I see. It seems to me, the ancient part is the centre of the city, isnt it? B. Thats right. There youll find old buildings, churches, small shops all in narrow crooked streets. VII A. Do you happen to know the way to the nearest bookshop? B. Well, let me see Go straight on and then take the second turning to the right. Its just a five minutes walk from here. A. Thank you. B. Not at all. VIII A. Id like to draw your attention to Yasnaya Polyana. The museum of L. Tolstoy is worth visiting. B. But Ive already been there! A. Really? What were you impressed by while visiting the museum? B. Oh, there were so many interesting things to see clothes, books, a lot of manuscripts. A. What impressed you most of all? B. I was deeply impressed by the attitude of the people towards this historical and cultural memorial. II. Complete the dialogues I A. I wonder if you could tell me the nearest way to the centre of the city? B. . A. Is it far from here? B. . A. Thanks a lot. B. . II A. .? B. With pleasure. Go straight on and then turn to the left. A. .? B. No, it is not. It will take you only five minutes to get there. A. . B. Not at all.

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III A. Excuse me, could you tell me if this is the right way to the Art Gallery? B. . A. Is it far from here? Can I walk there? B. . A. How long will it take me to get there? B. . IV A. .? B. Oh, yes. Its very far. Youd better take a bus. A. .? B. Turn round the corner, go two blocks down the street and there it is. V A. .? B. Go down this street, pass the traffic lights, then take the first turning on the right. Shall I accompany you? A. . III. Render the dialogues in English. I A. ? B. . . . ? B. , . ? A. . II A. ? B. . I. A. ? B. . . A. ? B. , . IV. Make up your own dialogues asking the shortest way: from the Tula Kremlin to the Monument to Peter the Great; from the central park to the Museum of Arms; from the Tula Kremlin to the Art Gallery; from the Museum of Regional Studies to the Central Post Office.
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V. Render the following in the form of a dialogue. . , , . . , . , , . , .

JUST FOR FUN

Read the jokes and retell them to your friends. The bus was crowded. A passenger sitting next to the window suddenly closed his eyes and turned his head aside. The man next to him asked, Are you feeling ill? Can I do anything for you? I am quite well, answered the man. Only I hate to see old ladies standing. * * * The traffic was very heavy in the street. Suddenly a man ran to the policeman who was standing in the middle of the street. Man. What is the shortest way to the hospital? Policeman. If you just stand where you are standing now, youll get there immediately. This is the shortest way there. * * * Little John, in a crowded bus, is sitting on his fathers lap. An elderly lady enters the bus, and Johnny at once jumps down, politely takes off his hat, and says: May I offer you my seat? * * * A traveller, on arriving at a railroad station, asked a local man: Well, my friend, as this is my first visit to your town, could you tell me how many hotels you have here? Local man. We have two. Traveller. Now, which of the two would you recommend? Local man. Well, frankly speaking, its like this, sir: whichever one you go to, youll be sorry you didnt go to the other.
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* * * A woman hired a taxi. It began to race along, passing trams, cars, policemen, etc. The woman was frightened, and said to the taxi-driver: Please, be careful. This is the first time I am riding in a taxi. Its all right, answered the taxi-driver. It is the first time I am driving a taxi. * * * When Conan Doyle arrived in Boston, he was at once recognized by the cabman whose cab he had engaged. When he was about to pay his fare, the cabman said: If you please, sir, I should prefer a ticket to your lecture. Conan Doyle laughed. Tell me, he said, how you knew who I was and Ill give you tickets for your whole family. Thank you, sir, was the answer. On the side of your travelling-bag is your name Conan Doyle. Read the following proverbs and sayings. Pay attention to the participles used in them. Match the English and the Russian variants. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. A barking dog does not bite. A penny saved is a penny gained. Dont change horses when crossing a stream. A rolling stone gathers no moss. The least said, the soonest mended. Forewarned is forearmed. Let sleeping dogs lie. . , , . . . , . , . .

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UNIT 2
Grammar: 1. The Gerund 2. The Gerundial Construction 3. The Gerund and the Participle Texts: A. The Internet B. The Language of Computers C. Socializing on the Internet Conversation: Moscow


THE GERUND. , . , . ! -ing : ask asking go going read reading . . 1. 1. , , . Active Voice Indefinite Gerund Perfect Gerund asking reading having asked having read
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Passive Voice being asked being read having been asked having been read

She likes reading detective sto- . ries. He dislikes being interrupted. He thinks of going to the South. , . .

Perfect Gerund , : I remember having seen this film , some years ago. . I remember having been told , about this film. . 2. : Reading scientific literature is useful. . 3. : Reading fluently is very impor- . tant. 1. , . 2. , . ! , , , , . 1. ; :

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Studying is the way to knowl- . edge. Reading books is useful. .

2. : ) ; . The only way to know the distance is measuring it. ) : They began building houses. . .

3. ( ); , : He likes reading. Thank you for your having come. . , .

We insisted on the meeting being , put off. . 4. : ) ; : smoking room boiling point , ; ;

) of for; : I dont like his manner of read- ing. . There are different ways of ob- taining this substance. .
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5. ( in, on, upon, before, after, by, without, etc.); : ) ; ) ; ) . After having obtained good re- ) sults they stopped experiments. , . ) . In copying the text he made a few (mistakes. ), . We enrich our knowledge by , reading books. . ! : by for through before after without in on (upon) instead of in spite of in addition to because of with a view to : In making observations Upon returning to the Earth , , , - , , -

, :
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to avoid to delay to deny to deserve to dislike to enjoy to excuse to finish to forgive to mention to miss to mind to start to stop to practice to postpone to need to want to require to suggest to be busy to be worth cant help its no use

, , , , , , , , ( ) , , , , , , - , - ()

! to want, to need, to deserve, to require, worth (active gerund), : My watch needs repairing. ! : to be astonished at to be disappointed at to be surprised at to assist in to be interested in to consist in to result in ,
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to succeed in to approve of to dream of to hear of to inform of to know of to speak of to think of to be afraid of to be capable of to be fond of to be proud of to be tired of to count on (upon) to depend on (upon) to go on (upon) to keep on (upon) to insist on (upon) to rely on (upon) to get used to to look forward to to object to to give up

, -, - , , -, - -, - -, - , - - , , , ,

THE GERUNDIAL CONSTRUCTION. , , . , , . , , , . ! , : We objected to his going there. , .

Anns coming so early surprised , , us. .


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Everybody insisted on this ex- , periment being made once more. . ! : ) ) ) ) ; ; ; - .

THE GERUND AND THE PARTICIPLE. ! (Participle I): ) ; ) ; ) . 1. ; , . ! ing, , -; , . - Testing the motor is necessary. . I Testing the motor he saw many defects. , .

2. , , ; when while.

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After testing the motor they put down the results. .

While testing the motor they put down the results. , .

There are several ways of producing electricity. . The plant producing electricity is very powerful. , , .

3. . The professor approved of my solving the problem. . We know of copper being the , best conductor. .

EXERCISES I. A. Form the Gerund Indefinite Passive from the following verbs: to write, to stop, to study, to make. B. Form the Gerund Perfect Active and Passive from the following verbs: to test, to send, to build, to leave. II. Define the functions of the gerund in the following sentences. Translate. 1. Learning English is not an easy thing. 2. His friend began learning French. 3. Russian scientists played an important part in solving the problem of atmospheric electricity. 4. Studying nature without making observation is useless. 5. Any noise prevents me from working. 6. He doesnt like being praised, he is too modest. 7. We didnt mind her helping us. 8. Reading aloud can help you to improve your pronunciation. 9. In speaking about Moscow one has no choice but to quote long figures. 10. Muscovites have a special manner of walking, working, resting, communicating with
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each other. 11. You cant become a good specialist without being trained for a long time. 12. We heard of the experiment having been started last week. 13. They couldnt help using this information. 14. We succeeded in building a flexible system. 15. We are at the beginning of a new way of working, shopping, playing and communicating. 16. Lately some students have stopped writing and have begun pointing and clicking. 17. In fact, communicating with people is an obvious way to use the Web, and students are already doing it all the time from making dates to buying stocks and auctioning cars. III. Make up sentences according to the models Model 1: I dont mind seeing the film again. (to take part in the conference, to stay in the country for another week) Model 2: I cant (couldnt) help smiling. (to tell you about it, to laugh when I see him) Model 3: The book is (not) worth reading. (the question to discuss, the proposal to consider) Model 4: Its no use doing it. (to talk to them, to help him) Model 5: Did you enjoy spending your holiday there? (to watch the match, to visit the museum) Model 6: I remember talking to him. (to attend the lecture, to invite them to the party) Model 7: We insisted on (his) going there. (to make the report, to organize a conference) Model 8: You can learn speaking English by speaking English. (to read French, to swim) Model 9: What about going to the club? (to have a bite, to visit a museum) Model 10: Instead of going home he went to the club. (to answer my question to ask me his question, to do ones homework to look through magazines) IV. Choose the right Russian equivalent. 1. Olegs refusing our help is regrettable. a) , ; b) , ; c) , 2. She is upset of her son being accused of bad conduct at school. a) ; b) ; ) 3. He apologized to the teacher for not having done his lessons. a) , ; b) , ; ) , 4. I dont like being asked such questions.
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a) ; b) ; ) 5. The teacher was surprised at your having made so many mistakes. a) ; b) ; ) V. Open the brackets using the proper form of the gerund. 1. I decided to do everything myself instead of (to ask) for help. 2. She succeeded in (to speak) English fluently. 3. Its no use (to cry) over spilt milk. 4. Science requires (to experiment). 5. (To define) a problem precisely requires patience. 6. We know of the work (to carry out) in this laboratory. 7. They insisted on the sample (to test) repeatedly. 8. He has developed a method for (to evaluate) this problem. 9. She turned pale on (to tell) the news. 10. Do you mind him (to examine) by a heart specialist? 11. I was angry at (to interrupt) every other moment. 12. The device needs (to repair). VI. Explain the difference between the sentences in each pair. Translate them. 1. He insisted on going there. He insisted on our going there. 2. I dont mind cleaning the dishes. I dont mind her cleaning the dishes. 3. She is not interested in collecting stamps. She is not interested in his collecting stamps. 4. We are fond of singing. We are fond of their singing. VII. Find out the sentences with the gerundial construction. Translate. 1. The thunder is caused by heating the air by a spark. 2. A lightning conductor is a means of protecting buildings from the strokes of lightning. 3. We know of this house being destroyed by a stroke of lightning. 4. The professor knew about the students going to the power station. 5. Seeing is believing. 6. She cannot read English without consulting a dictionary. 7. His having asked such a question shows that he did not prepare the text. 8. I remember my having told her about the experiment. 9. Lomonosovs having studied atmospheric electricity contributed to the development of science. 10. There are many methods of learning a foreign language. 11. On coming home he began watching TV. 12 A lot depends on your making the right choice. VIII. Translate the sentences. Mind the construction with the gerund. 1. Their having overheated the gas changed the results of the experiment. 2. The investigator mentioned his testing this material for strength. 3. We heard of our engineer having left for the international symposium. 4. We insisted on the experiment being repeated. 5. In spite of the gases being compressed they return to their original volume as soon as the applied force stops acting. 6. Newtons having stated the laws of motion is very important for modern science. 7. We knew of Newtons having developed the principles of mechanics. 8. We knew nothing of their having been met at
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the station. 9. Franklins having worked in the field of electricity is known all over the world. 10. They didnt know of his having been given new materials. 11. We know of Faradays having stated the law of electromagnetic induction. 12. We heard of the new computer having been put into operation. IX. Complete the following by translating what is given in brackets. Use the gerund. Insert prepositions or other words where necessary. 1. Why do you deny ( )? 2. He will succeed ( ). 3. He couldnt get used ( ). 4. I dont feel ( ). 5. She gave up ( ) and started ( ). 6. Do you mind ( )? 7. We couldnt ( ) looking at her clumsy movements. 8. They were proud of themselves ( ). 9. Dont avoid ( ). 10. Excuse me ( , ). X. Complete the following sentences using the gerund.

1. Do you prefer ? 2. Your clothes need . 3. Thank you for . 4. Do you mind . 5. He looks forward to . 6. We are tired of . 7. I dont object to . 8. What is your idea of ? 9. She is fond of . 10. They accused him of . 11. Who is responsible for .? 12. The teacher continued . 13. The article is worth. 14. Have you finished ? 15 The student is good at . XI. Translate into English using the gerund. 1. , ? 2. , . 3. , . 4. , ? 5. , . 6. , , . 7. , - , . 8. , . 9. . 10. , .

Text A.

THE INTERNET

The Internet, a global computer network, embracing millions of users all over the world, began in the United States in 1969 as a military experiment. It was de65

signed to survive a nuclear war. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the Internet will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology is called packet switching. Owing to this technology, if some computers on the network are knocked out (by a nuclear explosion, for example), information will just route around them. One such packet-switching network already survived a war. It was the Iraqi computer network, which was not knocked out during the Gulf War. Most of the Internet host computers (more than 50%) are in the United States, while the rest are located in more than 100 other countries. Although the number of host computers can be counted fairly accurately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet; there are millions, their number growing by thousands each month worldwide. The most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people, having access to the Internet, use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. However, other popular services are available on the Internet: reading USENET News, using the World-Wide Web, telnet, FTP, and Gopher. In many developing countries the Internet may provide business people with a reliable alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunication systems of these countries. Commercial users can communicate over the Internet with the rest of the world and do it very cheaply. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for calls across their countries or around the world. But who actually pays for sending e-mail messages over the Internet long distances, around the world? The answer is very simple: a user pays his/her service provider a monthly or hourly fee. Part of this fee goes towards its costs to connect to a larger service provider. And part of the fee got by the larger provider goes to cover its cost of running a worldwide network of wires and wireless stations. But saving money is only the first step. If people see that they can make money from the Internet, commercial use of this network will drastically increase. For example, some western architecture companies and garment centres already transmit their basic designs and concepts over the Internet into China, where they are reworked and refined by skilled but inexpensive Chinese computer-aided-design specialists. However, some problems remain. The most important is security. When you send an e-mail message to somebody, this message can travel through many different networks and computers. The data is constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers. Because of this, it is possible to get into any of computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being sent over the Internet. In spite of the fact that there are many strong encoding programmes available, nearly all the information being sent over the Internet is transmitted without any form of encoding, i.e. in the clear. But when it becomes necessary to send important information over the network, these encoding programmes may be useful. Some American banks and companies even conduct transactions over the Internet. How66

ever, there are still both commercial and technical problems, which will take time to be resolved. ======================VOCABULARY=================== access, n communicate, v embrace, v encode, v , fee, n garment, n global/ worldwide network host, adj knock out : message, n , packet switching provider, n : reliable, adj route, n , , route around, v router, n send over, v survive, v , ====================================================== I. Read the following international words. Guess their meaning. Consult a dictionary if necessary. Computer, experiment, design, information, technology, million, popular, service, alternative, telecommunication, system, commercial, local, distance, architecture, company, centre, concept, specialist, problem, special, programme, technical. II. Read and translate the following word combinations: all over the world, to stay in touch, owing to, to survive a war, to pay a fee, to save money, computer-aided design, to send over. III. Match the English phrases with their Russian equivalents: 1) global network 2) garment center 3) developing country 4) shortest path available 5) growing number 6) hourly fee ) b) c) d) e) f)
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7) owing to this 8) to resolve problems 9) to receive messages 10) to intercept a message 11) to survive a nuclear war 12) to be in touch 13) to embrace millions of users 14) to count accurately 15) to communicate over 16) to increase drastically 17) to save money 18) to conduct transactions 19) to be directed to IV. Read the text The Internet.

g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s)

a) Find the English equivalents to the following Russian phrases: , , , , , , , , , , , . b) Find all the ing-forms in the text. State whether they are gerunds or participles. Define their functions. V. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Complete the following sentences. Consult the text The Internet. Information sent over the Internet . Any two computers on the Internet . Nobody knows exactly . The Internet may provide . Commercial use of the network will greatly increase if . Routers are .

VI. Agree or disagree. Give your reasons. 1. The Internet began in the United Kingdom in 1969. 2. If some computers on the network are knocked out information will route around them. 3. Most of the Internet host computers are located in more than 100 countries. 4. There are thousands of people using the Internet, and the number is constantly growing. 5. The most popular Internet service is e-mail.
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6. Communication over the Internet is very expensive and unreliable. 7. Business people can make money from the Internet. 8. There is a possibility to get into any computer and change the data being sent over the Internet. 9. There are no encoding programmes available. VII. Think and answer. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What is the Internet? How did it start? How many Internet users are there in the world? What is the path of the information sent over the Internet? What is the most popular Internet service? Are the Internet services expensive? Why is it possible to intercept or even change the data, while they are travelling to the point of their destination? 8. Is information sent over the Internet coded? 9. What can be done with the help of the Internet? VIII. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. , . 2. , 1969 . 3. . 4. , , . 5. , , , . 6. , , . 7. , . 8. , . 9. ? : (). 10. . 11. . 12. , .
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IX. Think over the plan of the text The Internet. Write it down. Retell the text according to your plan. Text B. THE LANGUAGE OF COMPUTERS

Fifty years ago, people hadnt even heard of computers, and today we cannot imagine life without them. Computer technology is the fastest-growing industry in the world. The first computer was the size of a minibus and weighed a ton. Today, a chip the size of a pinhead can do its job. And the revolution is still going on. Very soon well have computers that well wear on our wrists or even in our glasses and earrings. Such wearable computers are being developed in the USA. Japans biggest mobile-phone company has just released its cleverest product so far, the I-mode, a mobile phone that allows you to surf the Internet as well as make calls. People are already using the phone to check the news headlines, follow the stock market and download the latest jokes. Soon they will be able to buy cinema tickets and manage their bank accounts. The next generation of computers will be able to talk and even think for themselves. They will contain electronic neural networks. Of course, theyll be still a lot simpler than human brains, but it will be a great step forward. Such computers will help to diagnose illnesses, find minerals, understand and control the worlds money markets, identify criminals and control space travel. Computer revolution is changing our life and our language, too. We are constantly making up new words or giving new meanings to old ones. Most of computer terms are born in Silicon Valley, the worlds top computer-science centre. I. Read the text The Language of Computers without a dictionary. Try to understand it. II. ARE YOU PART OF COMPUTER REVOLUTION? Do the following tasks and find out. A. Choose an answer a) or b). 1. A mouse is a) a small furry animal with a long tail; b) a small box used to operate a computer. 2. To surf is a) to ride on a board on the waves of the sea; b) to move around the Internet. 3. A bug is a) a small insect;
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b) an error in a computer programme. 4. A flame is a) a red or yellow burning gas seen when something is on fire; b) an unfriendly or rude e-mail. 5. To boot is a) to kick; b) to start a computer. 6. A geek [gi:k] is a) someone who bites off the heads of alive chickens as part of a show; b) a person who knows everything about computers. B. Choose an answer a), b) or c). 1. What do you use a modem for? a) to print a document; b) to play music on your computer; c) to send messages along a telephone line. 2. What do you use when you want to look for sites on the world wide web? a) a browser; b) a CD ROM; c) a printer. 3. What can you use the Internet for? a) to delete a file from your computer; b) to help you find information and communicate with people; c) to make your computer work faster. 4. What do you use a scanner for? a) to transfer photos and texts to your computer; b) to find certain files on the Internet; c) to clean your computer. 5. How much is a gigabyte? a) 1,000 megabytes; b) 100 megabytes; c) 1000 bytes. C. Match the words (or phrases) with the definitions. 1. chat room 2. e-commerce 3. joystick 4. cyberspace 5. desktop 6. multitasking a) the ability of a computer to run several programmes at once; b) the screen you see after youve switched your computer; c) an area on the Internet where people can communicate with each other in real time; d) the business of buying and selling goods and services on the Internet;
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e) a stick which helps you move in computer games; f) the imaginary place where electronic messages, information pictures, etc. exist when they are sent from one computer to another. D. True or False? 1. When you use the Internet, you need a computer, a radio and a phone line. 2. You can use the Internet to read newspapers and magazines. 3. You cannot use the Internet to play videogames. 4. The Internet can help you to do shopping. 5. You can use the Internet to chat with people and make new friends. 6. You need a CD to send e-mail. 7. Multimedia pages with pictures, music and video make downloading slow. E. Do this puzzle and youll read the name of one of the most successful computer companies. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 This small box is used to operate a computer. A document on your computer. A device, which is used to transfer photos and texts to your computer. To make a computer better or able to do more things. This looks like a typewriter and has the keys you need to press. It can be hard or floppy. A device, which allows your computer to send messages along a telephone line. 8. An unfriendly or rude e-mail. 9. To start a computer. F. Complete the sentences by using the following words: web, information, interactive, e-mail, on-screen, chat, PC, generation, video. INTERNET TV Is it possible to have a TV set, a (1)_____ and the Internet all in one? With the advent of Internet TV it has become a reality. Imagine watching a film on TV and
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

getting (2) _____ on the actors in the film at the same time! To enter (3) _____ addresses and write (4) _____ you use a remote control and an (5) _____ keyboard or an optional wireless keyboard. By clicking a button, you can also read adverts, (6) _____ with a friend, plan your holiday and play your favourite (7) _____ games. In the future youll be able to change the plot of the film youre watching and meddle in the private lives of the characters. The next (8) _____ of Internet TVs will also have a smart card for shopping, banking and other (9) _____ activities. III. Retell the text The language of computers in English. Text C. SOCIALIZING ON THE INTERNET

Over the past two decades, as the price of the computing has plunged, the personal computer enabled people to be more productive and gain better access to information. Now, as the price of communications falls, the PC makes it easier for people to reach each other, too. Electronic inboxes are flooded with e-mail. Electronic chat and community participation are on the rise. Chat is a fascinating phenomenon. It takes place in imaginary rooms, where like-minded people congregate. Typically, people type messages back and forth; usually to correspondents theyve never met in person. Numerous people can communicate with each other simultaneously, and there are no long-distance charges the way there would be with a telephone. Compared to a telephone conversation, the technical quality of chat seems low. But its a raging success despite its limitations because the human drive to connect with other people is so strong. Actually, the fact that people must type their messages and can edit what they say before firing back a reply is an attraction of chat. A version that allowed voice communication was a flop. Perhaps, people were intimidated when they had to speak in a nice, intelligible fashion. Chat rooms are filled with all kinds of people who appreciate or need the convenience of socializing from home easily, safely, and without getting dressed up. Weve had a breakdown of neighborhoods in many societies, with everything becoming generic, one student of chat rooms told. People are looking in cyberspace for new avenues of self-expression. Although I dont get to spend much time in chat rooms, I know people who do. One is a friend who is passionate about Beanie Babies the craze for miniature stuffed animals. She spends an amazing amount of time chatting about them and trading them online. A Microsoft manager who designs tools for online socializing told she had started researching chat rooms and soon found herself engrossed for two or three hours a day to her utter surprise. You end up having very real relationships, she said.
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Anonymity is allowed in most chat rooms. Some allow people to make up a new name for themselves every time they visit, a practice which can lead to rude or irresponsible behavior because there are few repercussions for antisocial activity. When people must use a consistent name, even a fictitious one like Sissy or Metal X, they build a reputation they protect with responsible behavior. Chat and other forms of socialization on the Internet are bound to evolve. The specialists are intrigued by efforts to create virtual worlds, imaginary spaces in which participants choose a visual image to represent themselves. These avatars, as they are called, sometimes resemble the person but frequently dont. People can approach each other and make conversation, or retreat to a corner to be alone or eavesdrop. (After Bill Gates) =====================VOCABULARY==================== chat, v, n , decade, n drive, n edit, v engross, v fire back, v flood, v flop, n inbox, n online, adj socialize, v ====================================================== I. Read the text Socializing on the Internet and find the English equivalents to the following words and word combinations. , , , , , , , , -, , , . II. Find in the text the information about chat rooms. Why do many people appreciate them? III. Think over the questions you would like to ask Bill Gates. Write them down. You may send your questions to Bill Gates by e-mail. The address is: askbill@microsoft.com. IV. Make up the plan of the text. Retell the text according to your plan.
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V.

Read the following text and say what your opinion of the problem is. Text D. THE PROS AND CONS OF THE INTERNET

The Internet is without doubt one of the most important inventions in history. It was started in 1968 by the US government, but at first mainly scientists used it. Since 1990, when the World Wide Web was created, it has changed the world and its uses are growing every day. The main use of the Internet is to find information for your study or job, or just to find out more about your hobbies, sports or current events. All of the latest information is available to you, in your home, at any hour of the day and night. Its much faster and easier to surf the net in search of information from all over the world than to travel to libraries in dozens of countries. You can also use the Internet to read newspapers and magazines, play games, plan your holiday or buy from your favourite shop. E-mail makes it possible to send electronic messages anywhere in the world in seconds, and you can use the Internet to chat with people and make new friends. However, the real world of the Internet may not be as perfect as it seems. With so much information available, finding what you want can take you hours. Multimedia web pages with photographs, music and video are attractive, but they make downloading slow and boring. Besides, there is too much advertising instead of real information. As for Internet friendships, sitting at home in front of a computer making chat friends is not the same as actually meeting people. CONVERSATION MOSCOW =====================VOCABULARY======================= arrival, n to arrive at to arrive in to attract ones attention to be situated on crowd, n immense, adj magnificent, adj to make an impression on places of interest sights, n, pl sightseeing, n , .. , , ,
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to go sightseeing surprise, n , tour, n , to make a tour of (some , place) ====================================================== A VISIT TO MOSCOW Last summer Mr. Wilson, his wife and their daughter Mary tourists from England arrived in Moscow. It was their first visit to Russia and they wanted to see as much as possible. Their guide showed them a lot of places of interest so that they could get a good idea of the Russian capital. Moscow is one of the largest cities in Europe, its total area is about nine hundred square kilometers, and the population of the city is over eight million. The heart of Moscow is Red Square. It has more historical associations than any other place in Moscow. The Kremlin and St. Basils Cathedral are masterpieces of ancient Russian architecture. The main Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol of the country. On the territory of the Kremlin the Wilsons saw old cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the Palace of Congresses, the Tzar-Cannon and the Tzar-Bell, the biggest cannon and the bell in the world. St. Basils Cathedral was built in the mid-16th century in memory of the victory over Kazan. Thers a legend that Ivan the Terrible blinded the architects Barma and Postnik, because he didnt want them to create another masterpiece. The Wilsons saw a lot of beautiful palaces, old mansions, cathedrals, churches and monuments. They had a chance to visit any of more than 80 museums: the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the Tretyakov Gallery, the All-Russia Museum of Folk Arts and the Andrei Rublev Museum of Early Russian Art, Alexei Bakhrushin Theatre Museum and Mikhail Glinka Museum of Musical Culture among them. In the evening the Wilsons decided to go to the Bolshoi Opera House, though it was very difficult to choose between a large number of popular theaters. The Wilsons liked Moscows straight and broad streets and avenues. They admired the centre of the city with its theatres, cinemas, museums, monuments, and wonderful many-storied buildings. They were greatly impressed by the Kremlin, Red Square, Novy Arbat, which is one of the busiest streets in Moscow. One day the Wilsons decided to see Moscow State University and the guide suggested their going there by metro. They liked the idea and joined a stream of people going downstairs into the metro. It seemed to them that nearly everyone in Moscow was in a hurry. Very few were satisfied to stand still and let the magic staircase carry them down to the platforms below. Most people went hurrying down on the left side.
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On and on ran the train through the tunnel and at every station people came in and out. The trip gave the Wilsons a good impression of Moscows immense size. When they came up into the daylight, they saw the magnificent building of the University that is situated on the Vorobyovy Hills and from there they enjoyed a most beautiful view of the whole city. They went for a ride in the city. The size and the beauty of the capital made a great impression on the family. They saw endless streams of busses, trolley busses and cars in the streets, crowds of people walking along the pavements. They crossed the city in different directions but to their great surprise they saw the same thing everywhere: well-planned streets lined with trees, many-storied houses, big stores, hotels and beautiful squares. They saw no contrasts between the central part of the city and the suburbs. The Wilsons went sightseeing every day of their stay in Moscow. And before their tour came to an end they had seen and learned a lot of interesting things about the capital and the country. They liked Moscow and Muscovites who are so hospitable and friendly. I. Read the text A visit to Moscow. Give synonyms to the following word combinations: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. journey out and home again during which several places are visited; town or city where the government of the country is carried on; wide street with buildings on one or both sides; a building in which objects illustrating art, history, science, etc. are displayed; building, column, statue, etc. serving to keep alive the memory of a person or event; effect produced on the mind or feelings; a person employed to point out interesting sights on a journey or visit; large number of people together, but without order or organization; a way at the side of a street for people on foot.

II. Give English equivalents to the following Russian word combinations: , , , -, , , , , , -, , , . III. Match the parts of the sentences. 1. Last summer the Wilsons a) the centre of the city. 2. They visited many places of interest b) nearly everyone in Moscow was and in a hurry. 3. The tourists admired c) visited Moscow for the first time.
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4. It seemed to the Wilsons that

d) are situated on the Vorobyovy Hills. 5. Travelling by metro the Wilsons e) every day of their stay in Moscow. were 6. The magnificent buildings of Mos- f) got a good idea of the Russian capicow State University tal. 7. The Wilsons went sightseeing g) impressed by Moscows immense size. IV. Agree or disagree. Give your reasons. 1. It was the second time the Wilsons had visited Moscow. 2. They wanted to get a good idea of the Russian capital, so they visited as many places of interest as possible. 3. Theres nothing surprising in the centre of Moscow. 4. In metro everybody was standing still while the magical staircase was carrying them down. 5. The trip by tram demonstrated the Wilsons the immense size of Moscow. 6. The Wilsons were fond of Moscow and Muscovites. V. Retell the text on the name of a) Mr. Wilson; b) Mrs. Wilson; c) Mary Wilson; d) the guide. VI. Make sure you can translate the following text both ways: from Russian into English and vice versa. . . , , , . , , , - . , , , , . , Moscow is a great city with the population of more than eight million people. Moscow is a centre of scientific, business and cultural activities with hundreds of plants, organizations and research centres. Compact automobiles, heavy trucks, electronic equipment, refrigerators, textiles and many other things are produced here. Moscow can honourably represent the technological progress of this century.

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. , : . . . . - , , - , . , , , . 1147 . , . XV . . , . -, . , . .

Moscow is considered to take the first place among the worlds capitals in the number of public libraries and readers. Its libraries possess hundreds of millions of volumes. Let us open one of them. In ancient times our capital was known as Moskov (Muscovy according to the European spelling). In old Slavic mosk means flint, while kov (khov) means fortress, enclosure. Most probably the founders of the city named it Mockov to denote a strong, reliable fortress. Moscow was first mentioned in the Chronicles for 1147. At that time it was a small settlement enclosed by paling. By the end of the 15th century Moscow had become the capital of the Russian centralized state, surrounded by high stonewalls. Market squares, streets and trading stalls were located nearby, outside the walls. The fortifications of Kitai-gorod, and Byely gorod rose beyond. The young state flourished, its capital expended. Such was the dawning of Moscow.

VII. Find any proverb or saying concerning travelling, give its Russian equivalent. Illustrate it. VIII. You are a manager of a travelling company. Compose a short advertisement to be placed on the Internet, so that people all over the world will get interested and make up their minds to visit Moscow. IX. You are a foreign student having decided to enter one of Moscow higher schools. So you want to know about Moscow as much as possible. Think over the questions you want to ask a Muscovite using the Internet chat room. Write your questions down.

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DIALOGUES 1. Read the dialogues in pairs: I A. What is Moscow famous for? B. First of all Moscow is the capital of Russia. Its one of the worlds most important political, scientific and cultural centres. A. What were you impressed by in Moscow? B. I was particularly impressed by the magnificence of Red Square. II A. I am going on a sightseeing tour. Would you like to keep company with me? B. Certainly, with pleasure. A. Im a stranger here, and I want to see as much as possible. What places of interest would you like to show me first? B. I think we shall start with the Tretyakov Gallery. A. Do you happen to know how we can get there? B. If we walk, itll take us 10 minutes or a quarter of an hour. III A. We are so pressed for time. What do you think we should see in Moscow first? B. It isnt an easy question. Moscow is known for its numerous places of interest and memorials. A. Well, what would you think of Moscow University? B. Yes, thats what I wanted to begin with. Moscow University on the Vorobyovy Hills is greatly admired by everybody. 2. Memorize dialogues I, II, III and reproduce them. 3. Complete dialogues IV and V: IV A. What is the capital of Russia famous for? B. . A. In what part of the city are most of the places of interest? B. . A. What were you impressed by while seeing the sights of Moscow? B. . V A. . B. Ill do my best to show you Moscow. A. .
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B. Thats right. There youll find old buildings, churches, clock-towers, small shops all in old, narrow streets. A. . B. I am particularly impressed by the old buildings. They are marvelous and beautiful from the architectural point of view. 4. Get ready to give the following situation in the form of a dialogue. ( ), , . () () (), . . , . , , . () () (), . 5. tion. You are friends planning a trip to Moscow. There are a lot of things to be done. Each of you is full of imaginative ideas. Have a friendly talk with one or two other students on the following situa-

JUST FOR FUN

I. Read the jokes. Choose the one you like most and retell it to your friend. Tiger Hunting A man who had traveled in Bengal was asked if he liked tiger hunting. Well! said the man. I certainly enjoyed hunting tigers, but I must confess I hated being hunted by a tiger. A Sense of Duty A tourist dining at a hotel is annoyed at the waiter continually hovering around his table. I have no patience with you, young man, he says at last. Id like to know what you want with me. Excuse me, sir, for being about! says the waiter blushing, but I am responsible for the silver. Friendly Advice Grandfather. Excuse my interfering, dear daughter, but something must be done with that favourite son of yours. Such a foolish and arrogant young man!
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Mother. Dont be so strict, dear father. Boys will be boys. But certainly something must be done. I insist on his going abroad to see the world. Grandfather. In your place I wouldnt do it. Mother. Why so, I wonder? Grandfather. I would be afraid of the world seeing him. II. Learn the following proverbs and sayings. Mind the use of the gerund. Illustrate them in the situations. Its no use crying over spilt milk. Seeing is believing. If a thing is worth doing at all, it is worth doing well. III. QUIZ MOSCOW, THE HEART OF RUSSIA 1. Moscow is considered to have been founded in 1147 because: a) according to the chronicles Yuri Dolgoruky ordered a fortress to be built on the banks of the Moskva River b) Russian folklore gives this date c) it is first mentioned in the 1147 chronicles as Yury Dolgorukys estate 2. Moscow first became the capital of the Russian state: a) at the end of the 15th century under the Great Prince Ivan III b) in the second half of the 13th century under Prince Danyil, Alexander Nevskys son c) in 1712 under Peter the Great 3. The 16th century Moscow as compared to London was: a) smaller b) larger c) approximately the same in size 4. Who said, If I take Kiev, Ill take Russia by the legs, if I siege Petersburg, Ill take Russia by the head, if I enter Moscow, Ill pierce the heart of Russia? a) Hitler b) Sigismund, the Polish King c) Napoleon 5. Match the facts and the dates: (1) street lamps appeared in Moscow in (2) the railway between Moscow and Petersburg started its operation in

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(3) the first Russian urban water - pipe, through which the water from Mytischy got to five fountains situated within the Garden Ring, from which it was then taken by the Muscovites was built in a) b) c) 1804 1730 1851

6. The nickname given by English - speaking foreigners to the Moscow skyscrapers built in the late 1940s & early 1950s (Moscow State University, the Ukraina Hotel, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, etc.) is: a) wedding cakes b) towers c) caravans 7. When did Moscow University first apply to the authorities to build new University buildings including an observatory and botanical gardens on the Vorobyovy Gory? a) 1860 b) 1948 c) 1770 8. Which of these is the tallest? a) the Ostankino TV Tower in Moscow b) the Eiffel Tower in Paris c) the Empire State Building in New York. 9. In what city was a subway / underground / metro (1) first constructed, (2) which is the quickest, (3) the largest? a) London b) New York c) Moscow 10. What is (1) the shortest and (2) the longest street in Moscow? (1) a) Lenivka (near Kropotkinskaya metro station) b) Soyansky tupik (near Kitai-gorod metro station) c) Moskvina street (near Checkovskaya metro station) (2) a) Profsoyuznaya street b) Leninski Avenue c) Kutuzovski Avenue
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UNIT 3
Grammar: 1. The Infinitive, its forms and functions 2. The Objective Infinitive Construction 3. The Subjective Infinitive Construction Texts: A. What is a Star? B. Space Exploration C. The Last Man to Discover a Planet Conversation: Russia


THE INFINITIVE. . ( ) - , ?, ? : to write , to measure , to. ! to , , , . : Active Voice to ask to be asking to have asked to have been asking Passive Voice to be asked to have been asked

Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous

! Indefinite Continuous , , Continuous . Perfect , .


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: The professor is glad to see his former students. He is proud to be working with this famous scientist. The professor is glad to have seen his former students.

. , . , .

Perfect Continuous , , : He is proud to have been work- , ing with this famous scientist for many years. . ! 1. (Active) , , : I want to help you. . 2. (Passive) , , : I want to be helped. , . 1. . . To read is her hobby. . ( .)

2. . . - , , (), , , , . Our aim is to master English. () .

Your task is to become a good engi- , neer. .

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3. . . She likes to sing. 4. (). : ) : The desire to find the solution was very strong. . ) : It will be done in the years to come. . ) : He was the first to prove it. , . .

! Infinitive Passive , : The method to be used is quite , (new. ) , . 5. . : ) , : To read this English article you , must use a dictionary. , . ) : She went there to study physics. ) : Hydrogen combines with oxygen to form water. , .
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! in order to - , : A number of devices were devel- oped in order to detect cosmic , rays. . : To cut a long story short To tell (you) the truth To say nothing of To put it mildly To say the least of it To begin with () ,

: The book leaves much to be desired. He is difficult to deal with. He is hard to please. She is pleasant to look at. . . . .

THE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS 1. The Objective Infinitive Construction. . ! : 1) ; 2) . ! : ) , :

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to want to wish to desire

The teacher wanted this student , to explain a new phenomenon. . ) , , , : to assume , to expect , to think , to consider to believe to suppose We consider the problem to be , complicated. . ) , , , : to state to know to understand to claim to note to report I know them to have passed the exams. , .

! , (). ) , : to see to hear to feel to watch to let to make


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! to. We see them play football. , . That funny story made him laugh. .

) : to allow, to permit to enable to cause , . The pressure causes the ice to melt. .

2. The Subjective Infinitive Construction. . ! : ) ; ) , . ! : ) : to know (to be known) to see (to be seen) to say (to be said) to believe (to be believed) to expect (to be expected) to assume (to be assumed) to report (to be reported) to think (to be thought) to find (to be found) to consider (to be considered) to suppose (to be supposed) ) : to seem
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, ; , , , , , , ,

to appear to turn out to prove to happen to chance ) : to be likely to be unlikely to be sure to be certain

, , ,

: 1. , , ) ) ), , . 2. , . 3. : ) ; : , ; , ; , . ) ( ); ) , ( ). : This device is known to operate well. The output seems to have increased. The current is likely to decrease. , . , . , .

3. for + . + . (For Phrase) for, . He spoke loudly for them to hear him. , .

! , .
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EXERCISES I. Insert the particle to where necessary. 1. I like ... play the guitar. 2. My brother can ... speak French. 3. We had ... put on our overcoats because it was cold. 4. May I ... use your telephone? 5. I would rather ... stay at home today. 6. Would you like ... listen to good music? 7. What makes you ... think you are right? 8. I shall ... do all I can ... help you. 9. I like ... dance. 10. Let me ... help you with your home work. II. Use the Infinitive in its proper form. . Passive or Active. 1. The lecturer wants ... . The student wants ... (to understand, to be understood). 2. We expected the meeting ... next month. He expected ... the attention of the audience (to hold, to be held). 3. Some changes had ... . He wanted ... some changes in the project (to make, to be made). B. Indefinite or Perfect. 1. She admits ... the same mistake in her previous paper (to make, to have made). 2. Its good ... work on time (to finish, to have finished). 3. She confessed ... the man before (to see, to have seen). III. Use the infinitive instead of the subordinate clause. Model: I have no books which I can read. I have no books to read. 1. He hopes that he will get the information tomorrow. 2. We should be sorry if we heard bad reports of him. 3. Do not promise that you will do it, if you are not sure of success. 4. He was sorry when he heard of your disappointment. 5. She was sorry that she had missed the beginning of the lecture. 6. There was nothing that he could do except going home. 7. Dont forget that she has a baby whom she must take care of. 8. She is happy that she has found such a simple solution to this difficult problem. IV. State the forms and functions of the infinitive. Translate the sentences. 1. Our plan was to introduce new methods of research. 2. Here is an example to be followed. 3. They must continue their space exploration. 4. All you have to do is to write a letter. 5. He continued to read. 6. I didnt ask to be told the news. 7. He has a lot of work to do. 8. I left my village to enter the university. 9. To make a choice between these two methods was quite difficult. 10. There are lots of contradictions to be found in your report. 11. The conference to be held tomorrow will be devoted to a dramatic breakthrough in astronomy.
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V. Translate the sentences. Mind the infinitive. 1. To put it mildly, this work must be done. 2. This method is of great scientific value, to say nothing of its possible economic effect. 3. To tell the truth, we expected quite different results. 4. Our new boss is hard to please. 5. To cut a long story short, he didnt pass his exam on physics. 6. Our neighbours are difficult to deal with. 7. It is very strange to say the least of it. 8. His behaviour leaves much to be desired. 9. To begin with, everybody makes mistakes. 10. This new actress is pleasant to look at. VI. Change the sentences according to the model and translate them. Model: Thomson was the first who discovered the electron. Thomson was the first to discover the electron. . 1. Lodygin was the first who invented the electric lamp. 2. Yuri Gagarin was the first who flew into space. 3. Samuel Morse was the first who produced a practical telegraph. 4. You will be the last who will answer at the exam. 5. James Chadwick was the first who discovered the neutron. VII. Translate the groups of words with the passive infinitive. Model: The data to be discussed... , (, ) 1. The problems to be solved ... 2. The measures to be taken ... 3. The stars to be observed ... 4. The decision to be made ... 5. The new words to be learnt ... 6. The new method to be introduced ... 7. The factor to be taken into consideration ... 8. The advice to be followed ... 9. The secret to be discovered ... 10. The conference to be held ... VIII. Translate the sentences with the infinitive in the function of an attribute. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The problems to be discussed are of vital importance for our work. The decision to be made is hardly an easy one. There are some measures to be urgently taken. Here are some new expressions to be learnt. This is the issue to be debated in the Parliament.
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6. The scientist spoke about the new method to be introduced. IX. Read and translate the sentences. Mind the place of the infinitive and its functions. To read English books is necessary. To read this English book you will have to use a dictionary. To harness solar energy for practical purposes is the task facing engineers. To harness solar energy for practical purposes the engineers will have to make a lot of experiments. 5. To develop national economy is the main task of the government. 6. To develop national economy the people have to use the natural resources of the country most efficiently. 7. To expand old universities is much cheaper than to build new ones. 8. To expand old universities is a versatile problem. 9. To take correct measurements is not an easy task. 10. To take correct measurements it is necessary to use accurate instruments. X. Translate the sentences with the construction for + noun (pronoun) + infinitive. Model: It is desirable for you to know it. , . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. He waited for the paper to be published. There is only one thing for you to do. Here are a few books for you to read. Everybody waited for the lecture to begin. It is difficult for him to solve this problem. It is not advisable for you to keep late hours. High temperature is needed for the reaction to start. Much experimental work is needed for these phenomena to be explained. 1. 2. 3. 4.

XI. Complete the sentences. Use the infinitive. 1. It is necessary for her ... . 2. It is advisable for them ... . 3. They waited for us ... . 4. It was important for them ... . 5. There was no reason for him ... . 6. For the experiment ... he had to do much work. XII. Translate the sentences with the Objective Infinitive Construction. 1. We know J. Kepler to have stated the laws of planetary motion. 2. In ancient times people believed the atom to be indivisible. 3. Bohr considered the atom to con93

sist of two parts: the nucleus and electrons. 4. Id like you to read about the latest discoveries made in the field of astronomy. 5. I didnt see the professor enter the room. 6. The new method permitted these phenomena to be investigated thoroughly. 7. The professor wanted the post-graduate to find the articles on the latest discoveries in astronomy. 8. The telescope enables scientists to examine celestial bodies. 9. It is necessary to utilize the immense supply of free solar energy to make our star, the Sun, serve mankind. 10. I have never heard anyone give so much interesting information in one report. 11. The engineer wants them to use new methods in their work. 12. We saw the skilled worker assemble the tiny devices very quickly. XIII. Complete these sentences so that the meaning is similar to the first sentence. Model: My father said I could use his car. My father allowed me to use his car. 1. I was surprised that it rained. I didnt expect ... 2. Dont stop him doing what he wants. Let ... 3. He looks older when he wears glasses. Glasses make ... 4. I think you should know the truth. I want ... 5. Dont let me forget to phone my sister. Remind ... XVI. Translate the folowing sentences into English using the substitution table given below: 1. , . 2. . 3. , . 4. . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , .

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We showed I know He watched She came saw believed want

you her me the suns rays here this scientist

these designs. about the solar energy. to tell us to tell you to bring a tremendous amount of energy. to have made such an experiment. making an experiment.

XV. Put a form of make or lt and a suitable verb into each gap. Model: Th teacher let me go home early because I fell ill. 1. My children usually go to bed early but I __________ them _________ TV till 10.00 at the week-end. 2. I don't like the sight of blood. It _________ me _________ ill if I see it. 3. My parents weren't strict with me at all. They _______ me ________what I wanted. 4. But they thought that education was very important, so they______ me______ hard for my exams. 5. It was a very sad film. The ending ________ me _______. 6. My parents_________me_______ the piano for two hours every day. I hate it. 7. My brother________me________his car sometimes, but I have to pay for the petrol. XVI. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Subjective Infinitive Construction. Mind the verb-predicates which are used in the Passive Voice. 1. These students are considered to conduct research rather well. 2. One of the students is said to be conducting a research work now. 3. That student is supposed to have conducted research last year. 4. This research is supposed to have been conducted by our best students. 5. These students are believed to have been conducting this research since last year. 6. All bodies are known to possess weight. XVII. Translate the following sentences. Mind the verb-predicates which are used in the Active Voice in the Subjective Infinitive Construction. 1. This student seems to know English well. 2. His knowledge of English appears to be improving. 3. This discovery proved to be of special value for the development of electronics. 4. The student's answer seemed to satisfy the examiner. 5. This planet appears to possess tremendous humidity. 6. I happened to meet some of our
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students in the museum. 7. They didn't appear to be satisfied with our work. 8. These students proved to be very capable researchers. XVIII. Translate the following sentences. Mind the words which are used as predicates in the Subjective Infinitive Construction. 1. The weather is likely to change by tomorrow. 2. These students are likely to take part in this discussion as the main problem to be discussed is on their speciality. 3. He is certain to make a good report at the conference, for he read a lot of technical journals while preparing for it. 4. He is sure to come in time, he will be the first to make a report. 5. They are sure to be sent to some construction site after graduating from the Civil Engineering Institute. XIX. Read the following English sentences and find their Russian equivalents in the right column: 1. These techniques allow the new data to be investigated thoroughly. 2. This causes the components to be separated. 3. These substances cause the composition of the liquid to be changed. 4. We could not get him to repeat this experiment. 5. Friction caused the body to stop. 6. These techniques permit those phenomena to be investigated thoroughly. 7. They made him reconsider his conclusion. 8. New techniques allowed the properties of this substance to be changed. 9. He ordered these devices to be repaired as soon as possible. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. . 9. ( ) .

XX. Translate the following sentences into English using the substitution table given below: 1. , . 2. , . 3. , , . 4. , , . 5. , . 6. , -, .
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Two chapters of this book He This book This postgraduate

is said

to have studied this problem thoroughly.

is known to have been writing this book since last year. are believed to be writing an interesting book on comets. seems to make a report on this book at a scientific conference. appears to be of great interest not only for astronomers. is likely to have been written last year.

XXI. Read the following Russian phrases and find their English equivalents in the right column: a) 1. , ... 2. , ... 3. , ... 4. , ... 5. , ... 6. , 7. , 8. , 9. , ... 10. , 1. , , ... 2. ... 3. , , ... 4. ... 5. , ... 6. , -, ... 7. , , ... 8. ... 9. , -, ... 10. , , ... 1. This method is considered to ... 2. These phenomena are held to ... 3. This method is claimed to ... 4. This method is found to 5. These phenomena are assumed to ... 6. These phenomena are supposed to ... 7. They are thought to ... 8. This theory is stated to ... 9. This theory is reported to ... 10. This theory is said to ... b) 1. is unlikely to ... 2. She seems to know ... 3. He is likely to ... 4. He proved to be capable ... 5. He appears to have written ... 6. He is sure to ... 7. He appears to know ... 8. He seems to have forgotten ... 9. They are unlikely to ... 10. They are certain to ...

c) 1. -, 1. To investigate these data is not diffi . cult. 2. , 2. investigate these data one has to . apply new techniques. 3. 3. We expect these new data to be inves. tigated very soon. 4. , 4. We want to investigate these data.
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. 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. , , . 9. . 10. , .

5. We have to investigate these data. 6. These data are reported to be investigated in the shortest time possible. 7. These data are unlikely to be investigated soon. 8. These data proved to be reliable. 9. These data appear to have been investigated long ago. 10. These data are certain to be investigated in the shortest time possible.

XXII. Read and translate the sentences with the infinitive constructions. 1. The University of Cambridge is said to have originated in the 12th centry. 2. We consider silver to be the best of conducting materials. 3. The first type of a solar battery appears to have been demonstrated in 1954. 4. The chemist allowed this substance to be experimented with. 5. The manager knew the work to be under way. 6. For the experiment to be successful he had to do much work. 7. I heard him mention my name. 8. The expeditions to the planets of the solar system are likely to take off from the orbital stations. 9. Many times we heard our lecturer refer to the data obtained by physicists. 10. The workers are certain to achieve good results if they employ new techniques. 11. Everybody knows Mendeleyev to have studied the properties of elements before he arranged them in a Table. 12. It is for you to choose which of the two methods to use. 13. Newton was the first to realize elliptical paths of comets. 14. Nearly a month is required for the Moon to circle the Earth. 15. The history of computers is believed to have started with Charles Babbage who was a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University. XXIII. Make a written translation of the sentences. Use the infinitive constructions. 1. , . 2. , . 3. . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , 15 . 7. , 9 , , . 8. , 1877 .

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Text A.

WHAT IS A STAR?

A star is a body of luminous gas, like the sun. But as stars are much farther away from the earth than the sun, they appear to be only small points of twinkling light. With the naked eye it is possible to see about 2,000 stars at any one time or place but with the most powerful telescope over 1,000 million stars are visible. Although light travels at 186,000 miles a second, the light from the stars takes many years to reach the earth. Stars are not fixed in space, but are traveling in different directions at different speeds. Seen from the earth, these movements appear to be so small that groups of stars, or constellations, seem to have a permanent relationship. The star patterns we see in the sky are almost the same as those seen by our ancestors hundreds, or even thousands of years ago. The sizes of stars vary tremendously, from less than the diameter of the sun to thousands of times its size. Most stars appear white when looked at with the naked eye, but some are bluish-white, yellow, orange and red. The varied colours are due to differences in surface temperature. The brilliant, white stars are hottest with surface temperatures of several hundred thousand degrees. The less brilliant, orange and red stars have surface temperatures of about 2, 000 degrees. There are exceptions, however. The red giant, Betelgeux, in the constellation (or group) of Orion, appears to be brilliant because of its size. Its diameter is 250 million miles, which is greater than the diameter of the earth's orbit round the sun. Shooting stars which are sometimes seen moving across the night sky for a few seconds are really meteors. These small particles flare up as they strike the earth's atmosphere and usually burn out. ========================VOCABULARY===================== luminous, a point, n twinkle, v , , naked, a , with the naked eye visible, a reach, v , space, n , constellation, n permanent, a ,
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, , pattern, n , ancestor, n size, n tremendous, a , due to, a , surface, n flare up, v strike, v (struck, struck) (-) burn out, v (burnt, burnt) , ========================================================= I. Practise the pronunciation of the following words: luminous, earth, surface, orange, giant, diameter, meteor, farther, naked, ancestor, tremendously. II. Match the adjectives and nouns: Adjectives powerful visible different permanent naked small Nouns particles telescope eye relationship speeds stars

relationship, n

III. Read and translate the words of the same root. Pay attention to suffixes: A. to differ - difference - different; to relate - relation - relationship; to vary - variety - various; to move - movement - movable; to direct - direction - directly; to except - exception - exceptional. B. real - really; usual - usually; tremendous - tremendously; visible-visibly; careful - carefully.

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IV. Read and translate the words with the component tele - Mind! The Greek word "tele" means "far, at a great distance": telegraph, television, telescope, telephone, telefax, telepathy, telemetry. V. Memorize the following word combinations: small points of twinkling light with the naked eye with the most powerful telescope a permanent relationship a star pattern a shooting star

VI. Read the text What is a star?. Answer the questions below: 1. What is a star? Find the definition in the text. 2. How many stars can a man see with the naked eye? With the most powerful telescope? 3. How long does it take the light from the stars to reach the earth? 4. Stars are not fixed in space, are they? 5. What do we call groups of stars? 6. How do the sizes of stars vary? 7. What are the varied colours of stars due to? 8. Which stars are the hottest? 9. What surface temperatures do the hottest stars have? 10. What are meteors? VII. Complete the sentences. 1. 2, 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. A star is ... . It is possible t see ... . The light from the stars takes ... . Stars are traveling ... . Constellations seem to have ... . The sizes of stars ... . The varied colours of stars ... . Shooting stars are ... .

VIII. Find in the text What is a Star? the sentences with the Subjective Infinitive Construction. Translate them.
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IX. Say what you have learned from the text about: a) b) c) d) e) the number of visible stars; the speed of light; the sizes of stars; the colours of stars; shooting stars.

X. Imagine you are a teacher of astronomy. Deliver a lecture on the topic What is a Star?. Text B. SPACE EXPLORATION

Exploration of outer space in the 20th century has produced discoveries and inventions that will forever change the way people live, learn and interact. The dream of space travel is as old as history but it was in the 20th century when the dream became reality. The first aeroplane (airplane) flight occurred in 1903 and in 1926 the first liquid-fuelled rocket was launched that traveled 200 feet. After World War II, the superpower opposition between the USA and the Soviet Union stimulated rocket research and development. Both nations realized that large rockets can be used to attack an enemy from thousands of miles away and that satellites put into orbit around the Earth by rockets could transmit messages. The Soviet launch of sputnik, the first man-made object to overcome gravity, began the space age. The Soviet Union soon achieved many other firsts. In 1961, the Soviet Union put the first man, Yuri Gagarin, into space. The first long space flights, a woman in space and space walk were all Soviet achievements. The Soviet Union made great progress in the peaceful application of space exploration. In its Salyut 6, it investigated such vital matters as the causes of cancer, since cells are studied in gravity-free space. The construction of metals that can resist gravity has resulted in tools of incredible hardness; improved seeds have been developed in Salyut. In the early 1960s the United States organized the Apollo space program. This research program concentrated on landing a man on the moon. Two Americans, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, walked on the lunar surface in July 1969. Since the first moon landing many nations have developed programs of space exploration. A network communication satellites made world-wide television and telephone service possible. Space shuttles allowed regular trips between the Earth and space. Scientific satellites were put in the Earth's orbit. Voyages to Venus were made by the Soviet spaceships, voyages to Mars, Jupiter and Saturn - by the American spaceships. This scientific progress has since resulted in hundreds of benefits for mankind, from the weather satellites whose information we see in our daily newspapers and on
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TV, to determining from outer space where fish is, where natural resources are hidden in the earth and in discovering areas which are becoming deserts. ========================= VOCABULARY =================== ========================================================= I. Make sure you know the words to text B. II. Read the text Space Exploration. Combine elements from column 1,2,3 and 4 so as to get meaningful sentences corresponding to what is said in the text. All elements should be used. 1 (a) Space exploration (b) Soviet scientists (c) Two Americans (d) (e) The dream travel of space 2 is organized put stimulated walked allowed has resulted 3 rocket research discoveries and inventions as old the first man regular trips the first sputnik the Apollo space program 4 in 1954 into space in 1961 in Jully, 1969 between the Earth and space for mankind in the early 1960s and development exploration, n outer space occur, v to launch a rocket superpower opposition satellite, n man-made object overcome, v investigate, v to resist gravity space shuttle

The superpower opposition

(f) The United States (g) Space shuttles (h)

The scientific explorahas produced in a lot of benefits as history tion of space that change (i) The Soviet Union launched on the lunar surface our life
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a) Write out the complete sentences: e.g. Space exploration has produced discoveries and inventions that change our life. b) Arrange these sentences in a logical sequence corresponding to the text. III. Look through text and find the English equivalents to the Russian word combinations: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ... ; ; - ; ; ; ; - ; ; ; ; - ; -; ; , ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; IV. Answer the following questions: 1. How has the space exploration changed the life of mankind? 2. In what way has the superpower opposition stimulated the space research?
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3. 4. 5. 6.

What "firsts" in space exploration has the Soviet Union achieved? What peaceful applications of space exploration can you name? What did the US Apollo space program concentrate on? What benefits for mankind has space exploration brought?

V. Translate into English. Consult text B, if necessary. 1. XX . 2. 20 . 3. . 4. , , , . 5. - , . 6. , . 7. 1960- , . 8. . 9. , , , , . 10. . 11. . 12. , . 13. . VI. Read the following selection. Find the Infinitives, state their forms and functions. Make a written translation of the selection. WHY DOES AN ASTRONAUT NEED A SPACE SUIT? A space suit enables an astronaut to survive by providing him artificially with conditions like those he is used to on earth. These conditions can be reproduced in a large space craft or space station in orbit, but an astronaut still needs a space suit for operations outside the craft or for an emergency. In space men lack the air needed for breathing, the pressure required to stop their
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blood from boiling and the natural protection of the atmosphere against radiation. All these must be supplied by the space suit which also must withstand the cold of space. When an astronaut ventures into space, he leaves behind the safety of the atmospheric blanket which we, on earth, take for granted. His space suit becomes his own personal little world. Text . THE LAST MAN TO DISCOVER A PLANET

Clyde Tombaugh, a young American research student, made the last discovery of a planet while working in 1930 at the Lowell Observatory, Arizona State College. This planet is Pluto, the ninth one in order of distance from the sun, 3,670 million miles away. Although Tombaugh, who was 26 at the time, was the first astronomer to see Pluto, its existence had been suspected by Percival Lowell, builder of the observatory at Flagstaff, Arizona. Lowell began searching for the planet in 1905, the year before Tombaugh was born. He observed that there was a difference between the predicted and actual positions of Uranus, and this led him to conclude that there must be another planet. His final calculations about "Planet X" were published in 1914, but he had still not found the planet when he died two years later. Another American, W.H. Pickering, took up the search, concentrating on the irregular movements of the planet Neptune. He saw a clue in the movement of comets, which seem to be attracted by large planets. There were 16 known comets whose paths took them millions of miles beyond Neptune, which is 2,811 million miles from the sun, and Pickering was convinced that they were being attracted by a still more distant planet. In 1919 yet another hunt was begun by Milton Humason at Mount Wilson Observatory, Pasadena, California. Instead of mathematical calculations, Humason tried photography. He took two pictures of a series of stretches of the sky, with a gap of one or two days between exposures. In such photographs stars stay still, but planets change position. When Tombaugh discovered Pluto, it became clear that Humason had photographed the planet twice. Once it had been masked by a star, and the second time its image had coincided with a flaw in the photographic plate. The main difficulty in the search had been that Pluto was extraordinarily faint. Pickering formed the opinion that it was not Lowell's Planet X, but that a huge planet remains to be discovered. I. Read the text The last man to discover a planet. Name all the people who tried to prove the existence of the ninth planet. II. Choose the correct answer. 1. The last man to discover Pluto was
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a) P. Lowell b) M. Humanson c) C. Tombaugh 2. The first astronomer to see the ninth planet was a) W.H. Pickering b) M. Humason c) C. Tombaugh 3. Clyde Tombaugh was born in a) 1905 b) 1906 c) 1914 4. Percival Lowell began searching for a new planet in ... a) 1914 b) 1919 c) 1905 III. Write out of the text sentences with the infinitive. Define its forms and functions. Translate the sentences. IV. Make a written translation of the text The last man to discover a planet using a dictionary. V. Learn to speak about great scientists exploring the Universe. Make use of the following articles. COPERNICUS Men have always been fascinated by the stars. Centuries ago, as people looked up at the sky, they saw that some stars did not twinkle but wandered across the sky as bright points of light. These "wandering" stars were what we now call the planets. There were five planets that could be seen by ancient men - Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. The ancient Greeks were great watchers of the sky and also great thinkers. As they watched the stars night after night, it was natural for them to think that the earth stood still and the stars, planets, sun and moon were going round and round the earth in space. They thought the sun was between Venus and Mars. For centuries, men believed this was how the stars moved. To explain the wandering of the planets, however, was very difficult. Then one day at Cracow University in Poland, about the year A. D. 1500, a young scientist named Nicolaus Copernicus began thinking about the way in which the stars and planets moved. Suppose, Copernicus said, the earth was not at the centre of the stars and the planets, but that the sun was instead. Suppose that the earth itself was a planet just
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like Mars and Venus and that the earth and all the other planets were round and round the sun at different distances from it. "After all," he said, "since light comes from the sun, it is only proper that the sun and not the earth should be at the centre of everything." The ancient Greeks had made the mistake of thinking that because the stars and planets seemed to move as they looked at the sky, the earth must be still. If you have sat in a train and looked out at the trees rushing by, it is easy to understand their mistake. The trees seem to be moving backwards, but really it is the train that is moving forwards. Not all of Copernicus' ideas were right. Although he thought, correctly, that the moon went round and round the earth, he also thought the stars were fixed on a large ball outside where the planets moved. He thought the stars did not move at all, but only the earth, moon and planets. Copernicus was so frightened of what everyone would think of his new ideas that he did not write them down in a book until he was almost dying. Yet he was the first person to explain properly our solar system. Copernicus was born at Torun. He studied mathematics at Cracow, canon law and astronomy at Bologna and medicine at Padua. His treatise has the title in Latin "De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium". (from "Finding Out") JOHANNES KEPLER Johannes Kepler, German astronomer and mathematician, was the founder of modern astronomy. Uranus He was born on December 27, 1571 in the village of Weil-der-Stadt in the Duchy of Wurttemberg, Swabia. Saturn He studied mathematics, philosophy, theology and asJupiter tronomy at the University of Tubingen, earning his M. Mars A. in 1591. Earth Kepler became a teacher of mathematics and asVenus tronomy at Gratz, the Austrian province of Styria from Mercury 1594 to 1600. His writings on celestial orbits impressed the famous Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe who invited Kepler to join him at Prague. Kepler accepted and assisted Tycho in preparing new planetary tables. When Brahe died in 1601, Kepler succeeded him as Imperial Mathematician. He had access to all of Tycho Brahe's papers and 20 years of precise observations which he used to form the foundation of his three laws of planetary motion (Kepler's laws) published between 1609 and 1618. They are: (1) the path of a planet is an ellipse with the sun at one focus; (2) a line from the sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time periods; and (3) the
Pluto Neptune

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square of an orbital period of a planet is proportional to the cube of its average distance from the sun. Kepler spent the latter part of his life as a professor of mathematics at Linz, Austria. He died in Regensburg, Bavaria, on November 15, 1630. VI. Render in English. - , , . "". 28 , . 13 . . : , . . , . , , . , . " ", - . . 23- , . CONVERSATION THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ========================= VOCABULARY =================== Geographical Position and Physical Features total area to occupy to stretch from to to be washed by (-)
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to border on to vary from smth. to smth.

(-) , - a desert a valley a mountain chain pure to be rich in smth. - natural and mineral re- sources a deposit of smth. - oil lead iron non-ferrous metals the current population to be densely peopled outskirts to be engaged in agriculture to produce grain a dairy product State system , - under the Constitution a presidential republic the federal government a branch () legislative executive judicial to be checked by smb. - to be balanced by smb. , - to be vested in - the Federal Assembly a chamber the Council of Federation to be headed by the Speaker to initiate a legislature to approve a bill () to be signed by smb. -
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to be set up by smth.

to veto the bill commander-in-chief the armed forces to make a treaty to enforce the law to appoint a minister the Prime Minister on appointment to form the Cabinet to be represented by smb. the Constitutional Court the Supreme Court a regional court to be elected by popular vote

- - a banner a hymn a nation emblem to originate from smth. - the heraldic emblem of the Ruricovitches

I. Learn the words. Mind their usage in the sentences: border on - Russia borders on many countries. native Our native country is the Russian Federation. occupy Our country occupies half of Europe and a third of Asia. cover - , , Forests cover large areas in the East and North of our country. stretch - Russia stretches from the Baltic and Black seas in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the East. island - Island Sakhalin is very far from Moscow.
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vary - , , The climate in Russia varies from arctic to continental and subtropical. II. Complete the sentences 1.Taiga // for many hundreds of kilometers. 2. The climate varies in // parts of our country. 3. Moscow is // of our country. 4. Numerous canals // all the rives in the European part of Russia. 5. Southern Russia // with mixed forest-steppe. 6. Russia is one of the leading // in the world. III. Fill in the blanks with the superlative degree of comparison. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Lake Baikal is lake in the world. (deep). The Volga is river in Europe. (long). The Russian Federation is country in the world. (large). The Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena are rivers in Asia. (large). Russia has oil and natural gas resources. (rich). The water in lake Baikal is on earth. (pure). THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometers. It occupies most of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Russia is washed by twelve seas and three oceans. The oceans are: the Arctic, the Atlantic, the Pacific. The seas are: the White Sea, the Barents Sea, the Okhotsk Sea, the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea and others. Russia borders on many countries, such as Mongolia and China in the southeast, Finland and Norway in the north-west, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus and the Ukraine in the West, Georgia and Azerbaijan in the south-west, and so on. The federation comprises 21 republics. The land of Russia varies very much from forests to deserts, from high mountains to deep valleys. The main mountain chains are the Urals, the Caucasus and the Altai. There are a lot of great rivers and deep lakes on its territory. The longest rivers are the Volga in Europe and the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena in Asia. The largest lakes are Ladoga and Baikal. Baikal is the deepest lake in the world and its water is the purest on earth, its depth is of 1600 meters. The climate in Russia varies from arctic in the north to continental in the central part of the country and subtropical in the south. Russia is a highly-industrialized-agrarian republic. Its vast mineral resources include oil and natural gas, coal, iron, zinc, lead, nickel, aluminium, gold and other non-ferrous metals. Russia has the worlds largest oil and natural gas resources. Three-quarters of the republics mineral wealth is concentrated in Siberia and the Far East.
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Approximately 10 million people are engaged in agriculture and they produce half of the regions grain, meat, milk and other dairy products. The current population of Russia is more than 150 million people. The European part of the country is densely peopled, and most population live in cities and towns and their outskirts. The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow, with the population of about 10 million people. Russia is a presidential republic. It is one of the leading powers in the world. IV. Read the text The Russian Federation and answer the questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What territory does Russia occupy? What oceans and seas is Russia washed by? What countries does Russia border on? What are the main mountain chains, rivers and lakes in Russia? How can you characterize Russias climate? What mineral resources does Russia possess? What industries are developed in Russia? What is the population in Russia?

V. Make sure you can translate the following text both ways from English into Russian and vice versa. What is the climate like in the Russian Federation? It is difficult to answer this question. The country is very large, that is why there are all sorts of weather in different regions. It is very cold in the north most of the year; and it is rather warm in the south even in winter. The swimming season on the Black Sea coast lasts from May to November. In the European part of the country summers are quite hot, the sky is cloudless, the sun shines most of the time, although it rains once in a while. The first half of autumn is rather warm, too. From October to March the weather is cold. There are some very severe frosts in winter, and there is a lot of snow. In Siberia winter is quite cold, and severe frosts are common. Autumn comes earlier and summer later than in the European part of the country. The climate of Siberia is continental, so ? . , . . . , , , . . . . , . , , . ,
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there are dry, hot summers and very cold winters. The winters in Moscow are colder than those in London. There is always a lot of snow in January and in February. There is also a lot of wind in winter. The average temperature is 10 - 11 degrees Centigrade below zero in January. Winter is a good time for such sports as skiing, hockey and skating. VI. Say in English.

, . , . . . 1011 . a, , , .

1. . 2. , . 3. , , . 4. . 5. , , , , . VII. Speak about: a) the geographical position of the Russian Federation; b) the physical features of Russia; c) the climate of Russia. VIII. Read the text and answer the questions after it. STATE SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION The Russian Federation is set up by the Constitution of 1993. Under the Constitution Russia is a presidential republic. The federal government consists of three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. Each of them is checked and balanced by the President. The legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly. It consists of two chambers. The Upper Chamber is the Council of Federation; the Lower Chamber is the State Duma. Each chamber is headed by the Speaker. Legislature may be initiated in either of the two Chambers. But to become a law a bill must be approved by both Chambers and signed by the President. The President may veto the bill.
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The President is commander-in-chief of the armed forces, he makes treaties, enforces laws, appoints ministers to be approved by the Federal Assembly. The executive power belongs to the Government which is headed by the Prime Minister. The first action of the Prime Minister on appointment is to form the Cabinet. The judicial branch is represented by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the regional courts. The members of the Federal Assembly are elected by popular vote for a fouryear period. Today the state symbol of Russia is a three-coloured banner. It has three horizontal stripes: white, blue and red. The white stripe symbolizes the earth, the blue one stands for the sky, and the red one symbolizes liberty. A national emblem is a two-headed eagle. It is the most ancient symbol of Russia. It originates from the heraldic emblem of the Ruricovitches. All these symbols are official. They have been approved by the Federal Assembly. The questions to be answered: 1. What branches does the Government consist of? 2. What is the legislative power exercised by? 3. How is a law made? 4. What body does the executive power belong to? 5. What does the system of courts consist of? 6. What are the national symbols of Russia? IX. Decide whether the following statements are true(T) or false (F). Correct them if necessary. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The form of government in Russia is a monarchy. The Head of State in Russia is the Queen. The government consists of three branches. The Federal Assembly consists of two chambers. Each chamber of the Federal Assembly is headed by the President. The members of the Federal Assembly are elected for 2 years. The government is headed by the Prime Minister. The judicial power belongs to the Prime Minister.

X. Complete the sentences. 1. Russia is a __________ republic. 2. The Head of State in Russia is the __________. 3. The government consists of 3 branches: legislative, _________ and _______. 4. The _________ power is exercised by the Federal Assembly. 5. A bill becomes a law if it is approved by both _______ and _______ by the President. 6. The executive power belongs to _________.
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7. The _________ power belongs to the system of courts. XI. Study the diagram below. Use it to answer the questions that follow. THE SYSTEM OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION HEAD OF THE STATE THE PRESIDENT elected for 4 years by direct popular vote (over 35 years old; a citizen of Russia, a resident of the country for at least10 years) LEGISLATIVE AND REPRESENTATIVE BRANCH FEDERAL ASSEMBLY the COUNCIL of FEDERATION the STATE DUMA two representatives from each 450 members elected for 4 years subject of Federation EXECUTIVE BRANCH the GOVERNMENT of the RUSSIAN FEDERATION the PRIME MINISTER the CABINET appointed by the President and formed by the Prime minister approved by the State Duma and approved by the President JUDICIAL BRANCH the CONSTITUTIONAL the SUPREME the ARBITRATION COURT COURT COURT all appointed by the Council of Federation Answer the following questions: 1. How is the government in Russia organised? 2. Can you name the branches of government? Who is in each branch? 3. Do we have a president? A prime minister? 4. How is the President of the Russian Federation elected? 5. Who can be the president of our country? 6. What does the Federal Assembly consist of? 7. How many members are there in the State Duma? 8. How often do we re-elect the State Duma? 9. Who makes the Council of Federation? 10. What can you say about the structure of the executive branch? 11. Do we have any political parties in our country? 12. What parties do you know? 13. Does the party that wins the most seats in the State Duma choose the prime minister? 14. What is the way of appointing the prime minister in our country? 15. Who forms the Cabinet of ministers?
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16. What is the judicial branch represented by? XII. Translate the following into English: 1. - , . 2. , 1993 , , , . 3. . 4. 35 , 10 . 5. -, ( ). 6. . . 7. , , , . 8. - . 9. 21 . 10. . 11. . 12. . 13. , . 14. . XIII. Complete the following in writing. 1. We have a population of around ................................. million, bigger than ................................. , but smaller than ................................. . To the north lies ................................, to the south is ................................; ................................. is to the east and ................................. is to the west. The people in the north/west have a reputation for being a bit................................., but in the south/east the people are much more ................................. .

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2. ................................. is a (very) hilly / mountainous / flat country. The highest mountain is ................................. and the most important river is the ................................. . Another important feature of my country is ................................. . The climate is ................................. . When you talk to people about................................. they tend to think of places like ................................. and ................................. which are very ................................. . But there are also places like ................................. and ................................. which are ................................. and ................................. and well worth visiting. 3. The main regions are ................................. . Of these the most important is ................................. because ................................. . The main cities are the capital ................................. and ................................. . If you could only spend a day / weekend / week in ................................. I would recommend you visit................................. and go to ................................. . You should also make sure you see ................................. . And the ................................. is not to be missed! The city I like best is ................................. because ....................................................... . I was born in ................................. and my mother and father come from ................................. . The best place to go on holiday in ................................. is ................................., because ................................., but don't go in ................................. as it gets very hot / crowded. 4. Our main exports include ............................................................................... .................................. is / are grown in .................................................................. ................................. is / are produced in .............................................................. . 5. Ask people the name of a famous ................................. and they'll probably say ................................., but we also have ................................. who is / was famous for ............................... . The thing my country is most famous for is ............................... . The thing I am most proud of in my country is ............................... . XIV. Describe your own country. Answer these questions as fully as you can: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What is the population of your country? What sort of place is it - hilly? mountainous? flat? lots of lakes? Are the different regions very different from each other? What are the four major cities? Why are they important? What are the main industries? What about exports? What is your country most famous for?

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DIALOGUES a) Read the dialogues in pairs. I Foreigner. Weve been touring Russia for about two weeks and I must say it is a very large country. Russian. In fact it is the largest country in the world. It occupies about oneseventh of the earths surface. Its total area is about 17 mln square kilometers. Foreigner. What countries does it border on? Does it border on the USA? Russian. Russia borders on 14 countries. As far as the USA is concerned, it has a sea-border with Russia. II Foreigner. Ive read that Russia is extremely rich in natural resources and mineral deposits. Russian. Thats right. We have rich deposits of coal, iron, oil, gas, copper, tin, lead, gold, and so on. In other words, all the elements of the Mendeleev Periodic Table can be found in Russia. Foreigner. But the climate of the country is severe. Russian. Thats not quite so. The climate is different in different parts of Russia. It varies from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. Foreigner. And what type of climate is in the central part of Russia? Russian. In the central part of the country the climate is temperate and continental. III Foreigner. Whats the political structure of Russia? Is it a federation or a unitary state as Britain for example? Russian. Russia is a union of regions and territories, on the one hand, and autonomous republics, each representing a certain nationality, on the other hand. IV Russian. Have you ever been to Siberia? Foreigner. Yes, I have. It was always my dream to see it. Russian. What places in Siberia have you visited? Foreigner. Ive been to Novosibirsk, the industrial and cultural centre of Siberia. Ive also seen powerful hydroelectric stations built on Siberian rivers. Russian. What has impressed you most? Foreigner. The Novosibirsk scientific centre and the people of Siberia. V Foreigner. What do you think are the main problems in Russia today? Russian. Oh, there are a lot of them. The countrys economy is being transformed into a free market model. Foreigner. Are you optimistic about the future of Russia? Russian. Nowadays Russia remains a powerful state enjoying a high reputation among other nations of the world. Our country has great past and promising future. b) Learn the dialogues by heart.
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JUST FOR FUN

I. Here are some proverbs and sayings, beginning with the infinitive. Read them, translate and find the Russian equivalents. Use the proverbs in a natural context. 1. To be born with a silver spoon in ones mouth. 2. To call a spade a spade. 3. To carry coals to Newcastle. 4. To cast pearls before swine. 5. To make a mountain out of a molehill. 6. To make both ends meet. 7. To kill two birds with one stone. 8. To take the bull by the horns. 9. To work with the left hand. 10. To put the cart before the horse. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. . -. . . . . . . . .

II. Read the joke and retell it to a friend of yours.

The shape of the Earth. Whats the shape of the Earth? asked Tom. Round, said Willie. How do you know its round? Well, said Willie, its square then. I shant argue.

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III. Learn the poem by heart : Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star Twinkle, twinkle, little star! How I wonder what you are! Up above the world so high, Like a diamond in the sky. Twinkle, twinkle, little star, How I wonder what you are. (Jane Taylor) IV. What do you know about the Sky? Here are the statements from the field of astronomy. Some of them are true and some are not. Do you know which are correct? 1. The Earth is about half the size of the Sun. 2. Jupiter circles the Sun once every 12 years. 3. A true star is a sphere of white-hot gas. 4. Stars shine by their own light. 5. The stratosphere is airless. 6. Stars are all bright red. 7. Most stars are sharp-pointed. 8. There are exactly 5,483,6011 stars. 9. About half the stars can be seen without a telescope. 10. Twenty two planets have been discovered so far. 11. Gravity holds the Earth, in its orbit around the Sun.. 12. Saturn, like the Earth, has only one moon. 13. The Suns rays strike the Earth at different angles during different seasons of the year. 14. The Sun is the second nearest star to the Earth. 15. Jupiter is much nearer to the Sun than Mercury.

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UNIT 4
Grammar: 1. Conditional Sentences 2. Wish Clauses 3. The Subjunctive Mood Texts: A. Realms of Engineering B. C. From the History of Architecture D. Concrete Facts Conversation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland


CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. (Conditional Sentences) . , , if, . , . 3 (3 ) . : ? 1- 1- , . . If I am free tomorrow, Ill join you. , .

. , . ! Future, Present.
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You wont understand these , people unless youve lived a - while with them. . Ill call on you if you are still , working at that time. . , , , . 2- 3- 2- ( , ). . If you were free now I would , join you. . If you gave me the book now I , would finish it next week. . ! Future-in-thePast Indefinite Continuous, Past Indefinite Past Continuous, be were . If he were coming tomorrow it , might save us a lot of trouble. . might ( could) . , , . 3- ( ), . If I had been free yesterday I , would have joined you. .

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If I had accepted the job then I would have been working here , for 10 years now. 10 . Future-in-the-Past Perfect Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous ( might/could Perfect Infinitive). If he hadnt been so careless he , might have finished the work by now. . , , . . If you had given me the book two days ago I would have fin- , ished it by the beginning of . next week. , , . , : if, in case provided, providing, on condition unless, but for , ,

( ) if, provided , had, were, could, might, should. , .. . (). Were she a specialist (= if she were a specialist) in this field, , we should show her the new in- . stallation.
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Had he been to England (= if he , had been), he would have spo- - ken English much better. . WISH CLAUSES. , : , , - , , : . : , , . , , , wish-clause, . ! wish () , . , , . 1- . I wish you would stop arguing. .

, , , , . He wished we would be more cooperative. , .

Future-in-thePast , wish. 2- ( ) . . I wish it were summer now. He wished he could swim. . . , .


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Past Indefinite Past Continuous, be were . I wish I werent sitting here now. . , . 3- ( ). I wish I had answered him . then. , . He wished he had thought , about it before. . Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous. I wish you hadnt been wasting , time up till now. . THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. (The Subjunctive Mood) : 1) , that, , : it is possible it is probable it is important it is strange it is necessary it is desirable it is required it is a miracle it is essential

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! should + to ( to). Its essential that the meeting be , held at once. . Its strange that you should say it. , .

2) , that : to suggest to insist to propose to order to command to request to recommend to demand

should + to ( to). He suggested that I should speak to the dean. .

, . : I insist that she should do the , work herself. . I insist on doing the work my- , self. . I demand that the dean should , see me. . I demand to see the dean. , .

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He suggests I should accept the post. . He suggests going to the cinema. . 3) , as if as though in order that so that lest , ,

The Earth behaves as if it were , a large magnet. ( ). He must hurry lest he should be , . late.

EXERCISES

I. Read and translate the following conditional sentences. A. 1. If you ask him, he will help you. 2. If you listen to me, you will succeed. 3. If you want to achieve good results, youll have to work hard. 4. If a body is heated, it will usually expand. 5. In case the temperature is raised, the reaction will proceed more rapidly. B. 1. If he changed his opinion, he would be more successful. 2. If we asked him to help would he agree? 3. If I only knew the facts, I could make a decision. 4. If we used this method, we should obtain better results. 5. He would improve this device if he had time. C. 1. If the weather had been fine, we should have played outside. 2. If he had worked hard, he would have achieved great progress. 3. If they had known it before, they would have taken measures. 4. If they had completed the research, the results would have been discussed at the conference. 5. We should have applied these sensitive instruments if they had been manufactured by that time. II. Translate the sentences with the inversion. Use the model. Model: Had you listened to me, you would have succeeded. , .
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1. Had you told him, he would have known about the meeting of the staff. 2. Had the equipment been provided in time, we could have introduced the new technology. 3. Were I you, I should discuss this problem again. 4. Had I had this information before, I should have acted differently. 5. Were the air composed only of nitrogen, burning would be impossible. 6. Had the students been more careful, they wouldnt have broken the new apparatus. 7. Had he known the subject better, he wouldnt have failed in his exam. III. Transform the sentences according to the model. Model: If I had more time, I should read this book. Had I more time, I should read this book. 1. If you had asked him, he would have helped you. 2. If I were you, I should consider this matter again. 3. If it were not so late, we should stay a little longer. 4. If the manager had been at the office yesterday, I should have spoken to him. 5. If you were allowed to visit the laboratory, you would see much interesting. 6. I could have finished my work if it had not been so late. 7. If the engineer had been informed of the results before, he would have allowed you to repeat the test. 8. If we had used new methods, we would have saved a lot of time. IV. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the forms of the verbs in the subordinate clauses. A. 1. It is necessary that she should come in time. 2. It is important that this substance should remain liquid at the lowest temperature. 3. It is required that many new alloys (should) be developed. 4. It is desirable that the engine should combine high efficiency and lightness. 5. It is essential that he (should) inform us about the results of his research. B. 1. We suggested that his project be discussed in details. 2. The engineer demanded the construction materials (should) be carefully tested. 3. We insist that the results of this research be published. 4. They proposed that his report be illustrated in diagrams. 5. The manager demanded that the engineer accomplish the design by next month. C. 1. The man spoke as though he were an expert on this subject. 2. You must be careful with this device so that it should operate without failure. 3. The driver examined the car in order that the engine should run properly. 4. You must put down this rule lest you should forget it. 5. This woman behaves as if she were a child. V. Read and translate the following sentences. Mind the different meanings of the word provide: provide, v provide for, v , ; ,
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provided, cj providing, cj

; ,

1. Provided we use the necessary instruments, the measurement will always be correct. 2. Automation provided the control of whole shops and even factories. 3. Our plant is provided with the best up-to-date machinery. 4. Safety measures must be provided for at every plant. 5. Provided this complex mechanism were applied, the problem under investigation would be solved. 6. We could use that apparatus for various kinds of tests provided it were in our laboratory. 7. Ohms law gives the possibility of determining resistance provided the voltage and current are known. 8. The electrical properties of this substance may be changed provided the latter is exposed to light. VI. Open the brackets and put the verbs in the Subjunctive Mood. 1. You would play better bridge if you (not talk) so much. 2. If you (read) the instructions carefully, you wouldn't have answered the wrong question. 3. I could repair the roof myself if I (have) a long ladder. 4. Unless they turn that radio off, I (go) mad. 5. If you were made redundant, what you (do)? 6. I'll probably get lost unless he (come) with me. 7. You (not have) so many accidents if you drove more slowly. 8. Unless they leave a lamp beside that hole in the road, somebody (fall) into it. 9. You'll get pneumonia if you (not change) your wet clothes. 10. If they (hang) that picture lower, we would be able to see it. VII. Finish the sentences in writing. 1. If only........... you wouldn't now be in such a difficult position. 2. If......... tell him I'm out. 3. I can't understand why........... unless he thinks we are Gods. 4. Is there any point in your coming with us if...............? 5. How............, if you didn't know the address? 6. If.............., I shall blame you for it. 7. If you know the answer, why......................? 8. When................ supposing we left immediately? 9. How I wish....................... 10. If you really have been studying English for so long, it's about time you........................... VIII. Transform the sentences using if construction. Model: You didn't tell me we had run out of bread, so I didn't buy any. If you had told me we had run out of bread I'd have bought some.
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1. We got a lift, so we reached the station in time. 2. You washed it in boiling water; that's why it shrank. 3. We missed the train because we were using an out-of-date timetable. 4. They were driving very quickly. That's why the accident was so terrible. 5. It was raining. That's the only reason I didn't take the children to the beach. 6. It rained all the time. Perhaps that's why he didn't enjoy his visit. 7. I didnt work hard at school, so I didnt get a good job when I left. 8. They asked him to leave the dining-room because he wasn't wearing a shirt. 9. It took us a long time to find his house because the streets were not clearly marked. 10. We didn't go by air only because we hadn't enough money. IX. Translate into English. 1. , . 2. , . 3. 50 000 , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , . 8. , . 9. , . 10. , . 11. , , . X. Fill in the blanks and finish the following sentences. 1. Did you go to the company picnic last Saturday? Yes, I did, and it was terrible. I wish I ................There were a lot of things I could have done that day. I wish I .............................. something else. 2. I wish more people from our department ............... at the picnic. I didn't know very many people at all. If I ........................................... more people at the picnic last Saturday I ................................ so lonely and I........................... so out of place. 3. Why weren't the employees from the Greenville office at the picnic? I expected them to come. If they..................... invited to the picnic, it ................................ much livelier. 4. I wish I...................... forget people's names all the times. Can you believe it? At the picnic last Saturday, I couldn't remember Harry's wife's name, and I had met
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her a dozen times before! I wish I hadn't....................her name. she................ forgotten my name, I................ liked it. XI. Open the brackets using Conditionals. 1. I wish I (can) speak several languages. 2. I wish I (have) a car. 3. She wishes her parents (approve) of her boy friend. 4. I wish I (be) older. 5. I wish you (like) pop music. XII. Finish the sentences. 1. Her life might have been saved if................................. 2. The grass would look better if..................................... 3. Unless it is a nice day............................................... 4. He would lend it to you if....................................... 5. If the storm becomes worse.................................... 6. If your uncle sees you............................................. 7. If you didn't shake the camera so much, your photographs.......... 8. If you don't like the picture................................................... 9. If the fire had been noticed earlier............................................... 10. You would have been angry if...............................................

After all, if

Text A.

REALMS OF ENGINEERING

Traditionally, engineering activities have been grouped into certain areas of specialization. These originated as civil and military engineering, catering to man's early needs. Scientific discoveries and their development gave birth to a variety of fields of application such as mechanical, chemical, and electrical engineering. Several of the more commonly accepted categories are described below. Aerospace Engineering combines two fields, aeronautical and astronautical engineering. The former is concerned with the aerodynamics, structure and propulsion of vehicles designed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere. The latter relates to flight above the Earth's atmosphere and involves the design of rockets and space vehicles incorporating sophisticated propulsion, guidance, and life support systems. Agricultural Engineering is one of the earliest forms of engineering practiced by man. It uses agricultural machinery, irrigation, and surveying and deals with the many associated problems of crop raising and animal husbandry. Not only are the fundamental engineering subjects such as hydraulics, metallurgy, and structures of
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importance, but soil conservation, biology, and zoology are also necessary components. It is here that machines interface with the animal and plant kingdoms. Chemical Engineering encompasses the broad field of raw material and food processing and the operation of associated facilities. It is mainly connected with the manufacture and properties of materials such as fuels, plastics, rubber, explosives, paints, and cleaners. It would be hard to select the most suitable material if the chemical engineer didnt know basic and engineering chemistry. Civil Engineering is one of the oldest branches of the engineering profession. It covers a wide field, and many subsidiary branches have grown from it. The civil engineer is mainly employed in the creation of structures such as buildings, bridges, dams, highways, harbors, and tunnels. He is usually knowledgeable in hydraulics, structures, building materials, surveying, and soil mechanics. One important area comprises water supply, drainage, and sewage disposal. It is necessary that the civil engineer should know the properties of engineering materials. A complete knowledge of these properties would be required by engineers to prevent failure of structures and machines. Electrical Engineering, in general, deals with the creation, storage, transmission, and utilization of electrical energy and information. Most of its activities may be identified with power or communications. The field encompasses information systems, computer technology, energy conversion, automatic control, instrumentation, and many other specialities. Industrial Engineering is mainly concerned with the manufacture of useful commodities from raw materials. Since most of the other engineering fields have a bearing on this activity, the industrial engineer requires a particularly broad view. The management of men, materials, machines, and money are all within his endeavor in achieving effective production. Plant layout, automation, work methods, and quality control are included, and, more than in most of the other traditional branches of engineering, the industrial engineer needs to have some grounding in psychology and dealing with personnel. Mechanical Engineering develops machines for the generation and utilization of power. Mechanical engineers design turbines, engines, pumps, and their ancillary mechanisms and structures. Heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, transportation, manufacturing, and vibration, are some areas falling within their domain. The art of mechanical engineering would not have received its greatest boost in the 18th century unless there had been no invention of the steam engine. Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, the production and use of metals, has two distinct branches. One deals with the location, extraction, and treatment of ores to obtain base metals, and the other with the transformation of these metals into useful forms and with the study of techniques for improving their performance in specific applications.
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In addition to the fields identified above, other categories of engineering are often encountered. These include architectural, ceramic, geological, naval and marine, nuclear, petroleum, sanitary, and textile engineering. ======================VOCABULARY=================== realm, n originate, v cater, v application, n rise, n accepted, p.p. designation, n commonly, adv former, adj concerned with, p.p. propulsion, n vehicle, n latter, adj relate (to), v incorporate, v sophisticated, adj guidance, n support, n machinery, n irrigation, n survey, n crop raising husbandry, n soil, n interface, v encompass, v raw materials processing, n facilities, n fuel, n rubber, n explosive, n, adj paint, n cleaner, n cover, v , ; . , : , , , ; : ( ) .., , ; , ( ) (), , ; ; : , ; , () , / () () , , , ; , ( ) ; , ; , : ,
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: , , ; , supply, n sewage, n disposal, n ; , storage, n , transmission, n instrumentation, n ; , commodity, n , bearing, n : grounding (in), n ( ...) pump, n ancillary, adj fall, v : domain, n , ; . mining, n ; distinct, adj , , extraction, n treatment, n ore, n performance, n , encounter, v , ====================================================== I. Read and translate the following international words. Consult the dictionary if necessary. Technology, specialist, category, aerodynamics, atmosphere, rocket, system, practice, machinery, problems, fundamental, metallurgy, biology, zoology, operation, material, plastics, profession, tunnel, mechanics, information, computer, energy, automatic, control, industrial, production, method, traditional, psychology, personnel, vibration, metal, textile. II. Translate the words of the same root. Define speech part. Tradition traditional traditionally Active activity Special speciality specialize specialization Science scientist scientific Discover discovery Develop development - developer
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subsidiary, adj harbor, n comprise, v

Apply application - applied Electrical electrically - electricity Technology technological Machine machinery Main mainly Create creative creation - creativity Build builder building Know knowledge knowledgeable Transmit transmission - transmitter Inform informative information Use useful useless Manage management - manager Extract extraction extractive III. Read and translate the following phrases. Engineering activities; civil engineering; military engineering; aerospace engineering; agricultural engineering; chemical engineering; electrical engineering; industrial engineering; mechanical engineering; mining and metallurgical engineering; architectural, ceramic, geological, naval and marine, nuclear, petroleum, sanitary, textile engineering; widely accepted designations; fundamental engineering subject; structures of importance; food processing; save conservation; particularly, broad view; base methods; useful commodities; the management of men; effective production; plant layout. IV. Read the text Realms of Engineering. Find in the text the English equivalents of the following Russian phrases: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . V. Translate the words given in brackets. 1. The chemical engineer ( ) of both basic and engineering chemistry. 2. Many () branches have grown from civil engineering. 3. Chemical engineering ( ) the broad field of raw material and food processing and the operation of associated facilities. 4. Industrial engineering is mainly concerned with the manufacture of useful commodities from ().
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5. () of men, materials, machines and money are all within the industrial engineer endeavor in achieving effective production. 6. Mining engineering deals with the location, ( ) to obtain base metals. VI. Answer the following questions: 1. What categories of engineering do you know? 2. What fields does aerospace engineering combine? 3. What is aeronautical engineering concerned with? 4. What does astronautical engineering relate to? 5. What does agricultural engineering deal with? 6. What does chemical engineering encompass? 7. What does civil engineering cover? 8. What does electrical engineering deal with? 9. What do you know about industrial engineering? 10. What does mechanical engineering develop? 11. What does mining and metallurgy engineering deal with? VII. Write out of the text Realms of Engineering the sentences: a) with the Subjunctive Mood; b) with emphatic construction. Translate them. VIII. Translate the text Realms of Engineering. IX. Put questions to the underlined parts of the sentences. 1. Scientific discoveries gave birth to many categories of engineering. 2. The chemical engineer is well grounded in both basic and engineering chemistry. 3. Civil engineering comprises water supply and sewage disposal. 4. The civil engineer is employed in the creation of structures such as buildings, bridges, dams, highways and tunnels. 5. Electrical engineering is of recent origin. 6. The industrial engineer needs to have some grounding in psychology and dealing with personnel. 7. Mechanical engineers design turbines, engines, pumps and their ancillary mechanisms and structures. 8. Other categories of engineering are often encountered.

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9. Metallurgical engineering deals with the transformation of metals into useful forms. 10. Agricultural engineering is one of the earliest forms of engineering practiced by man. X. Make up sentences of your own with the following word combinations: the management of men; the manufacture of useful commodities; raw materials; work methods; traditional branches of engineering; distinct branches; treatment of ores; base metals; categories of engineering; engineering activities; the rapid use of technology; sophisticated propulsion; crop raising; save conservation; food processing; air and water pollution; subsidiary branches. XI. Make up the plan of the text The Realms of Engineering. Retell the text according to your plan. Text B. Civil engineering did not develop until the rise of Rome. The Cloaca Maxima, the great drain of Rome, was built in the sixth century . . It is in existence today, but the oldest part still standing probably dates from the third century . . Like most ancient drains and sewers, it was at first open, but was later enclosed. The original purpose of Rome's sewers was to drain off waste waters. For efficiency, the sewers were built along the lines of the natural streams. Lead or clay pipes were used to conduct water to the houses. The lead pipes (4 1/4 inch in diameter), were made from sheet-lead, bent around a core. Walls were 1/4 inch thick. The Romans, although they did not invent paved roads, advanced road building to a new height. The total length of the roads built by the Romans in Britain is estimated at over 47,000 miles. They were constructed to last forever and many are in use today; some have simply been resurfaced. In the construction of their road network, the Romans aimed at the shortest route, regardless of obstacles. Rocks were cleared away, tunnels were dug through hills, and swamps were drained. At first the Romans built timber roads, then somewhat later, a timber road mounted on stakes, many having a covering of pavement. Roman bridges, at first made of wood, were later built of stone. Typical Roman style was a semicircular arch and short span. The bridge builders' chief problem was to provide solid foundations. Town building was based on camp tradition, and some towns arose out of army camps. A typical town built this way was Manchester, England. Fusion of Roman and North European traditions was reflected in many ways. Buildings combined the Roman arch and the steep peaked roof of Northern Europe. Roman traditions were continued in an architectural form known as Romanesque.

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The first significant advance over Roman methods, however, was the invention of the ribbed vault. The ribs were built independently of the wall and supported the stone-vault web. London bridge, finished in 1209, took thirty-three years to build. It consisted of nineteen irregular pointed arches, its piers resting on broad foundations designed to withstand the Thames' current. The use of pointed arches was another advance upon Roman methods, yet the medieval bridge was not as great an engineering achievement as was the cathedral. Providing for only one-way traffic, the typical bridge was narrow. It was not adapted to heavy vehicles. I. Make sure you know the following words. If you dont know any of them, consult a dictionary: to date from; to drain off; waste water; to conduct; to estimate; to resurface; to dig; to drain; to support; to withstand; to adopt; to rest; to design; pavement; semicircular; span; to reflect; steep; vault; rib; web; pier. II. In each of these sentences a word is missing. Provide a word from the list below and translate the sentences. 1. Tunnels were through hills. 2. Many ancient Roman roads had coverings of . 3. Typical Roman style was arch and short . 4. The ribs supported the stone vault . 5. London bridge consisted of nineteen irregular arches. 6. The original purpose of Romes sewers was waste waters. 7. The Romans didnt invent roads. Prompts: web, pavement, to drain off, dug, semicircular, paved, span, pointed. III. Read text B without a dictionary and say whether these statements are true or false. If they are false correct them. 1. The great drain of Rome was built in the sixth century A.D. 2. Steel pipes were used to conduct water to houses. 3. The Romans invented paved roads. 4. At first the Romans built stone roads. 5. Typical Roman style was the ribbed vault. 6. The invention of the ribbed vault belonged to the Romans. 7. The use of the pointed arches was one of the Roman methods of construction. 8. London bridge consisted of nineteen semicircular arches. 9. The medieval bridge was as great an engineering achievement as was the cathedral.
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IV. Suggest a few headlines to text B. Choose the best one among the headlines suggested by your fellow students. Text C. FROM THE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE

The history of architecture aims at displaying clearly the characteristic features of the architecture of each country by comparing the buildings of each period and by studying influences geographical, geological, climatic, religious, social and historical which have contributed to the formation of a particular style. The best way to learn about architecture is to study actual buildings and museums which provide excellent opportunities for examining details of style. The analysis of the characteristic features which resulted from solving certain structural problems enables to visualize clearly the main factors which brought about changes in each style. Architecture is the art with which we all are in daily contact for it shelters us, gives us "home". Finally, architecture is the mother of the arts of sculpture, painting, and the allied decorative crafts. Architecture, with all its varying phases and complex developments, must have had a simple origin in the primitive efforts of mankind to provide protection against inclement weather, wild beasts and human enemies in rock, caves, huts and tents. Here then, in caves, huts, and tents we find the three primitive types of human dwellings, the three germs of later architectural developments. The history of architecture is a record of continuous evolution. A glance along the past ages reveals architecture as a history of social condition progress and religion and events which are landmarks in the history of mankind; for as architecture is in all periods connected with national life, the genius of a nation, is unmistakably stamped on its architectural monuments. I. Read the text From the history of architecture. Find the answers to the following questions: 1. What is the best way to learn about architecture? 2. What is architecture? 3. What origin does architecture have? 4. Why is architecture considered a history of social condition progress? II. Find the key words in the text and write them out. III. Make up the plan of the text. Retell the text according to your plan using the keywords. Text D. CONCRETE FACTS

Researchers at the University of Illinois have compiled some modern facts about the centuries-old material, concrete. In one study, portland-cement samples, exposed to carbon dioxide at pressures up to 250 atmospheres, produced two surprising re140

sults. First, the mixture needed about one-fifth the water normally required. Second, some samples achieved a strength in 10 minutes that usually required seven days of curing. Rapid-curing concrete, if the process can be developed, would speed the production of precast concrete parts. It would allow the use of more waste products, such as the slag from steel and aluminum production, to be used in concrete. Fast-curing would also drastically reduce the number of footprints and initials in freshly poured sidewalks. I. Read the text Concrete Facts. Get its central idea. II. Write out the words you dont know. Look them up in the dictionary. Pay special attention to the word concrete. III. Make a written translation of the text Concrete Facts. CONVERSATION THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND =====================VOCABULARY==================== coast, n British Isles separate, v conquer, v invader, n surface, n temperate climate gale, n humidity, n fog, n run, v govern, v government, n elect, v power, n appeal, n law, n arbiter, n amendment, n majority, n , , , , , , ; , , ( , )
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authority, n the Houses of Parliament the House of Lords the House of Commons hereditary, a peer, n relic, n survive, v alter, v refuse, v inherit, v

, , , , (-) ,

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated off the northwestern coast of Europe. The UK lies on the British Isles. There are some 5500 islands. The two main islands are: Great Britain and Ireland. They are separated from the continent by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The western coast of the country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea, the eastern coast is washed by the North Sea. The area of the UK is some 244100 square kilometres. Its population is over 57 million people. English is the official language, but it is not the only language which people speak in the country. The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. England is the southern part of Great Britain. Birmingham is the Britains second city. Rifles, pistols, various machinery, railway cars, motor cars, electrical equipment, scientific instruments and many other things are produced in Birmingham in great quantities. Sheffield is the city of steel. The main centers of the textile region are Liverpool and Manchester. Liverpool is the second after London port of Great Britain. Wales is one of the big mining districts in Britain. The capital of Wales is Cardiff. Scotland is the northern part of Great Britain. Scotland is an agricultural country. The old capital of Scotland is Edinburgh. Glasgow is the third largest city in Great Britain. It is known the world over for its shipbuilding yards. Northern Ireland occupies the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland. Its capital is Belfast.

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Britain has been many centuries in the making. The Romans conquered most part of Britain, but were unable to subdue the independent tribes in the west and in the north. Other invaders were Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Vikings and Normans. For many centuries this country was known simply as England. It had strong army and navy. It waged numerous colonial wars. In the modern world England was the first country, where capitalism was established. The surface of the British isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called Highlands, while the south, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called Lowlands. The north and west of England are mountainous, but all the rest east, centre and south-east is a vast plain. Mountains are not very high. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1343 m). There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one. The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the worlds largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding. The position of Great Britain gives it a temperate climate. Britain lies in the eastern part of the Atlantic Ocean. It is surrounded by the sea, which makes the climate warmer in winter and cooler in summer. The Gulf Stream influences the English climate greatly. It makes the sea warm. The climate is not the same in all parts of England. The western part of England is warmer than the eastern one and it also has more rains. The western hills and mountains shut out some of the mild winds from the Atlantic. On the western coast gales are always strong. The south-western part winds are the most frequent. They usually bring mild weather. There is much humidity in the air of England. Britain is well known as a foggy country. The annual temperature in London is about 8 degrees. British political system Britain is a constitutional monarchy. That means it is a country governed by a king or queen who accepts the advice of a parliament. It is also a parliamentary democracy. That is, it is a country whose government is controlled by a parliament which has been elected by the people. In other words, the basic system is not so different from anywhere else in Europe. The highest positions in the government are filled by members of the directly elected parliament. In Britain, as in many European countries, the official head of state, whether a monarch (as in Belgium, the Netherlands and Denmark) or a president (as in Germany, Greece and Italy) has little real power. However, there are features of the British system of government which make it different from that in other countries and which are not 'modern' at all. The most notable of these is the question of the constitution. Britain is almost alone among modern states in that it does not have 'a constitution' at all. Of course, there are rules,
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regulations, principles and procedures for the running of the country - all the things that political scientists and legal experts study and which are known collectively as 'the constitution'. But there is no single written document which can be appealed to as the highest law of the land and the final arbiter in any matter of dispute. Nobody can refer to 'article 6' or 'the first amendment' or anything like that, because nothing like that exists. The activities of Parliament in Britain are more or less the same as those of the Parliament in any western democracy. It makes new laws, gives authority for the government to raise and spend money, keeps a close eye on government activities and discusses those activities. The British Parliament works in a large building called the Palace of Westminster (popularly known as 'the Houses of Parliament'). This contains offices, committee rooms, restaurants, bars, libraries and even some places of residence. It also contains two larger rooms. One of these is where the House of Lords meets, the other is where the House of Commons meets. The British Parliament is divided into two 'houses', and its members belong to one or other of them, although only members of the Commons are normally known as MPs (Members of Parliament). The Commons is by far the more important of the two houses. A unique feature of the British parliamentary system is its hereditary element. Unlike MPs, members of the House of Lords (known as 'peers') are not elected. They are members as of right. In the case of two-thirds of them, this 'right' is the result of their being the holder of an inherited aristocratic title. The House of Lords is therefore a relic of earlier, undemocratic times. The fact that it still exists is perhaps typically British. It has been allowed to survive but it has had to change, losing most of its power and altering its composition in the process. The House of Lords (like the monarchy) has little, if any, real power any more. All proposals must have the agreement of the Lords before they can become law. But the power of the Lords to refuse a proposal for a law which has been agreed by the Commons is now limited. After a period which can be as short as six months the proposal becomes law anyway, whether or not the Lords agree. The position of British Prime Minister (PM) is in direct contrast to that of the monarch. Although the Queen appears to have a great deal of power, in reality she has very little. The PM, on the other hand, appears not to have much power but in reality has a very great deal indeed. The Queen is, in practice, obliged to give the job of Prime Minister to the person who can command a majority in the House of Commons. This normally means the leader of the party with the largest number of MPs. There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour, the Conservative and the Liberal parties. I. Read and transcribe the names of the following cities: Belfast, Cardiff, London, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Manchester, Glasgow, Liverpool, Newcastle.

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II. Fill in the table with the following words related to geography, industry and political life: chamber, channel, coal, island, kingdom, majority, ocean, manufacture, power, sea, river, party, capital, monarchy, queen, lake, policy, shipbuilding, mountain, continent, parliament, factory, government, minister, statesman, republic. Geography Industry Political life

III. Say the following in one word using the essential vocabulary of the text: 1) a wife of a king or a woman monarch; 2) salt water that covers more than two thirds of earth surface; 3) the total of people in a country, region, city etc; 4) more than a half; 5) to send goods to another country; 6) to be situated; 7) a country headed by a king or queen; 8) black mineral used as fuel; 9) a land surrounded by water. IV. Read the text The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Find the English equivalents for the following Russian sentences. 1. . 2. . 3. : , , . 4. - . 5. . 6. , , . 7. , ( ). 8. , , . V. Fill in the blanks with the suitable words. 1. The Severn is the river, while the Thames is the one. 2. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by and , the eastern coast is washed by
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3. The north of Scotland is and is called the , while the south, which has beautiful and is called the 4. The climate of Great Britain is 5. The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: 6. England is the part of Great Britain. 7. Sheffield is the city of 8. Glasgow is known the world over for its 9. Great Britain is a country governed by a or . who accepts the advice of a 10. The British Parliament is divided into two VI. Read the text The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and ask your fellow students: 1. where the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated; 2. what the area of the UK is; 3. what the population of the UK is; 4. who conquered Britain; 5. what countries the UK is made up of; 6. what capitals of these countries are; 7. what the climate of Great Britain is; 8. what influences the climate of Great Britain; 9. what the surface of the British Isles is; 10. if the UK is a highly developed industrial country; 11. what means that Britain is a constitutional monarchy; 12. if Great Britain has a constitution; 13. what activities of Parliament in the UK are; 14. what chambers the British Parliament consists of; 15. what chamber is more important; 16. what the main parties in Great Britain are. VII. Disagree with the statements. Avoid simple negation. Model: - The British Prime Minister lives in Buckingham Palace. - No, I dont think thats correct. The Prime Minister lives at 10 Downing Street. Buckingham Palace is the residence of the Queen. 1. The members of the House of Lords are elected by the people. 2. Leeds is the capital of Britain. 3. The population of Great Britain is about 8 million. 4. Manchester is the sea port in Scotland. 5. The English channel separates the British Isles from Scandinavia. 6. The main items of British exports are oranges, bananas and wheat. 7. Britain imports coal, steel and aircraft. 8. Britain is a parliamentary republic.
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VIII. Read the following selections and speak about the main cities in Britain. Birmingham In the heart of England about 112 miles north-west of London is Birmingham. Birmingham is a city with the population of over one million. It is the centre of the iron industry. The district around Birmingham is known as the Black Country. It is the land of factories and mines. Steam-engines, motor-cars, railway carriages, bicycles and agricultural implements are manufactured in the factories of the Black Country. Manchester Great Britain lives by manufacture and trade. Its agriculture provides only half the food it needs, the other half of its food has to be imported. Britain is one of the most highly industrialized countries in the world: for every person employed in agriculture, eleven are employed in mining, manufacturing and building. The industrial centres of Great Britain are London, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield and others. Manchester is the centre of the cotton industry. With its large suburb Salford Manchester has a population of nearly one million. Manchester has few ancient buildings but few English cities have better parks of which there are over fifty. The largest of them is Heaton Park. Manchester is rich in libraries and schools. The University of Manchester founded in 1880 is famous for its studies. Bristol Bristol is not a very large port. It is smaller than Plymouth, Liverpool, Portsmouth and Dover but it is very beautiful. Bristol is divided into two parts. One of them is the port on the Avon with narrow streets, old churches and half timber houses. It has a wooden eighteenth century theatre untouched since those days. This was the port from which many ships sailed in Elizabeths reign. The eighteenth century stone houses climb up the hills past the beautiful and little known cathedral to the second part of Bristol. This part is more modern and it has many fine houses built of pink stone and many wonderful monuments and churches. Bristol has a college named College Green, the University, the art gallery and some museums. The University building has a very high tower from the top of which you can see College Green, many churches and Park Street. Oxford Oxford is one of the finest and most ancient cities. Oxford has had its University since the twelfth century. It contains twenty-eight colleges. Among the most beautiful of the colleges are Magdalen with its lovely chapel tower and Christ Church. Most of the colleges have big and well-ordered gardens. Many years ago there was a city wall, built in the thirteenth century. Now it is ruined but you can see a portion of this wall running through the garden of a new college.
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Oxford University is well known all over the world as one of the oldest universities. IX. Speak about Great Britain: a) its geographical position; b) its political system; c) its industries. DIALOGUES I. Read the dialogues in pairs and reproduce them. I A. Is England the only name for that country? B. No it isnt. Its also called Great Britain, or simply Britain. A. So it has two names? B. There is also a third name The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, or just the United Kingdom. A. But it sounds more official, doesnt it? B. Yes, its the official name for the country. II A. Is England a monarchy or a parliamentary republic? B. Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. A. Hows that? B. Its simple: theres a King, or a Queen and theres a parliament enjoying the right to pass laws and elect the government. III A. The seats in Parliament are hereditary, arent they? B. Not exactly. The seats are hereditary in the House of Lords, but as to the members of the House of Commons, they are elected every 5 years. A. Which chamber is more important and how many members are there in each of them? B. The House of Commons is surely considered more important. As far as I remember there are 635 MPs in the House of Commons. But the number of peers is considerably greater. II. At a sitting of the university English-speaking club you discuss: a) Britains economy today; b) its international role in the modern world; c) the life and activities of a prominent public figure in Britain.

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JUST FOR FUN

I. Read and answer. If problem If two cats are before a cat, and two cats are behind a cat, and a cat is in the middle, how many cats are there in all? II. Learn the following proverbs and sayings. Choose the one you like most and use it in a natural context. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. If ifs and ans were pots and pans. If the sky falls, we shall catch larks. If we cant as we would, we must do as we can. If wishes were horses, beggars might ride. If you run after two hares, youll catch neither. If you want a thing well done, do it yourself.

III. Learn the following by heart. Had we never loved so kindly, Had we never loved so blindly, Never met and never parted, Wed never been broken hearted. IV. Solve the puzzle. Within the grid, find the capitals of the countries listed below: U.K. AUSTRALIA GREECE EGYPT MALAYSIA ITALY VENEZUELA IRAN MALTA SPAIN JAPAN PERU SUDAN NICARAGUA KENYA BELGIUM TURKEY ARGENTINA SOUTH KOREA INDONESIA MEXICO BANGLADESH IRAQ NORWAY CANADA PHILIPPINES IRELAND TOGO JORDAN

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PUZZLE
W T E H E R A N E F K K W E B M I B V. L O N D I N N O D O O Y O V A E F U O S Z E C A N B E R R A R E G X I E M L I K K I I D R T O J Y O H I G N Q O T S E R V U T U R S I P D C O O L K R A R O P B D D S X K R A O T S O U R A J B E L A U V S E O D C K A M A N U K I R I C T E B E C E I H I E L S E I U L N C V M T D L R T A R C A M I T T A W A A A R J I S Y R E A L A N A N I L A T D N A M A A T S I U N Q H G L P H U R B K A A N O T R M A Y A E E E O A I K A A R O U D O P G I T I N I K N D E R L R O M E B U U T E S I O E U L A T E V A I O E R A M M A N C A R A C A S M C S R

Add one or more letters before the word one to get the word defined. 1. ? + one = something that holds ice cream; 2. ? + one = part of a skeleton; 3. ? + one = no longer here. 4. ? + one = accomplished; finished; 5. ? + one = without anyone else present; 6. ? + one = a musical sound; 7. ? + one = a rock; 8. ? + one = a geographical region or area; 9. ? + one = a chair for a king or queen; 10. ? + one = a windstorm; tornado; 11. ? + one = an instrument for talking to someone far away; 12. ? + one = nobody; 13. ? + one = not any; 14. ? + one = two.

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UNIT 5
Grammar: 1. The Compound Sentences 2. The Complex Sentences 3. Types of Clauses Texts: A. A Healthy You Can Cope with Work Stress B. The Nutritional Aspects of Stress Management C. There Are Many Kinds of Food D. Sensational Discovery Conversation: London


THE COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES. . 1. The Compound Sentences. , : ) and, or, nor, neither, else, but : Now we have different kinds of compasses, and we use them not only in navigation but in aircraft as well. , , .

) otherwise, however, nevertheless, yet, still : Engines must be lubricated sys- tematically, otherwise they may , be damaged. . ) :
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He turned the lever to the right, , the motor started. . 2. The Complex Sentences. , (the Principal Clause), (the Subordinate Clauses), . : a) : It is a well-known fact that radio , was invented by A. Popov. . . ) : How accurate the results will be depends on the class of a com- puter which you deal with. , . ) : We are going to inform you about the results we obtained experi- , mentally. . 3. Types of Clauses. . : - (the Subject Clause); - (the Predicative Clause); (the Object Clause); (the Attributive Clause); (the Adverbial Clause).

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The Subject Clauses. - - : a) that, if, whether: That Dickens is a great English , writer is known to everybody. , . Whether they will go to Moscow , is not yet discussed. . ! -, if, whether, , . ) who, whom, whose, what, which, where, when, why, how: What they were speaking about , was quite clear to him. . Where Ill find all the data for my , report is still a question. . . - , , it, : It is known that this device works , well. . The Predicative Clauses. - - ( ) - to be, to get, to become, to grow . - , -: The problem is whether he will , finish his experiment in time. .
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The trouble is that I have lost his , address. . ! - to be - : () , ; , ; , . The Object Clauses. that, if, whether who, whoever, whom, what, which, whichever, when, where, why, how . : I know where they will go this , summer. . They wanted to discuss what they , had read in the newspaper. . ! 1. . : He didnt know what this chart , referred to. . 2. , that . . : He was sure he would get excel- , lent results. . . , .

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The Attributive Clauses. , . : ) who, whom, whose , which , that ( whose) : The man whom you saw at my , place is my second cousin. , . Ive bought the book which (that) , you recommended. . ! which whom : The student with whom I traveled , last year is an excellent swimmer. , . ) when, where, why, how: He remembers the day when the , first sputnik was launched. . I often visit the town where I lived , in my childhood. . ) . , : I have read the book (which) you , gave me last time. . .
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! , which whom , : The house in which we live is new. The house we live in is new. : , , . ! , : The house which is occupied by , the office is big. , . The man who is reading a maga- , zine is my friend. , - . ! , , , . The Adverbial Clauses. ; ; , . , . : , , , , , , : As astronomy advanced, comets lost their mystery. , . ( )
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You must remember about it , wherever you are. . ( ) Since it was late, we decided to go , home. . ( ) I gave him your telephone num- ber, so that he might ring you up. , , . ( ) The weather was so bad that we , decided to stay at home. . ( ) He did as he had been told. , . ( )

He always took part in the confer- ences if he wasnt busy. , . ( ) , : after although as asas as if even if as long as as soon as as though because before for however if in order that in spite of lest provided that since so that (not) soas than that though till until unless when whenever where wherever while

: 1. , .
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2. ; . 3. ; . 4. . 5. .

EXERCISES

I. Find out the subjects and the predicates in the following compound sentences. Translate. 1. Most of us were in the hall, the doors had been closed and latecomers had to wait outside. 2. George was very good at mathematics, yet he was never given good marks. 3. Some job stress can be beneficial but overstress is dangerous to humans. 4. The quality of food bears directly on your health and you should select what foods to eat. 5. Fresh fruits and vegetables are the healthiest, frozen foods are the next best thing, and canned foods are the least nutritious. 6. Sugar gives a burst of energy to the nervous system, and dairy products have a congestive effect. 7. Now the planets green lungs are being destroyed, its ozone layer ruined, the global warming sets in, the acid rains fall out, the rivers grow shallower, and the oceans get polluted. 8. Science and technology are closely related, technology provides science with new and accurate instruments for investigation and research. 9. Children should have equal opportunities to get an education, whether they come from rich or poor families. II. Translate the following complex sentences with the subject clauses. Mind the connectors. 1. That theory must be accompanied by practice is the law of higher education. 2. What great changes have taken place in our country for the last 10 years is known to everybody. 3. Who has sent me this letter is not known. 4. Where I shall find all the necessary data for my report is still a question. 5. How a personal computer is used must be known to every specialist. 6. That the engine stopped running surprised everybody. 7. How hot the atmosphere becomes over any particular region depends on a number of factors. 8. Who will conduct the experiment is not yet known. 9. That Internet is the fastest and most reliable way to obtain information is well known to everybody. 10. Whether steel or aluminum is taken as building material depends upon many factors. 11. That water boils at the temperature of 1000 is common knowledge. 12. That there is an analogy between job stress and engineering stress is quite clear.

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III. Translate the sentences with the predicative clauses. 1. The question is whether they will finish the test in time. 2. The main point was where he could find the necessary data for his report. 3. This is why I want to be present at the lecture. 4. The trouble is that I have lost his address. 5. A very important problem is how job stress can be managed. 6. The most important feature of the English language is that it has a fixed word order. 7. The thing which greatly interested the scientists was whether other elements besides uranium possessed the property of radiation. 8. The most interesting thing about lasers is that they can transform electrical energy directly into light wave energy. 9. The primary problem is whether you can cope with job overstress. 10. The trouble is that overstress is as dangerous to humans as it is to engineering structures. IV. Translate the sentences with the object clauses. Mind the sequence of tenses. 1. The designer asked us what we thought of his project. 2. The professor was told that the new assistant had arrived. 3. I thought I should achieve good results. 4. When setting up a plan one must pay attention to how this plan should be implemented. 5. The Curies found polonium was many times more active than uranium. 6. In 1898 the Curies announced that they had discovered the element radium. 7. We can now calculate how many atoms there are in 1 gramme of any element. 8. We cant imagine how people could do without electrically operated devices. 9. We know that isotopes are atoms of the same atomic number but of different atomic weights. 10. We believe that automation not only makes labour more productive but radically changes its nature. 11. Now we know that 80% of industrial accidents are caused by a lack of psychological well-being. V. Translate the sentences with the attributive clauses. A. 1. The railroad line that connected Moscow with St. Petersburg was built at the close of the 19th century. 2. I addressed a student who was entering our laboratory. 3. A number whose value is to be found is called an unknown number. 4. Aluminium which is preferable to steel for certain parts of electric machinery is a very light metal. 5. The heat which a body contains is the kinetic energy of its molecules. 6. The student who is studying these diagrams will make a report at our conference. 7. The man whose report we appreciated highly spoke very well. 8. The engineer who invented this device works in our shop. 9. I work at the laboratory where new measuring devices are tested. 10. The problem which greatly interested the scientists was how protection could be given against radioactive substances. 11. In America where both the Fahrenheit and Centigrade scales are used, it is often necessary to find what reading on one scale corresponds to a given reading on the other. 12. In engineering, stress is a force that induces strain a deformation. B. 1. The man you ask me about works at our office. 2. The student our teacher wants to speak to is absent today. 3. The lectures I listen to at the University are very interesting. 4. Tell me something about the discoveries your friend made in this
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branch of science. 5. The student you want to see will come here today. 6. The man I am waiting for is late. 7. The young man you are speaking about wants to enter our University. 8. The magazine they asked me about is really very interesting. 9. The work she did last week was very important. 10. At last we found the material we were in need of. 11. The hydroelectric plant we are speaking of is not very far from here. 12. The method of work we are applying results in high efficiency. 13. He looked up the words he didnt know in a special dictionary. 14. He approved of the method they had adopted. 15. The plan she is speaking about is of great importance for the efficiency of our firm. VI. Change the following attributive clauses according to the models. Translate the sentences. Model 1: This is the lecture which we attend twice a week. This is the lecture we attend twice a week. 1. This is the device which our engineers have constructed. 2. The subject that they have chosen for the discussion is connected with the problem of job overstress. 3. At the discussion there was a new person whom we had never met before. 4. The problem of job stress which we discussed last week is very acute. Model 2: The laboratory in which they were working was large. The laboratory they were working in was large. 1. The man to whom I was introduced offered me a new job. 2. The staff of the college at which he arrived was not numerous. 3. The laboratory in which students are allowed to work has just been started up. 4. He was offered to work with the manager of whom he had heard much before. VII. Complete the following sentences using a clause with that (which, who). Model 1: The train leaves at 8. You are too late to catch the train that leaves at 8. 1. Mary has two brothers. One lives in America. Do you know the one .? 2. Some things were stolen. Have you got back the things .? 3. A man plays James Bond. Whats the name of the man .? 4. A woman answered the phone. The woman . asked me to call back later. 5. A book was left behind on the desk. The book . belongs to me.
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Model 2: I read a book last week. I really enjoyed the book that I read last week. 1. I met someone on the train. Someone . gave me some good advice. 2. We took some photographs on holiday. Have you seen the photographs .? 3. You asked for some information. We cannot provide the information . . 4. You read things in the newspaper. You shouldnt believe all the things . . 5. The Beatles recorded this song in 1966. This is one of the songs . . VIII. Complete the sentences by adding when, where, whose, or why. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. This is definitely the place where I left it. Do you remember the time . we got lost? There must be a good reason . he's late. They are building a hospital on the street . we live. Peter? Is he the one . car you borrowed? Can you give me any reason . I should help you? Mary is the one . desk is next to mine.

IX. Join the sentences below using who, whose, which. Make sure that the relative clause goes next to the word it gives extra information about. Model: Peter is studying French and German. He has never been abroad. Peter, who is studying French and German, has never been abroad.

1. I met Janes father. He works at the university. 2. Youve all met Michael. He is visiting us for a couple of days. 3. Michael is one of my oldest friends. He has just gone to live in Canada. 4. Manchester is in the north-west. It is one of Englands fastest growing towns. 5. Ill be staying with Nora. Her sister is one of my closest friends. X. Translate the sentences with the adverbial clauses. Pay attention to the conjunctions. 1. The student could not solve the problem as he had missed many lectures. 2. Whenever you work, you ought to work well. 3. Your work may be published, though it doesnt contain all the necessary data. 4. When Sophia Kovalevskaya came to St. Petersburg, she asked for permission to attend lectures at the University. 5. Water will not flow in a pipe unless there is a difference in pressure or water level. 6. Since air is not a compound but a mixture of the various components, each compo161

nent behaves as if the others were absent. 7. Further flights by unmanned spaceships to Venus and Mars will be tried in order that these planets should be thoroughly studied. 8. Not a few scientists and medical men lost their lives before it was found out how protection could be given against radioactive rays. XI. Look at these pairs of sentences. Complete one sentence with so and the other with such a. Note! You only use such before a noun, with or without an adjective. If a noun is a singular countable noun, put a (an) in front of it. You only use so before an adjective or an adverb. 1. He was such a fool that no one took any notice of him. He was so... silly that no one took any notice of him. 2. The room was in . mess it took two hours to tidy. The room was . untidy it took three hours to sort out. 3. We were . tired we went straight to bed when we got home. We had had . tiring day that we went straight to bed. 4. It took us . long to get home that we missed our supper. It took us . long time to get home that we missed our supper. 5. Her throat was . sore that she could hardly speak. She had . sore throat she could hardly speak. 6. He spoke in . soft voice we could hardly hear him. His voice was . soft we could hardly hear him. 7. I got . shock when I heard the news I didnt know what to say. I was . shocked when I got the news I didnt know what to say. 8. He lived . long way off that we hardly ever saw him. He lived . far away that we hardly ever saw him. 9. He was . badly injured that they took him straight to hospital. He had suffered . serious injury that they took him straight to hospital. 10. The children made . noise we could hardly hear ourselves speak. The kids were . noisy we could hardly hear ourselves speak. XII. A. Rewrite these sentences with sothat. 1. The hill was very steep. I had to get off my bike and walk. The hill was so steep that I had to get off my bike and walk. 2. Her writing was very small. I could hardly read it. 3. The winter was bitterly cold. All the streams were frozen. 4. His favourite shoes were very badly worn. He had to throw them away. 5. He looked very young. Everyone took him for a student. 6. Ken got very excited. He kept jumping up and down.

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B. Rewrite these sentences with suchthat. 1. The hill was very steep. I had to get off my bike and walk. It was such a steep hill that I had to get off my bike and walk. 2. He was a dreadful liar. Nobody believed anything he said. 3. It proved to be a very difficult problem. Nobody could solve it. 4. We had a very good time. We didnt want to go home. 5. His clothes were very old. They were falling apart. 6. The food was very good. We all ate far too much. XIII. The sentences below all have though, although, or even though. Use one of these phrases to complete them. we only arrived just in time he was difficult to understand I used to when I was younger we had no time for lunch she kept her coat on you're not so tall as he was he still wasnt tired the water was awful I really like John

1. Although we were desperately hungry, we had no time for lunch . 2. We enjoyed our holiday, even though . . 3. . , even though it was very warm. 4. I dont play the piano now, although . . 5. You look very like your grandfather, although . . 6. Though he hadnt stopped working all day, . . 7. . , even though his English was very good. 8. . , although he can be very annoying at times. 9. Although we set off early, . . XIV. The sentences below all have in spite of or despite. Use one of the noun groups given to complete them. the unpopularity of his decision the difference in their ages the high cost of living his recent illness all his precautions the heavy traffic her fear his injury the rain

1. The air was fresh and clean in spite of the heavy traffic. 2. He looked very well in spite of . . 3. Despite . she did her best to smile bravely. 4. He refused to change his mind despite . . 5. Despite . they were very close friends. 6. I didnt earn much in Japan in spite of . . 7. In spite of . his money was still stolen. 8. He continued the race despite . . 9. We still had our picnic in spite of . .

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XV. Rewrite the following pairs of sentences to make one complex sentence. Use the adverbial clauses. (1) (although) John is only sixteen. He has already entered the university. (2) (because) He studied hard at school. He wanted to be accepted by a good university. (3) (as if) He always conducted himself properly. He was older than his years. (4) (since) His family lived a long way from the university. He had to move to a strange city. (5) (when) He reached the university. Classes had not started yet. (6) (while) He was searching for a place to live. He met a foreign student. (7) (after) The two boys became acquainted. They decided to share a room. XVI. Read the following complex sentences. Find out the subordinate clauses, define the type of each clause and translate the sentences. 1. We dont know whether the new financial policy of the government will be successful. 2. Whenever mans friends begin to compliment him about looking young, he may be sure that they think he is growing old. 3. Dont trust a subordinate who never finds fault with his superior. 4. Everyone knows that taxation is necessary in a modern state. 5. Though everyone knows that taxation is necessary, different people have different ideas about how taxation should be arranged. 6. If you are to have a good command of a foreign language, you must read a lot. 7. Why a good vocabulary is important is obvious. 8. That poetry is difficult for some readers is a fact. 9. What caused the accident was a complete mystery. 10. They soon repaired the car, which had not been badly damaged. 11. That Charlie Chaplin was a great comedian is common knowledge. 12. I will return your book on Monday as soon as I have read it. 13. The question is what caused the job stress. 14. Whether we can help you is a difficult question.

Text A.

A HEALTHY YOU CAN COPE WITH WORK STRESS

There is a clear analogy between job stress and the engineering characterization of stress. In engineering, stress is a force that induces strain a deformation. An excessive force, or overstress, leads to rupture. In job stress, some combination of work
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factors interact with a person to disrupt his physiological or psychological well-being; his reaction to those stress factors is called strain. The analogy becomes a little fuzzy when you examine some of the basic sources of job stress. For example, stressors include such things as too much or too little to do; extreme ambiguity or extreme rigidity associated with tasks; extreme role conflict or too little conflict; and extreme amounts of responsibility or little responsibility. As this list suggests, some job stress is not only acceptable, it can be beneficial. But overstress is as potentially dangerous to humans as it is to engineering structures. In cases of job overstress you wont hear a sharp crack as something fails nor will the human mechanism simply cease to function. But the job-related strain will be there, in several possible forms: short term effects (anxiety, tension, anger, paranoia); chronic psychological states (depression, feelings of fatigue, alienation, a general malaise); clinical-psychological changes (level of blood lipids, blood pressure, gut motility); physical health status (gastrointestinal disorders, coronary heart disease, asthmatic attacks); and a fall off in work performance (severe decrease in productivity, increase in error rates, high absenteeism, inflexible behavior). No one in a responsible production position can ignore these effects of overstress in others or himself. One source has estimated that 80% of industrial accidents may be caused by a lack of psychological well-being. Job success is highly correlated with the ability to cope with stress. In short, effective management of stress is a worthy goal. Learning to cope, or manage stress, involves three major components physical activity, nutrition, and intellectual activity. Physical activity is concerned with relaxation techniques, control of bodily activities, and physical exercises. It is an outlet for the release of energy built up during stressful activity. Nutrition is concerned with a balanced program for eating and drinking. A nutrition program helps to eliminate eating and drinking habits as a stress factor. Intellectual activity is concerned with communication skills, goal setting, assertiveness, elimination of selfdefeating attitudes, and improving self-concept. It serves to lower the effects of stress by developing specific resistances and coping mechanisms. Success also depends upon first mastering the physical and nutritional components of stress management. In short, to state the obvious, good intellectual activity is enhanced by good health. And various activities that promote good health are particularly relevant to stress management. ======================VOCABULARY=================== stress, n strain, n rupture, n disrupt, v fuzzy, adj , , , , , , , , , ,
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, , , crack, n , , fatigue, n , malaise, n gut, n , fall off, n , , absenteeism, n ( ), , accident, n correlate (to, with), v , ; cope (with), v , worthy, adj , , nutrition, n , concern, v , ; , (-); , outlet, n ; release, n , eliminate, v , , , skill, n , , , , goal, n , set, v , self-defeating, adj self-concept, n attitude, n resistance, n obvious, adj , , enhance, v , , ====================================================== I. Transcribe the words consulting a dictionary. Read them in transcription: rupture, fuzzy, associate, ambiguity, cease, anxiety, chronic, fatigue, alienation, malaise, coronary, technique, asthmatic, absenteeism, accident, cause, nutrition, assertiveness, enhance, obvious, particularly, analogy, psychology.
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beneficial, adj cease, v

II. Guess the meaning of the following international words: engineering, characterization, deformation, analogy, extreme, technique, effect, clinical, physiological, psychological, component, relaxation, program, function, energy, conflict, potentially, activity, reaction, management, induce. III. Define the stem of the following words, name the suffixes and prefixes. Translate the words: stressor, overstress, rigidity, disorder, inflexible, relaxation, assertiveness, resistance, particularly, nutritional, communication, management, deformation. IV. Read the adjectives and the nouns derived from them. Translate the nouns: rigid active flexible ambiguous stable responsible possible alien particular anxious motile assertive , , , , , , , , , , , , , , rigidity activity flexibility ambiguity stability responsibility possibility alienation particularity anxiety motility assertiveness -

V. Match the words on the left with their definitions on the right: 1) to cope 2) to induce 3) to concern 4) to cease 5) to eliminate 6) to enhance 7) to promote A) to be busy with, interest oneself in B) to add to (the value, attraction, etc) C) to help to organize and start D) to persuade or influence; to lead or to cause E) to manage successfully F) to come or bring to an end; to stop G) to remove, to take or put away

Answer key: 1E; 2D; 3A; 4F; 5G; 6B; 7C.

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VI. Look through the text A Healthy You Can Cope with Work Stress and find the English equivalents for the following words and expressions: ; , () ; (); , ; ; ; (, ); ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; () ; ; () ; ; ; ; ; ; . VII. Read the sentences and explain their grammar structures. Translate them using a dictionary. 1. In cases of job overstress you wont hear a sharp crack as something fails nor will the human mechanism simply cease to function. 2. No one in a responsible production position can ignore these effects of overstress in others or himself. 3. In job stress, some combination of work factors interact with a person to disrupt his physiological or psychological well-being. 4. Overstress is as potentially dangerous to humans as it is to engineering structures. 5. In short, to state the obvious, good intellectual activity is enhanced by good health. VIII. Read the text A Healthy you Can Cope with Work Stress silently. Find the sentences with the attributive and adverbial clauses. Translate them. IX. Answer the following questions. The text A Healthy You Can Cope with Work Stres will help you. 1. Why is there a clear analogy between job stress and the engineering characterization of stress? 2. Why does the analogy become a little fuzzy when you examine some of the main sources of job stress? 3. What are the basic sources of job stress? 4. What are the possible forms of the job-related strain? 5. What causes most industrial accidents? 6. What are the major components to cope and manage job stress? 7. Does success depend on good health?
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8. Have you ever suffered from work stress? Did you manage to cope with it? 9. Do you think that physical exercises and a balanced program for eating and drinking can help humans to cope with work stress? X. Agree or disagree with the following statements. Give your reasons. Use the phrases below. For agreement: Thats just what I thought Yes, thats exactly what I think I also think that I agree entirely Thats a good point I quite agree (with, that) I accept that You are right in saying that For disagreement: Yes, thats quite true, but Im not sure I quite agree Perhaps, but dont you think that I see what you mean, but I just cant accept that I very much doubt that Its completely wrong to say that Well, I dont really see your point.

1. There is a slight analogy between work stress and the engineering characterization of stress. 2. Overstress is acceptable and it is not potentially dangerous to humans. 3. A fall off in work performance is one of several forms of job-related strain. 4. If you are in a responsible production position you cant ignore the effects of overstress. 5. If you want to cope with work stress, you must control your physical and intellectual activity. 6. Your success does not depend on your physical and psychological activity. XI. Make up the summary of the text A Healthy You Can Cope with Work Stress. Text B. THE NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF STRESS MANAGEMENT

The nutritional aspects of stress management are straightforward: you should be concerned with not only what you eat but also how much you eat. Doing a better job of selecting what foods to eat doesnt mean you must become a health-food faddist. You must be aware, though, that the quality of food bears directly on your health and the energy available for work. If your nutritional education needs sharpening, here is a reminder of the types of useful guidance you can find by studying nutritional literature: Fresh foods are the healthiest, frozen are the next best thing, and canned foods the least nutritious.
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Whole grains in breads, flour, and pastries contain all the natural nourishment of the grain. White flour is stripped of its food value when it is bleached. Sugar gives a burst of energy to the nervous system and then it takes a long time to replenish the energy. The result is quick up and long down. Dairy products have a congestive effect. They are mucus forming, which means they produce a substance to coat and protect areas of the body. This mucus layer can be useful in keeping the body warm in winter, but may be unnecessary in the warmer seasons. Pay attention to what dairy products do for you. A balanced diet contains a little bit of every food group. Dont forget fresh fruits and vegetables. They are an excellent source of vitamins and minerals which are absolutely necessary for the proper functioning of your body. Some of the most nutritious foods of all are little known in our society. They include nutritional yeast, soy beans, miso, bean curd, sprouts, and seaweed. Consult your health food store for information as to their applications and benefits. Most important, remember everybody is different. So eat what feels good to you, not what you think, read, or hear should be good. Learn to trust your healthy self. Before you eat, first consider whether or not you are hungry. If you are not hungry, chances are that your body does not need any food dont waste your time eating. If you are hungry, determine how much food it will take to satisfy your hunger. You must develop the ability to eat only until you know that you are no longer hungry. In short, as you eat, think healthy and ask yourself if you really need that food. Include a program for food health in your life and you will notice differences in your being that affect work. Youll be more aware of whats going on around you. Youll have a more consistent level of energy as you go through the day. Youll have a greater sense of control over your life and more confidence in your work. Youll be able to concentrate on those intellectual activities that will help you cope with the stresses of your job. One more general thought. Use your time advantageously. Balance is all important. Balance work and relaxation for a truly healthier, less stressful life. ======================VOCABULARY=================== be aware of faddist, n bear on, v canned food grain, n flour, n pastry, n strip of, v , , (-),
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food value bleach, v replenish, v dairy products congestive effect mucus, n nutritional yeast soy beans bean curd sprouts, n seaweed, n nourishment, n

() , ,

====================================================== I. Read the text A Nutritional Aspects of Stress Management. Find the answers to the questions below: 1. What are the nutritional aspects of stress management? 2. What should you know to select what foods to eat? 3. What foods are the healthiest? 4. What is the role of sugar? 5. How do dairy products affect the human organism? 6. What does a balanced diet consist of? 7. What are the most nutritious foods? 8. What must one do in order to feel healthy and strong? Give recommendations. 9. What are your eating habits? Do you balance your food? II. Read the text The Nutritional Aspects of Stress Management again. Find the English equivalents for the following words and phrases: ; , ; , ; ; (); ; ; ( ); () (); ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ( );
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III. Name at least 5 nutritious foods and 3 - 5 dairy products. IV. Look through texts A and B. Write your recommendations how to cope with work stress. V. Give a presentation of the problems posed in texts A and B. Text C. THERE ARE MANY KINDS OF FOOD

Since most of us eat their meals with a family, suppose we talk about family meals. There are first the foods which are rich in animal protein, like milk, meat, eggs, fish and cheese. It is easy to build an adequate diet for growth when we can use liberal amounts of the protein foods which come from animals. Milk and milk products form a special class of foods because in addition to the excellent protein they contain, they also are rich in calcium, which is one of the important minerals used in building bones. Next, suppose we discuss the foods which come from plants. This is a very large group which includes fruits, vegetables and cereals. In fact, a large number of people in the world have to depend on plants rather than meats to give them protein because this kind of food can be produced most cheaply. It also provides vitamins and minerals for our diet. Have you ever thought of all the kinds of foods which come from cereals? Think first of bread made from wheat, from rye, from oats, from corn. You would probably name next the many, many kinds and forms of cereal products such as oatmeal or cornflakes. Then there are the so called "pastes" like macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli and the many other forms of paste. Barley is used in delicious hearty soups. Buckwheat is used in griddle-cakes. Man has learned to strip grains of the highly nutritious outer brown coats, but many of these elements have been put back into the "enriched" cereal products. Bread, breakfast cereals and corn meal can all be purchased now in the enriched form. Let us talk next about fruits and vegetables. Can you imagine how drab our meals would be if suddenly we had no gardens or orchards? We would miss most of the color in our meals the color of a ripe tomato, a bright orange, the greenness of fresh peas, the golden glow of squash, the rosiness of red apples! We would also miss much flavor in our meals - the tartness of a crisp apple, the sweet sour of grapefruit or fresh lemon. Children too would miss fruits and vegetables. Nutritionists know that besides the satisfactions to eye and tongue which fruits and vegetables give, their very color and tartness are related to their nutritive value. Yellow, orange and green are important colors when we consider nutritive value. Associated with these colors in fruits and vegetables is the important vitamin A. The
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yellow food pigment carotene is changed in our bodies to the real vitamin A. Although carotene is a yellow pigment, it is also found along with the green pigment of plants. The darker the green color in a vegetable or the brighter the yellow, the more carotene the food contains. Perhaps you have heard or read that green, unbleached celery and green cabbage are more nutritious than the white varieties. Now you know why. This is a useful fact to remember when you shop at the greengrocer's. The tartness of grapefruit, oranges and lemons which makes our mouths water when we smell them, leads us to another necessary vitamin. This one is called vitamin C, or ascorbic acid. Vitamin C is also found in vegetables like those of the cabbage family, which includes also Brussels sprouts. Turnips, onions and white potatoes also contain valuable amounts of this vitamin. Vitamin C does not like the heat of cooking, so you are advised to serve one raw fruit and one raw vegetable each day. Sugars and fats furnish extra calories for our diet. Fats also have another important function in nutrition. Many of our natural foods like meat, milk, eggs, cheese, nuts and even some vegetables contain fat. Fat in a meal has the property of making us feel satisfied. Children and most adults like some extra fat, for example butter or margarine on bread or fat used in cooking. Now sugar is another matter. We have become sugar-eaters. We eat ten times as much as our great-grandmothers did. But sugar in moderation is a good energy food. Fruits and the sweeter vegetables contain sugar which should be considered. Sugar is also capable of making us feel satisfied at the end of a meal. There are lots of sweet foods everywhere, and doctors, nutritionists and dentists keep saying "Don't use too much!"
From Feeding Your Baby and Child by B. M. Spock and M. E. Lowenberg (Adapted)

======================VOCABULARY=================== cereals, n wheat, n rye, n oats, n corn, n paste(s), n barley, n delicious, a hearty, a buckwheat, n griddle-cakes, n breakfast cereals drab, a ripe, a squash, n , () , ; , () , ( ) , , , ,
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flavor, n , , , tart, a , , crisp, a celery, n turnip, n onion, n cabbage, n fats, n ========================================================== I. Learn the words to text C. Make sure you can translate them both from English into Russian and from Russian into English. II. Read the text There Are Many Kinds of Food. Answer the questions below. 1. What foods are rich in animal protein? 2. What foods come from plants? 3. What foods come from cereals? 4. What is the value of fruits and vegetables? 5. What vitamins can we get from fruits and vegetables? 6. What are important colours in fruits and vegetables? Why? 7. What is the function of fats? 8. What foods can contain fats? 9. Is sugar a good energy food? 10. What foods produce vitamins and minerals for our diet? III. Underline the suffixes in the following words. Translate the words: growth, cheaply, highly, greenness, suddenly, tartness, rosiness, brighter, important, moderation, nutritionist, satisfaction. IV. Divide the following sentence into sense groups. Translate. Milk and milk products form a special class of foods because in addition to the excellent protein they contain, they also are rich in calcium, which is one of the important minerals used in building bones. V. Read the text There Are Many Kinds of Food carefully. Find the sentences with subordinate clauses. Define what types they belong to. Translate the sentences. VI. Name 5 10 things which are rich in animal proteins; rich in vitamins and minerals; rich in fats;
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cereals; fruits; vegetables. VII. Match up the color with the appropriate foods: 1. green 2. yellow 3. orange 4. red a) orange b) tomato c) squash d) apple e) grapefruit f) celery g) turnip

VIII. Match up the vitamins with the appropriate foods: 1. Vitamin A 2. Vitamin C a) oranges b) cabbage c) celery d) brussels sprouts e) turnips f) onions g) lemons

IX. Exclude foods that dont contain fats: cheese, meat, eggs, apples, milk, turnip, cabbage, nuts, macaroni, wheat, squash. X. Make up short reports on the following topics: 1. The foods which come from plants. 2. The foods which come from animals. Text D. SENSATIONAL DISCOVERY RELATING TO ELECTRONICS AND MEDICINE Since time immemorial scientists have dreamed about eliminating disease. Medieval alchemists believed that doing so would result in human immortality. But it was only in 1912 that Austrian scientist Nager introduced the term "geriatrics", marking the beginning of the science of aging. The works of Botkin and Mechnikov confirmed the assumption of ancient physicians. By the middle of the 20th century scientists established that the coordinated work of all internal organs depends on the hypothalamus a special part of brain. It processes the information, and sends signals to organs. It became known that these
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driving pulses are of electric nature, and interruptions in this system have catastrophic consequences. Never did medicine have the means to influence this system. Late in the 1970s Soviet military electronics made fantastic progress. No wonder that it was in this sphere that the discovery at the junction of electronics and medicine was made. Having investigated the characteristics of signals sent from the brain to all the organs of a healthy organism, electronics experts made a tiny microprocessor which can imitate such impulses. Their underlying idea was very simple: if there are some failures in the organism control system, the microprocessor would compensate. The electronic pill, once it is in the stomach, comes into contact with nerve endings and begins to send pulses through them. These pulses get into the central nervous system and arouse reciprocal reaction. The organism begins to look younger. After 25-30 hours the pill is released naturally. One pill is sufficient for several months. In 1984 the security bodies stamped the discovery as classified. Hundreds of experiments were staged on dogs, after which each of the inventors swallowed several pills and thoroughly recorded their observations: "...20-40 minutes after taking the pill a person begins to feel inside his body a self-contained electro-stimulant, and a little later, its movement inside the body... Women who have given birth to a baby, experience a feeling close to pregnancy, some men note the unusual sensations and a certain state of anxiety..." Then the stimulant was tested by patients, and only after that the official clinical tests of the autonomous electro-stimulant started in the leading clinics of the country, including the Institute of Surgery, headed by Academician Petrovsky (in those years the USSR Minister of Public Health). It is also known that once these pills saved the life of a cosmonaut after a grave operation. At this stage the story of the electronic pill comes abruptly to an end. It is known that in ten years this pill was used nearly two million times in the former 4th Main Department of the Ministry of Public Health. It was used to cure the patients of special elite clinics. The pill was produced by the military-industrial complex, in extremely limited numbers. The pill project was almost lost once the Politburo was dissolved and the unknown military plant underwent conversion. But thank God people came forward to save the unique industry. In November 1991 the management of the Public Health Ministry signed the quality certificate of the self-contained electric stimulant. Thereby, a permission was granted for a wide use of such stimulants. The pills were on sale at the chemist's, but even the salesmen could not explain clearly what pains this strange remedy relieves. After that the Soviet Union disintegrated and the economic crisis intensified. Despite this, scientists go on working on the improvement of the pill. It turned out that if the surface of the capsule is covered with a thin coating of zinc, copper or silver, the atoms of metal will get directly into the blood. This will make it possible to cure with greater success, and in the future to make the pill remote-controlled. Most likely, our children will use such pills for treatment.
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Notes on the text: on short notice to stamp smth. as classified ,

I. Read the text Sensational Discovery Relating to Electronics and Medicine. Answer the questions that follow. 1. What have scientists dreamed about since time immemorial? 2. What does the coordinated work of all internal organs depend on? 3. How does hypothalmus work? 4. What discovery did Soviet scientists make in 1970s? 5. How does the electronic pill work? 6. How was the electronic pill tested? 7. Did the experiments prove the assumption of scientists? 8. Is electro-stimulant introduced into pharmaceutical production? 9. Do the scientists work on the improvement of the pill? And what do they plan to do? II. Make up a brief plan how electronic pill was invented and introduced into practice. III. Make up the summary of the text. The following phrases will help you: It is described in short It is shown that It is dealt with Data are given about Attempts are made to analyze (to formulate) is (are) given is provided for is designed for is examined is investigated is analyzed is formulated The need is stressed Attention is drawn to Conclusions are drawn

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I. Read the dialogue in pairs. A VISIT TO A DIETITIAN Dr. Jones: Good morning, Mrs. Fat. Sit down, please. Mrs. Fat: Good morning, Dr. Jones. Do you mind if I sit on the sofa? Dr. Jones: No, not at all. You can take any seat you like. So you would like to lose weight, wouldnt you? Mrs. Fat: Exactly. Ive been overweight all my life and now I think its time I started dieting. Dr. Jones: Oh, yes. I see. You know before I can recommend you a particular diet I must learn all about your eating habits. How many meals a day do you normally have? Mrs. Fat: I usually have only three meals a day. I mean breakfast, lunch and dinner, but unfortunately I very often eat between meals. Dr. Jones: What do you have for breakfast? Mrs. Fat: A traditional English breakfast. I have a glass of orange juice, a bowl of cereal and bacon and eggs. And then I drink tea. Dr. Jones: Do you like milk in your tea? Mrs. Fat: Well, that depends. On some days I just have a couple of sandwiches for lunch, but sometimes I also have a bowl of soup and cakes or pies to follow. Dr. Jones: What do you have for dinner and when do you have it? Mrs. Fat: I normally have dinner at 8 p.m. I know its a bit too late, it just happens so. What do I have? You know, I like to have a very substantial dinner a starter, like a salad or assorted meat, followed by a main course such as beefsteak or fish and chips and then dessert and tea or coffee. Dr. Jones: What do you have for dessert as a rule? Mrs. Fat: Ice-cream or cakes, or both. Dr. Jones: And what do you eat between meals? Mrs. Fat: Peanuts, chocolate, popcorn, crisps and stuff. Sometimes I just like to nibble candies. Dr. Jones: In fact, many people do the same and yet they have no problem with excess weight. Let me see Do you fry one or two eggs with your bacon in the morning? Mrs. Fat: I actually take eight eggs, but I share my breakfast with my toy-poodle dog. Dr. Jones: I see. Here is my prescription: Dont change your diet. Change your dog. Replace it with Labrador. Or keep both dogs and share all your meals with them. And here is the telephone number of a vet, who is a very good dog dietitian, just in case your dogs might need a correction of their diet.

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===================VOCABULARY NOTES================== overweight, n cream, n skimmed milk pie, n starter, n peanuts, n crisps, n stuff, n to nibble candies prescription, n substantial, a , , , () , ( , )

II. Answer the questions on the dialogue: 1. Why did Mrs. Fat come to the doctor? 2. What are Mrs. Fats eating habits? 3. What does she have for breakfast? 4. What does Mrs. Fat have for lunch? 5. What does she have for dinner? 6. What does she eat between meals? 7. Who does she have her breakfast with? 8. What were the doctors recommendations? III. Make up a similar dialogue and stage it with your fellow students. CONVERSATION LONDON =====================VOCABULARY==================== commercial, a belong (to), v epoch, n numerous, a ancient, a striking, a church, n fortress, n royal, a palace, n ,
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prison, n crown, v statesman, n bury, v tower, n wealth, n luxury, n splendid, a in memory of column, n contain, v priceless, a manuscript, n coin, n workshop, n narrow, a unimpressive, a densely, adv populate, v

, Names

the Bank of England Tennyson [tenisn] the Stock Exchange [stk iksteind] Kipling [kipli] Westminster Palace [westminstr the Old Bailey [ould beili] , - plis] (the Houses of Parliament) ( - ) St. Pauls Cathedral [snt p:lz Big Ben , ki:drl] . (- ( - ) , Sir Christopher Wren [s: kristf ) ren] Buckingham Palace [bkim the Tower [tau] of London plis] ( Julius Caesar [du:lis si:z] ) Trafalgar Square [trflg William the Conqueror [wiljm skw] kkr] , I ( Nelsons Column [nelsnz klm] ) ( 180

Westminster

Abbey

[westminstr

) the National Gallery [nnl glri] ( ) the National Portrait [p:trit] Gallery the British Museum ( )

bi] Newton [nju:tn] Darwin [da:win] Chaucer [t:s] Dickens [dikinz]

I. Read the text 'London. Answer the questions after it. LONDON London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million. London is one of the oldest and most interesting cities in the world. Traditionally it is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. They are very different from each other and seem to belong to different towns and epochs. The heart of London is the City, its financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. Few people live here, but over a million people come to the City to work. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps the most striking of them is St. Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built in the 17th century by Sir Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt by William the Conqueror. It was used as a fortress, a royal palace and a prison. Now it is a museum. Westminster is the historic, the governmental part of London. Westminster Abbey has more historic associations than any other building in Britain. Nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned here. Many outstanding statesmen, scientists, writers, poets and painters are buried here: Newton, Darwin, Chaucer, Dickens, Tennyson, Kipling, etc. Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, or the Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Parliament. The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big hour bell, known as "Big Ben". Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen.
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The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is the symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, shops, restaurants, clubs, and theatres are situated there. There are splendid houses and lovely gardens belonging to wealthy people. Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was named in memory of Admiral Nelson's victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column stands in the middle of the square. On the north side of Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum the biggest museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc, and is famous for its library. The East End is the poorest district of London. There are a lot of factories, workshops and docks here. The streets are narrow, the buildings are unimpressive. The East End is densely populated by working class families. QUESTIONS 1. Is London the largest city in the world? 2. Whats the population of London? 3. Traditionally London is divided into several parts. Can you name them? 4. What do you know about the City? 5. Who was St Pauls Cathedral built by? 6. Who founded the Tower of London? When was it rebuilt? 7. What is the historic, the governmental part of London? 8. What building has more historic associations than any other building in London? 9. What is Big Ben? 10. Can you describe Trafalgar Square? 11. Where do the working people of London live? 12. What are the most famous London museums and art galleries? II. Match the two halves 1. London 2. The Bank of England 3. The City 4. St. Pauls Cathedral 5. The West End 6. Westminster Palace 7. Trafalgar Square 8. Buckingham Palace 9. The Tower of London 10. Westminster Abbey a) is the official residence of the Queen. b) is the geographical centre of London. c) was founded by Julius Caesar. d) is across the road from Westminster Abbey. e) is one of the most famous ancient buildings within the City. f) is the place where most English kings and queens have been crowned. g) is situated in the heart of London, in its financial and business centre. h) is the symbol of wealth and luxury and the most beautiful part of London.
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i) is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. j) is the oldest part of London where few people live but over a million people come to work here. III. Decide if the following is true (T) or false (F). Correct the false statements. 1. The Tower of London is the place where nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned. 2. Westminster is the financial and business centre of London. 3. St. Pauls Cathedral is situated in the West End. 4. The Tower of London was founded by William the Conqueror. 5. Westminster Palace is the seat of the British Parliament. 6. The National Gallery is the biggest museum of London and contains a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures and is famous for its library. 7. A lot of factories, workshops and docks are situated in the East End. 8. The big hour bell of the Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is known as Big Ben. 9. Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of the City. 10. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City, the Tower of London is among them. IV. Name the main sights of London and say what you know about them. V. Read the text The Capital of Great Britain. The vocabulary will help you understand the text. THE CAPITAL OF GREAT BRITAIN London, the capital of Great Britain, is a big city. It covers more than 600 square miles and consists of 33 separate boroughs, including the City, the West End, the East End and houses of 7 million people. They say, big cities are not always different. Modern buildings, modern shops and stores, hotels and cinemas look alike in todays cities. But some things you can only see in London. What are they? In London you find Beefeaters and Pearly Kings and Queens. You find Covent Garden and Madam Tussauds. Britain has more living symbols of its past than many other countries, and its capital boasts many ancient buildings like the Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey, or St. Paul's Cathedral. London is a royal city. The British king or queen has a palace there Buckingham Palace. Queen Elizabeth lives there now. Tourists

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can see the everyday ceremony called the Changing of the Guard. Every day a new guard of thirty guardsmen marches to the palace and takes the place of the old guard. The Tower of London, built in 1078 by William the Conqueror to protect the city, is an interesting place with its Beefeaters and the Crown Jewels. The Imperial State Crown is one of the Crown Jewels in the Jewel House in the Tower of London. It has 3000 stones in it: diamonds, red rubies, blue sapphires, and beautiful pearls. The queen wears it on state occasions. Then it goes back to the Tower. The Beefeaters guard the Tower and the Crown Jewels, and they help visitors. Every year there are historical ceremonies, for example, the State opening of Parliament, when the Queen reads a speech from the throne in the House of Lords, or the Lord Mayors Show, in which the newly elected Lord Mayor travels in a golden coach along the streets. London is a city, but to Londoners the City is a place in London. The banks and big companies have their head offices there. City offices are in tall modern buildings, or in old buildings in narrow streets. The office people do not live in the City, they come to the City every day, from Monday to Friday. Five important streets meet at Piccadilly Circus in London's 'West End'. The cars, the tourist coaches, the red London buses, and the taxis go round a statue there. It is not a statue of a famous man or woman. People don't remember the statue's real name. They say: Its Eros, the Greek god of love. Piccadilly Circus is a very busy place. It is busy day and night. People come here to the shops in the day time, and at night they come for a night out. They can eat in one of the restaurants in the West End near Piccadilly Circus. They can get food from twenty different countries in West End restaurants. Londoners, and visitors, can go to a theatre in the West End, or to a concert, to an opera or a ballet. And there are fifty cinemas near Piccadilly Circus. West End hosts museums and galleries, among them are the Tate Gallery, the National Gallery, the National Portrait Gallery and the British Museum. The East End is the area of London where people from abroad have come to find work. It is especially famous as the centre of the clothing industry in London and as a market place. Every Sunday morning it becomes one of the sights of London. London is packed with interest and it's all in colour. So whether you're new to the city, or you've visited it before there will be something exciting in London. =====================VOCABULARY==================== cover, v separate borough Beefeaters Pearly King (Pearly Queen) ( ) ( ) ( 184

look alike, v boast, v royal city guard, n march, v protect, v diamonds, n red rubies, n sapphires, n pearls, n state occasion newly elected golden coach tourist coach statue, n clothing industry

/)

VI. Answer the following questions: 1. How large is London? 2. What things can you see only in London? 3. Can you name any ancient buildings situated in London? 4. What ceremony can tourists see at the Buckingham Palace? 5. Where is the Imperial State Crown? 6. What is Piccadilly Circus? 7. How can a tourist spend his time in the West End? 8. What would you like to see in London? VII. Find in the text the equivalents for the following words and phrases: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) ; ; ; ; , ; ; , ; (, ; ; ); 9) ; 10) ; 11) -;
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12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18)

; ; ; ; ( ); ; - .

VIII. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. , . 2. . , . 3. () , . 4. . 3000 : , , . . 5. . , . 6. , . 7. , . , , . IX. Act as a guide. Make up a plan of your tour around London. Invite your friends to follow you. The map of London will help you.

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X. Read the text The Tower of London. Find the answers to the following questions: 1. What was the Tower of London in ancient times? 2. What was kept there? 3. What is the Tower of London today? 4. Why are the ravens cared so carefully in the Tower? 5. What tradition has been kept since reign of Henry VIII?

THE TOWER OF LONDON

The Tower of London was begun by William the Conqueror as a fortress and palace. Later kings made it larger and stronger and kept soldiers, armour, weapons, treasure, and sometimes important prisoners there. For five hundred years coins of realm were minted at the Tower and official documents were stored in some of the castle buildings. There was even a zoo there which began as the kings private collection of animals. Nowadays it is busy with thousands of visitors. In fact the Tower today is like a traditional English village. The ravens are certainly among the most important residents in the Tower, for so the story goes if they ever leave, the Tower will fall and England with it. These days there are usually about six ravens hopping and pecking around the Tower lawns in the daytime. One of the Yeoman Warders cares for them. He feeds them on raw meat, biscuits soaked in blood, rabbits heads, fruit and eggs. He takes them back into their cage every night, and from time to time clips their wings - just to make sure that they never do leave. The Yeoman Warders have guarded the Tower since reign of Henry VIII. Every day at the Tower ends with the Ceremony of the Keys. The soldiers of the Tower Guard escort the Chief Yeoman Warder as he locks the outer gates. When this is done the guard salute the Queen's keys and the Chief Warder calls out God preserves Queen Elizabeth. Then he takes the keys to the Governor in Queens House. The Tower of London is safe and secure for the night. It is a very old ceremony 700 years old.

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=====================VOCABULARY==================== fortress, n armour, n weapons, n treasure, n prisoner, n coins of realm mint, v store, v raven, n resident, n peck, v a biscuit soaked in blood clip, v reign, n escort, v salute, v XI. Fill in prepositions or adverbs. 1. The Tower of London was begun William the Conqueror as a fortress and palace. 2. five hundred years coins realm were minted .. the Tower and official documents were stored some the castle buildings. 3. it is busy thousands visitors. 4. The ravens are certainly the most important residents the Tower. 5. These days there are usually about six ravens hopping and pecking the Tower lawns the daytime. 6. He feeds them raw meat. 7. He takes them into their cage. 8. The Tower London is safe and secure the night. 9. Every day the Tower ends the Ceremony the Keys. XII. Translate the following into English: 1. . 2. , . . 3. . . 4. . , , , , .
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5. . , , , . , . 6. VIII . XIII. Read the text St. Pauls Cathedral. Answer the questions that follow. St. Paul's Cathedral is the work of the famous architect Sir Christopher Wren. It is said to be one of the finest pieces of architecture in Europe. Work on Wren's masterpiece began in 1675 after the Norman church, old St. Pauls was destroyed in the Great Fire in 1666. The building of St. Pauls Cathedral went on for 35 years, and Wren was an old man before it was finished. From far away you can see the huge dome with a golden ball and cross on the top. The interior of the Cathedral is very beautiful. It is full of monuments. The most important, perhaps, is the one dedicated to the Duke of Wellington. After looking around you can climb 263 steps to the Whispering Gallery, which runs round the dome. It is called so, because if someone whispers close to the wall on one side, a person with his ear close to the wall on the other side can hear what is said. But if you want to reach the foot of the ball, you have to climb 637 steps. As for Christopher Wren, who is now known as the architect of London, he found his fame only after his death. He was buried in the Cathedral. Buried here are Nelson, Wellington, and Sir Joshua Reynolds. Questions to be answered: 1. What is the name of the architect who built St. Pauls Cathedral? 2. How long did the building of the Cathedral go on? 3. What is the most important monument in the Cathedral? 4. What is the name of the famous Gallery in the Cathedral and why is it called so? 5. Who is buried in the Cathedral? XIV. Say in English. Consult the text St. Pauls Cathedral if necessary: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) 35 ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10) ;
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11) 12) 13) 14)

-.; ; ; .

XV. Speak about St. Pauls Cathedral. Use the key-words above. XVI. Learn the following words and expressions. Make sure you can translate them both from English into Russian and vice versa: comparatively recent times principal, a private apartments a state room a staff room an office, n entertain, v a fully occupied particular fascination weekly audience a foreign ambassador a high commissioner a bishop, n a senior officer armed services civil service a highlight low: 1. What is Buckingham Palace today? 2. How long has it served that function? 3. Where are the private apartments of the royal family? 4. How many people work there? 5. What visitors are received there by the Queen? 6. What is the highlight of royal entertaining? BUCKINGHAM PALACE BUCKINGHAM PALACE, which is today the official residence of the British Monarchy, has served that function only since comparatively recent times. In the
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() ,

XVII. Read the text Buckingham Palace. Find the answers to the questions be-

Middle Ages the principal London residence of the kings was the Palace of Westminster, now rebuilt as the Houses of Parliament. Today, the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh live in the private apartments on the north side of the palace. In all, Buckingham Palace has 19 state rooms, 52 royal and guest bedrooms, 182 staff rooms, 92 offices and 78 bathrooms. Some 450 people work in the palace and 40,000 people are entertained there every year. Unlike many other historical monuments, Buckingham Palace remains a fully occupied, working royal palace and it gives it a particular fascination. The Queen, as head of state, receives there a large number of formal and informal visitors, including the Prime Minister at weekly audiences, foreign and British ambassadors and high commissioners, bishops, and senior officers of the armed services and the civil service. The highlight of royal entertaining, however, is the state banquet, usually for about 170 guests, given by the Queen on the first evening of a state visit of a foreign head of state to the United Kingdom. XVIII. Translate the following into English: 1. . 2. , . 3. . 4. , . . 5. , -, . 6. . DIALOGUES I. Read the dialogues in pairs. I A. Whats Whitehall? Is it a building? B. A building? But it isnt. Its a street. A. Oh, really? What is it famous for? B. Its the street where all the government offices are. A. By the way, whats the beautiful building over there? B. Its the Houses of Parliament. A. The houses? But theres only one house there!
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B. Quite right. But its the Houses because the British Parliament has two chambers the House of Lords and the House of Commons. II A. Which are the most famous picture galleries in London? B. Well, the National Gallery, to begin with; then comes the National Portrait Gallery, then the Tate Gallery. A. Yes, but what about the British Museum? Ive heard a lot of it. B. Oh surely, you ought to go there, but the British Museum is not a museum of Fine Arts. In the first place its a museum of history, archaeology and ethnography. Its also one of the largest libraries in the world. A. Why, its N 10 Downing Street! B. Exactly so. Here the Prime Minister of Britain lives. A. And where is the residence of the Queen? B. The London residence of the British Kings and Queens is Buckingham Palace. The Royal Standard flying over Buckingham Palace is the sign that the Queen is in residence. IV A. Whats Trooping the Colour? I often heard of it but I never know what it means. B. Every year the ceremony of Trooping the Colour is carried out in celebration of the Queens birthday. It is performed by troops of Household Brigade in full dress uniform. This event is perhaps the finest spectacle in London. A. When and where is it held? B. Its held near St. James Park in June.
* o

III

Trooping the colour , II. Memorize the dialogues and reproduce them. III. Make up your own dialogues on the situations that follow. 1. Imagine that youve just come home from London. Your relatives want to know all about the capital of the United Kingdom. Give detailed answers to their questions. 2. One of you is a guide. The others are tourists. Ask your guide about London.

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JUST FOR FUN I. Read the jokes and retell them to your friends. * * * I am sorry about the way the pie tastes, darling. It must be something I left out. Nothing you left out could make it taste like that. It must be something you put in. * * * Only cheese for lunch? Yes, the cutlets caught fire and it spread to the apple tart so I had to take soup to put it out. * * * What do you give your husband, when the dinner doesnt suit him? His coat and hat. * * * Wife: Have a look at the cake I decorated for my birthday party. Dont you think my sense of design is wonderful? Husband (counting the candles): Yes, but your arithmetic is terrible. * * * Husband (angrily): What? No supper ready? This is the limit. Im going to a restaurant. Wife: Wait just five minutes. Husband: Will it be ready then? Wife: No, but then Ill go with you. * * * Young husband: This meat is not cooked, not in the pie. Young wife: I did it like the cook-book said but as the recipe was for four people and we are two, I took half of everything and cooked it for half the time it said. II. Read the proverbs and sayings that follow. Use some of them in a dialogue or a situation of your own. Proverbs and Sayings 1. An apple a day keeps the doctor away. - .
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2. A hungry belly has no ears. . 3. I am as hungry as a hunter. . 4. Hunger is the best sauce. . 5. Tastes differ. . 6. Dont live to eat, but eat to live. , , , . 7. Appetite comes with eating. . 8. Eat at pleasure, drink with measure. , () . 9. Hunger breaks stone walls. ; . 10. One mans meat is another mans poison. , . 11. The proof of the pudding is in the eating. , , ( ). 12. Too many cooks spoil the broth. ( ). 13. Who has never tasted bitter, knows not what is sweet. , , . 14. You cant eat your cake and have it too. ( ). III. Learn the following idiomatic expressions. Use them in a natural context. 1. after meat mustard , 2. apple of discord 3. the apple of ones eye 4. be meat and drink to smb. -; 5. bite off more than one can chew , ; ; 6. bread and butter (daily bread) , 7. dogs breakfast , 8. (as) easy as pie (a piece of cake) , , , , 9. eat like a bird , 10. eat like a horse/wolf , ; 11. the food of the gods , 12. thats another cup of tea

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TEXTS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING


Text 1. MARIE CURIE AND THE DISCOVERY OF RADIUM

Marie Curie was born in Warsaw on 7 November, 1867. Her father was a teacher of science and mathematics in a school in the town, and from him little Maria Sklodowska - which was her Polish name - learned her first lessons in science. Marias wish was to study at the Sorbonne in Paris, and after many years of waiting she finally left her native land in 1891. In Paris Maria began a course of hard study and simple living. She determined to work for two Masters degrees - one in Physics, the other in Mathematics. Thus she had to work twice as hard as the ordinary student. Yet she had scarcely enough money to live on. She lived in the poorest quarter of Paris. Night after night, after her hard day's work at the University, she got to her poorly furnished room and worked at her books steadily for hours. Sometimes she had no more than a bag of cherries. Though she was often weak and ill, she worked in this way for four years. She had chosen her course and nothing could turn her from it. Among the many scientists Maria met and worked with in Paris was Pierre Curie. Pierre Curie, born in 1859 in Paris, was the son of a doctor, and from early childhood he had been fascinated by science. At sixteen he was a Bachelor of Science, and he took his Master's degree in Physics when he was eighteen. When he met Maria Sklodowska he was thirty-five years old and was famous throughout Europe for his discoveries in magnetism. But in spite of the honour he had brought to France by his discoveries, the French Government could only give him a very little salary as a reward, and the University of Paris refused him a laboratory of his own for his researches. Pierre Curie and Maria Sklodowska, both of whom loved science more than anything else, very soon became the closest friends. They worked together constantly and discussed many problems of their researches. After little more than a year they fell in love with each other, and in 1895 Maria Sklodowska became Mme. Curie. Theirs was not only to be a very happy marriage but also one of the greatest scientific partnerships. Marie had been the greatest woman-scientist of her day but she was a mother too, a very loving one. There were their two little girls, Irene and Eve. By this time Mme. Curie had obtained her Master's degree in Physics and Mathematics, and was busy with researches on steel. She now wished to obtain a Doctor's degree. For this it was necessary to offer to the examiners a special study, called a thesis. For some time Pierre Curie had been interested in the work of a French scientist named Becquerel. There is a rare metal called uranium which, as Becquerel discovered, emits rays very much like X-rays. These rays made marks on a photographic plate when it was wrapped in black paper. The Curies got interested in these rays of uranium. What caused them? How strong were they? There were many such questions that puzzled Marie Curie and her husband. Here, they decided, was the very subject for Maries Doctors thesis.
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The research was carried out under great difficulty. Mme. Curie had to use an old store-room at the University as her laboratory - she was refused a better room. It was cold, there was no proper apparatus and very little space for research work. Soon she discovered that the rays of uranium were like no other known rays. Marie Curie wanted to find out if other chemical substances might emit similar rays. So she began to examine every known chemical substance. Once after repeating her experiments time after time she found that a mineral called pitchblende emitted much more powerful rays than any she had already found. Now, an element is a chemical substance which so far as is known cannot be split up into other substances. As Mme. Curie had examined every known chemical element and none of them had emitted such powerful rays as pitchblende she could only decide that this mineral must contain some new element. Scientists had declared that every element was already known to them. But all Mme Curies experiments pointed out that it was not so. Pitchblende must contain some new and unknown element. There was no other explanation for the powerful rays which it emitted. At that moment Pierre Curie stopped his own investigations on the physics of crystals and joined his wife in her effort to find those more active unknown chemical elements. Scientists call the property of giving out such rays radioactivity, and Mme. Curie decided to call the new element radium, because it was more strongly radioactive than any known metal. In 1903 Marie and Pierre together with Henry Becquerel were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. In 1911 Marie received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. But the second prize went to her alone for in 1906 Pierre had died tragically in a traffic accident. Mme. Sklodowska-Curie, the leading woman-scientist, the greatest woman of her generation, has become the first person to receive a Nobel Prize twice. Marie lived to see her story repeated. Her daughter Irene grew into a woman with the same interests as her mothers and she was deeply interested in her mother's work. From Marie she learned all about radiology and chose science for her career. At twenty-nine she married Frederic Joliot, a brilliant scientist at the Institute of Radium, which her parents had founded. Together the Joliot-Curies carried on the research work that Irene's mother had begun. In 1935 Irene and her husband won the Nobel Prize for their discovery of artificial radioactivity. So, Marie lived to see the completion of the great work, but she died on the eve of the award.
Ronald Mackin (from A Course of English Study)

I. Read the text Marie Curie and the Discovery of Radium. Choose a suitable headline for each paragraph of the text from the list below. 1. Experiments with uranium.
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2. Marie lived to see the completion of her work on radioactivity. 3. The discovery of a new element. 4. Maries youth. 5. Students life in Paris. 6. Pierre Curie. 7. A very happy marriage. 8. Experiments with pitchblende. II. Find in the text the verbs which can be used to describe the main events in Maries life. Describe Marie Curies life. III. Find the passages describing Pierre Curies scientific career and Becquerels experiments. Translate them into Russian. Text 2. IS IT POSSIBLE TO MAKE PREDICTIONS?

The problem of standing at the beginning of a milleninium and seeking to make predictions about new developments in the technology with which systems engineers will need to contend in the coming millennia is an exercise in utter foolishness; it may be possible to make somewhat reasonable projections for ten or, with luck, twenty-five years ... but certainly not a thousand.The premium in this latter case is on adaptability. As Charles Darwin said, It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but rather the one most adaptable to change." The underlying truth of this observation can be seen simply by turning the hands of the clock back a thousand years and asking if a well-educated individual at the turn of the last millennium would have been likely to have had any inkling of the advent of the printing press or the electronic digital computer. The notion that humans could fly would then have still been nine centuries away, and traveling to the moon, while exciting, would turn out to be left to the last sliver of the millennia ... as would most of the other scientific and technological achievements profoundly affecting our lives today. A brave forecast would probably have been far more concerned with the mounting problems of pollution of roads from horses and donkeys, and of diseases such as smallpox than it would have been with concern over trash mail on the Internet and computer viruses disrupting the global banking system. It does seem evident that many of the issues seriously affecting humankind as we enter a new millennium are, at their root, systems engineering problems - often having a remarkably high technology content but seldom having simple answers. A listing of such challenges might include the provision of food throughout society, the maintenance of a strong global economy, the elimination of crime, the modernization of the transportation system, and the provision of energy, health care, security, and education. Global leadership in the twenty-first century could well become the province of systems engineers . . . if indeed they choose to accept the challenge.
( IEEE Aerospace & Electronic Systems Magazine, Jubilee Issue, October 2000 )

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I. Read the text Is it possible to make predictions? and find the answers to the questions: 1. What scientific and technological achievements of the past century affect our lives today? 2. What problems does mankind face in the 21st century? 3. Does the text answer the question put in its headline? 4. Do you agree with Ch. Darwins idea stated in the text? II. Translate the text. Text 3. NANO-TECHNOLOGY AND MICRO-ELECTRO-MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (MEMS) SYSTEMS OF SYSTEMS

Although microelectronics continue to shrink and more and more processors are embedded in aerospace and electronic systems, even more drastic size reductions are on the horizon. Nanotechnology works at the molecular level to create complex new systems. Chip level integration, including mixing of technologies in the same wafer, is just around the corner. As electronic and mechanical elements are combined on the same piece of silicon, MEMS builds complex machines so small that they are measured in microns. MEMS include systems that integrate electrical, mechanical, optical, fluidic, magnetic and other technologies. The research is supporting the integration of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) gears and actuators into semiconductor assemblies. Micromirrors that individually move can serve as a low cost fiber optics switch. Familiar MEMs that total more than $1 billion in sales include airbag accelerometers, medical pressure sensors, and ink jet printer heads. We may soon have entire inertial guidance systems on a chip combined with a GPS(Global Positioning System) receiver. How far can system size be reduced? Is an entire system on a chip very far away? Look around. Let your engineering imagination run. Keep in mind that, whatever you envision, the chances are excellent. It will be a system or systems of systems, and will require the experience of many systems and subsystems engineers to bring it into everyday use.
( IEEE Aerospace & Electronic Systems Magazine, Jubilee Issue, October 2000 )

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I. Read the text Nano-technology and Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Systems of Systems and get its central idea. II. Say which of the facts in the text seems to you the most interesting and new. III. Find in the text and put down the key words. IV. Use the key words to retell the text. Text 4. WANDERING CONTINENTS

Anyone who has looked at a world map must have noticed how snugly the coastline of Africa and the Americas could be made to fit together, if the intervening ocean were removed. Modern geophysics has established that all of the Earth's landmasses were indeed joined together in one supercontinent, Pangaea, hundreds of millions of years ago, and that this supercontinent was broken apart, with the land masses drifting to their present positions on the globe. His idea took many years to become established. Speculations about the fit of the continents go back to Francis Bacon (1561-1626), but the acknowledged father of the idea of continental drift was the German astronomer and meteorologist Alfred Wegener, who published the first comprehensive statement of the theory in 1912. Wegener thought that the continents might move through the thinner crust of the ocean floor, like icebergs ploughing through the sea, and he gathered a wealth of evidence showing how well the continents could be fitted together like some global jigsaw puzzle. But the idea of continents moving through the rocks of the sea floor did not seem feasible, and found little favour until the 1950s, when the development of new geological techniques provided conclusive evidence that the continents do move. The key evidence came from magnetic studies of the ocean floors. These showed that the crust of the Atlantic Ocean floor is arranged symmetrically on either side of a great ridge of volcanic activity which runs roughly down the center of the ocean bed. The interpretation of this discovery is that new oceanic crust is being created at the mid-ocean ridge, where it wells up through a crack in the Earths crust and is pushing out on either side, steadily widening the Atlantic. In other parts of the world the reverse happens. The North Pacific, for example, has no oceanic ridge, but there is a deep trench running down the west of the ocean floor, next to the Eurasian landmass. There the thin crust of the ocean floor is being pushed under the continent, back down into the mantle where it melts and is ultimately recycled. The net effect is that there is no change in the surface area of the Earth spreading in the Atlantic and at other sites is balanced by contraction of the
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Pacific. A piece of the Earths crust that is bounded by spreading ridges and subduction zones is called a plate, which gives the concept of continental drift its modern name, plate tectonics. In some places, two pieces of crust two plates rub side by side, with no net creation or destruction of sea floor. This happens today along the notorious San Andreas fault in California. The whole process of break-up and re-arrangement of the continents may have happened several times in the Earths history, and is responsible for building mountain ranges, where continents collide. India, moving northward into Eurasia, has forced up the Himalayas, which are still growing. By contrast, the line of the Red Sea marks a new (by geological standards) crack in the Earth's crust, a spreading ridge which is splitting Africa off from Arabia, and which may eventually cause this narrow sea to expand into an ocean as large as the Atlantic is today. Overwhelming evidence for the reality of continental drift, or plate tectonics, was collected during the 1960s and 1970s. But the "icing on the cake" has been provided only in the past few years. Using laser beams bounced off artificial satelites in orbit around the Earth, it is now possible to measure directly the steady widening of the Atlantic, calculated at a couple of centimetres every year.
From The Courier

I. Read the text Wandering Continents. Arrange the following sentences in a logical sequence corresponding to the contents of the text. 1. Magnetic studies of the ocean floors gave the key evidence of the continental drift. 2. Hundreds of millions of years ago all of the Earths landmasses were joined together in one supercontinent. 3. The net effect is that there is no change in the surface area of the Earth spreading in the Atlantic and at other sites is balanced by contraction of the Pacific. 4. Thanks to laser beams, it is now possible to measure directly the steady widening of the Atlantic. 5. The idea of continental drift was stated by the German astronomer and meteorologist Alfred Wegener. 6. The process of re-arrangement of the continents is responsible for building mountain ranges, where continents collide. 7. New geological techniques supported the idea of continents moving through the rocks of the sea floor. 8. Plate tectonics is the modern name for the concept of continental drift. II. Find the sentences with ing-forms. Define their functions. III. Translate the text.

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Text 5.

OUR SOLAR FAMILY

Our solar family consists of the sun, nine known planets and their satellites, asteroids, comets and meteors. The most important body in this great family is the sun. There are few kinds of energy on the earth that are not the gift of the sun. The sun's mass is 750 times that of all the planets, put together. Like all the other bodies in the iniverse, it is composed of the same sort of materials we find on the earth. Of all the elements or building blocks of nature which we have discovered, some 68 have been found on the sun, and none have been found in the sun which are not now known on earth. Our sun has a surface temperature of about 6,000C. A star as hot as the sun must radiate an enormous amount of heat. Every square metre of the sun's surface radiates energy equal to 84,000 horse power. Yet, the total amount the earth receives is only a very small fraction of it. Here is a possible source of energy for the future. The age of the earth is about two billions of years. The sun must have been in existence long before the earth was formed. During all that time the sun has been radiating heat continuously, and still continues to do so. To produce this great amount of heat would require the hourly burning over its entire surface of a layer of highgrade anthracite coal sixteen feet thick. If the heat of the sun were produced by burning coal, it would require an inexhaustible supply to furnish such intense heat over this great period of time. THE PLANETS

Planets, the most important bodies of the sun's family, are of greatest interest to man, not simply because they are nearest to him, but because he lives, works, and enjoys life on one of them. If somewhere life similar to ours exists, we must look for it on planets, not on stars, comets, or meteors. The sun has a family of nine planets moving around it in orbits that are ellipses, and not circles. Their names in order from the sun are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. The ancients recognized that these bodies did not remain fixed, but were constantly shifting their positions on the celestial sphere night after night and month after month; so they named them planets, which means "wanderers." Mercury is not only the nearest planet to the sun, but it is, with one possible exception, the smallest of the planets. It is the swiftest in its movement about the sun, and its year consists of eighty-eight days. Because of the difficulty of locating it in the bright twilight, it has been called the "elusive planet. " Venus is the brightest star in the sky, next to the sun and the moon. When it appears as an evening or morning
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star, it shines very brightly. It is certain that the planet has an atmosphere, since it is constantly enveloped in clouds. Of all the planets, the earth is the most important to us. It is literally beneath our feet, and we can study it scientifically in greatest detail. Although we live only upon its surface, it is possible to determine its shape, size, mass, motions, and their effects. This knowledge has been gradually accumulated. Jupiter is the giant among the family of planets. It has a diameter 11 times that of the earth. Not only is Jupiter the largest planet, but it is whirling rather quickly, completing a rotation every 9 hours and 58 minutes. In its movement around the sun, however, it is rather slow, requiring almost 12 years to make a complete revolution. Jupiter has a family of eleven satellites, and two of them are larger than Mercury. Beyond Jupiter is Saturn, the second largest of the planets. It has a family of nine satellites, one of which, Titan, is larger than our moon. The most impressive thing about Saturn is its ring system. The rings lie like thin sheets of silver around the planet's equator. There are three of them. Little is known of the planets Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, they are so far away that the most powerful telescope cannot reveal anything but small, illuminated bodies. Uranus and Neptune are small when contrasted with the earth. Uranus has four satellites and Neptune one; Pluto may not have any. Because of the earth's rotation, we have day and night on the earth. Revolution is the earth's yearly motion about the sun. The path that the earth pursues is called its orbit. Although it is really an ellipse, it is so nearly round as to appear a true circle. Mars aroused more interest than any of the other planets. When nearest the earth, as it was in September 1956, it is an object of great beauty. There are many ways in which this planet is similar to the earth. It rotates on an axis in about the same time as does the earth. It has seasons similar to the seasons on the earth, except that they are nearly twice as long. Small bodies located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter are called asteroids. Of these bodies, called "planetoids" or miniature planets, the largest is Ceres780 kilometres in diameter. Their origin is, as yet, not fully known. It is thought that they represent small masses of matter that were not able to combine into larger ones during the genesis of the solar family. I. Read the text Our Solar Family without a dictionary. Try to understand it. II. Find the key sentence in each paragraph of the text. III. Make up the plan of the text Our Solar Family. IV. Speak about our solar system. Use the plan youve made up.

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Text 6.

THE OLD LADY OF THE UNIVERSE

Japanese scientists discover the oldest of the known galaxies Small wonder that the historic find is in the Coma Berenices (Berenice's Hair) constellation, somewhere between the Hunting Dogs and the Virgin. That part of the Universe contains the northern galaxy pole with a fantastic concentration of various galaxies. This is the place to look for the astronomical superlatives: the biggest, the oldest, the newest, the brightest, the most solid, etc. The galaxy owes its name to a perfectly factual character, the wife of Pharaoh Ptolemy III (3d century B.C.), who donated her luxuriant hair to the Temple of Venus in honor of her husband's victory. When her gift disappeared, antique astronomers hastened to soothe the lady with tales of Zeus taking her hair to heaven. Modern scientists used state-of-the-art instruments and managed to figure out that their find had been formed 900 million years later than the Universe itself. This is a perfect confirmation of old astronomic theories that put the oldest galaxies' age at 1/15 of the age of the Universe, which is currently believed to be 13.5 to 14.5 billion years. The Japanese have been able to make their discovery thanks to the powerful telescope named Subaru (The Pleiades), in the National Astronomical Observatory on the top of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, which is the highest island mountain in the world rising to over 4,000m above sea level. The telescope took eight years to build, from 1991 to 1999. Subaru has already provided Japanese astronomers with singularly accurate pictures of Uranium, its ring system and main satellites, and allowed them to watch anomalous phenomena involving protostars and the emergence of supernovas. But why should scientists be so thrilled about these astronomical "old ladies," including their latest discovery? Especially since it does not seem to have much longer to live: Before long this galaxy may be replaced by a black hole. Apparently, it is precisely old galactic entities that provide the best opportunity for studying the way of post-Big Bang galaxy clustering and the first such clusters emerging out of the gas the Big Bang produced.
(Moscow News, April , 2003)

I. Read the text and outline its logical parts. II. Give a headline to each part of the text. III. Write the summary of the text in English.

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Text 7.

WHAT SIZE COLLISION FORMED THE MOON?

The favourite theory to explain the origin of the Moon is that a large, rogue planetoid about the size of Mars collided with Earth some 4.5 billion years ago. An 'oblique impact' or sideswipe by the intruder would have vaporised the upper regions of Earth's crust and mantle, spraying the material out into space. From a gaseous disk, the material slowly formed a series of hot moonlets which eventually came together into the single, large Moon we see today. The main problem with this theory seems to lie with the size of the original impactor. New modelling work at the University of Colorado in Boulder suggests that a Mars-size intruder would be too small to create the required volume of material. Instead, the team suggest that the Earth collided with an object 2.5 to 3 times the mass of Mars, leading to the formation of the Moon just 15,000 miles above our planet. There is, however, still a problem with this scenario. The larger impact results in an Earth that is spinning too quickly. The new model produces a system with roughly twice as much rotational spin as the Earth-Moon system exhibits today. The older version provides the right amount of spin but not enough raw material. It seems that our nearest neighbour is determined to hold onto its secrets for a while longer.
Peter Bond ASTRONOMY NOW / SEP 1997

I. Read the text and note the important details. II. Identify the sentences: 1. with the Subjunctive Mood; 2. with the Infinitive Construction. III. Make a written translation of the text.

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Text 8.

THE A TO Z OF ASTRONOMY
By Professor Chris Kitchin

Here are some simple difinitions of the more puzzling words commonly encountered in astronomy. Meteorite The fragment of a meteoroid which has survived passage through the Earth's (or other planet's) atmosphere to reach the surface. Small meteorites impact at their terminal velocity, but larger ones may retain some of their cosmic velocity and hit at up to several tens of kilometres per second. In the latter cases an impact crater will be produced and the meteorite will survive only as thousands of tiny fragments. Most meteorites are found to be of rocky composition but about six percent are almost pure nickel-iron. About two percent are formed from mixtures of rock and iron.Two small but very significant sub-groups are the carbonaceous chondrites which contain some simple organic molecules and are thought to pre-date the formation of the Solar System, and the SNC meteorites which may have come from Mars. Meteoroid A small body independently orbiting the Sun. The meteoroids merge into the asteroids at the larger end, and into the inter-planetary dust at the smaller end of the scale. Meteor shower A series of meteors lasting from a few hours to several days which have parallel paths through space. Perspective means that the meteor tracks appear to diverge from a point in the sky called the radiant. The position of the radiant is often used to give the shower a name. Thus we have the Leonid (after the constellation Leo) and the Geminid (after Gemini) meteor showers amongst many others. The number of meteors in a shower can range from a few tens to hundreds of thousands per hour. The particles producing the meteors are thought to be debris from a comet which are continuing to follow the comet's orbit. The Leonids, for example, originate from comet Temple-Tuttle. Metonic cycle The period required for the Moon's phases to repeat themselves on the same days of the month. Its value is 19 years. Milky Way The faint irregular glowing band which circles the sky. It is a small part of our own galaxy and comprises tens of millions of stars, each too faint to be seen with the naked eye individually, but clearly to be seen in aggregate. It gives its name to our galaxy; so that we are a part of the Milky Way Galaxy. Interstellar dust restricts our view of the galaxy to within a few thousand parsecs of the Sun, and so the Milky Way is just a small part of the whole galaxy. Monopole An hypothetical magnetic equivalent to the electron. A monopole would be a sub-atomic particle with a single magnetic (north or south) pole. They are predicted to have been produced in huge numbers during the big bang but none has yet been detected. This scarcity of monopoles is one of the arguments supporting an inflationary period during the early stages of the formation of the Universe.
(ASTRONOMY NOW / SEP 1997)

I. Read the definitions and translate them into Russian.


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Text 9.

VIEWS OF UNIVERSE

Ancient men wondered why the sun, the moon and the stars moved as they do. For thousands of years men had watched the skies. They couldn't understand and made up myths to explain the movements of the heavenly bodies. Greek astronomers studied the heavens and finally most of them decided that the sun and stars travelled around the Earth. In the 3d century B.C. the Greek astronomer, Aristarchus had some very different ideas. He wrote, "The Earth travels around the sun in a circle. This takes a year. The moon alone circles round the Earth. The stars are very far away. The Universe is very large." Other astronomers did not agree with him, and, of course, people didn't accept his ideas. They couldn't agree that the Earth was moving. For centuries, no one developed his ideas. Nicolaus Copernicus was the Polish astronomer who began to study the Greek writings of the ancient astronomers. He checked them and found mistakes. Copernicus worked out formulas that seemed to prove that the Earth travelled around the Sun. Finally he decided the idea was right. The Earth and the planets did indeed circle the sun. Copernicus' formulas, however, still had the heavenly bodies travelling in epicycles. In 1513, Copernicus wrote a book about his ideas. He showed it to some friends but never had it published. Year after year, he went on checking the orbits of the planets. In his studies, he used homemade instruments. Often he checked the stars' positions against those given in the ancient Greek astronomers' tables. He filled many pages with his findings, but he did not always trust them. He did not publish them. Copernicus knew that people were not ready to accept the idea of a moving Earth. Copernicus did not want to go against his church's teaching, which declared that other planets moved round the Earth. Once a friend came to visit him. He talked with Copernicus and read many pages of his studies. He urged Copernicus to let him put the pages into order and publish them. Finally, Copernicus agreed. Copernicus did not live to read the printed copy of his book. It was placed in his hand as he lay dying on May 14, 1543. Today, we honor Nicolaus Copernicus because he helped people accept the idea of the moving Earth. He dared to doubt the ideas held for centuries. He looked at the heavens with his own eyes. Using math, he tried to show how the Earth circled the sun. He was the first man to do this. Copernicus' book pointed the way to truth. Other astronomers began to explore the idea of the moving Earth. Read the text and complete the sentences: 1. The myths about stars and the Universe were made ______. a) to describe them b) to explain the movement of the sun and the stars c) to help Greek astronomers study the skies d) to show them in a poetic way.
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2. Aristarchus was the only astronomer who _______ a) never read myths b) wrote a book that is recognised nowadays c) declared that the Earth moved around the sun and the moon travelled round the Earth d) made other astronomers agree the Earth was moving 3. Nicholas Copernicus proved that a) b) c) d) the sun travelled round the Earth other ancient astronomers were right his own formulas were wrong that the Earth moved round the sun

4. Copernicus explored the Universe using ______ a) b) c) d) homemade instruments a telescope Greek astronomers' tables a microscope

5. Copernicus didn't want to publish his ideas because _______ a) b) c) d) his friend was against them Copernicus supported the church's view people were not ready to understand them Copernicus was going to die

6. We honour Copernicus because _______ a) b) c) d) he was an astronomer his ideas encouraged other astronomers he supported the ideas of the Greek astronomers he always helped people Text 10. LONDON BRIDGE

When the Roman Empire crumbled, most of the arts of civilization started to disappear with it. They might have been lost altogether, had it not been for the monks who preserved as much of the learning of the past as they could by writing it down. The six centuries between 300 A.D. and 900 A.D. were grim and lawless times for most people. Robbers, cutthroats, and highwaymen swarmed the roads, and they were especially dangerous at river crossings. Travelers had all they could do to manage their horses while crossing, and they found it hard to defend themselves against
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attack, so the monks began to build bridges at such places. Gradually, during the Middle Ages, they taught others how to build. The new medieval bridges were not as grand as the Roman bridges. Early ones were of the wooden-beam type, built on stone piers or wooden piles. War and religion both had their effect on most medieval bridges. Chapels were often built close to bridges, fortresslike towers guarded the bridges' approaches, and the roadway was narrowed at strategic points to make defense easier. By the twelfth century, some people were once again beginning to experiment with different kinds of bridge building, and in London an ambitious builder named Peter Colechurch was planning one of the most famous of all bridges - Old London Bridge. Timber bridges spanning the Thames River at London had been alternately constructed and destroyed ever since the tenth century, when Norsemen .sailed up the Thames, fastened their lines to a bridges piling, then rowed downstream and pulled the bridge down. Toward the end of the twelfth century, however, such invasions were no longer a threat, and London was becoming an increasingly important city. When Colechurch put forward his plans for a masonry arch bridge, it was exactly what the Londoners wanted. A fund drive was an immediate success, with subscriptions pouring in from rich and poor alike. Building began in 1176, and the bridge was finished thirty-four years later. The old nursery rhyme says: London Bridge is falling down, Falling down, Falling down... Amazingly, it didn't! London Bridge was crude and clumsy looking just over 936 feet long, with 19 pointed arches that varied in width from 15 feet to 34 feet, 5 inches. Not one of the piers matched any other, and all were more than half as wide as the arches that sprang from them. This meant that the openings through which the waters of the tidal river rushed were relatively small. Water funneled through them with great velocity, making the passage of boats about as chancy as shooting the rapids in a mountain stream. In fact, maneuvering a boat through one of these arches was called shooting the bridge and a popular saying was London Bridge is made for wise men to go over and fools to go under. Almost every kind of structure one can think of was built on London Bridge. There were gateways at each end and a chapel on the central pier. Houses were added, built on supports over the piers; there were a hundred of them, including buildings that straddled the roadway. In most of the buildings, merchants had shops on the roadway level and lived in the upper floors. The seventh span from the south bank was a drawbridge. Upon the drawbridge pier, which was one of the larger piers, Nonesuch House was erected. It was called Nonesuch because nothing like it had been seen before. This four-story house was brought in pieces from Holland and then fastened together with wooden pegs. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. it became one of the most fashionable addresses in
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London. The south gateway of the bridge was strongly fortified, and when traitors were beheaded, their heads were displayed on the battlements of this gateway. It soon gained the popular name of Traitors Gate. For most of its six hundred years, London Bridge was the only bridge across the Thames. Its construction and upkeep were paid for by rents and tolls, and in time these amounted to a great deal of money. Tolls were even collected for shooting the bridge, which must have specially angered the boatmen who wished the structure had never been built in the first place. By the seventeenth century, Old London Bridge was no longer a fashionable address. Many of the houses had fallen into disrepair, and in 1831 when construction began on New London Bridge, Old London Bridge was taken down. By that time several other bridges had been built at London.
Scott Corbett From "Cricket"

I. Read the text London Bridge. Say which of the facts seems to you the most striking. II. Find in the text the conditional sentence. Analyze and translate it. III. Translate the text. Text 11. WHY DOES FROZEN FOOD KEEP WELL?

Frozen food keeps for a long time because the freezing of the water inside the food forces the bacteria, which cause it to decompose, into inactivity. Like all living things, bacteria need water in order to thrive. Bacteria are microscopic organisms, or forms of life which occur in air, water and soil all over the world. But they flourish and multiply particularly wherever organic matter is present. Some may cause disease, others are harmless, or even beneficial, but their activity causes organic matter, including food, to decompose. Modern discoveries have enabled sub-zero temperatures to be obtained by cooling air to about -300C (-508F) by compressing it and passing it into low pressure chambers through fine nozzles. The result is a sudden and violent expansion, causing the air to be drastically cooled. In home refrigerators Freon-12 gas is used instead of air, and the temperatures are much less drastic. The temperature in the freezing compartment of a domestic refrigerator is about -4C or 25F, and that of a deep-freezer about -15C or 5F. Preserving food has an ancient history. The salting and smoking of fish and meat have been carried out for centuries. Another long-used method of preserving food is to change its form, for example turning milk into butter and cheese, and grapes into wine. More recently preservation has been effected by canning, heat being used to kill bacteria, or dehydration.
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Most fresh food contains 75 to 90 per cent of water. When this liquid is removed, great savings in packaging, storage and transport are made. Potatoes, milk, eggs, tea and coffee are among the well-known products now sold as dry powders that need only the addition of water to reconstitute them. I. Read the text and answer the questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Why does frozen food keep for a long time? What are bacteria? What conditions are beneficial for bacteria? What methods for preserving food are listed in the text?

II. Write the summary of the text in Russian. III. Translate the summary youve made into English. Text 12. YOU CANT LIVE WITHOUT IT

It's in our bodies. It's in living things around us. It's used in .some church services and in social customs. We have superstitions and sayings about it. It has thousands of uses in the world today. One of these is to flavor the egg you have for breakfast. Can you guess what it is? Common table salt. Salt is necessary for the life and health of people, plants and animals. Blood, sweat and tears are all salty. Body cells must have just the right amount of salt to function properly. Too much salt can be dangerous for your heart and blood vessels. But if you work or play hard enough to perspire heavily, you must replace the salt lost from your system or you could suffer from heat exhaustion. Wild animals replace the salt in their systems by licking natural salt deposits. To keep domestic animals healthy, farmers put out salt blocks for their livestock to lick. Salt is made up of two elements, sodium and chlorine, its chemical name is sodium chloride. Ordinarily these two work together in proper balance in the body. However, if something disturbs this balance, the sodium can collect in large amounts and attract and hold water in the tissues. This can cause swelling in parts of the body, kidney trouble, and high blood pressure. To help correct these problems, the diet must be changed so that the salt needs of the body are still taken care of, but extra amounts of salt cannot collect and cause trouble. Such special diets must be prescribed by a doctor. Today we take salt for granted, but many years ago salt was scarce, it was used as money. African traders exchanged it for twice its weight in gold. The soldiers in Julius Caesar's army received common salt, called salarium, as part of their pay. From this came the word salary. In Great Britain four or five hundred years ago, at the great feasts of the ruling families, the saler, or salt container, was placed in the middle of the long dining tables. Those who were seated above the saler, closest to the host, were the honored guests. Those who sat below the saler were the common people. Our name for a salt container, salt cellar, comes from the word saler.
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From the earliest times, salt has been a symbol of lasting friendship and honor. When the Arabs say, There is salt between us, they mean, We have eaten together and are friends. Hebrews have a custom of taking bread and salt to the home of a friend. By this they mean. "May you always have everything you need and some added flavor as well." As part of a religious ceremony, the Hebrews also used to rub salt on newborn babies to insure their good health. Catholics use salt as a symbol of purity in their baptismal service and for the preparation of holy water. When salt was scarce, it was considered bad luck to spill any of it. Many people still believe this. To prevent bad luck, they say, you must take a pinch of the spilled salt between the thumb and first finger of your right hand and throw it over your left shoulder. Have you ever heard someone say, That man isnt worth his salt? This means he hasn't earned his salary. If they say, She's the salt of the earth, they mean she's the finest kind of person. When someone tells you a story that you know is only partly true, you "take it with a grain of salt." This means you will have to look hard to find the tiny part of the story that is true. If you salt something away, you are storing it or putting it away for future use. Today, almost 40,000,000 tons of salt are produced in the United States alone, taken from mines, wells, and the sea. Some salt deposits are thousands of feet thick and have been mined for hundreds of years. In Poland, 900 feet underground, miners have cut out whole rooms and have carved statues and alters cut of pure salt crystals. In another old mine in Colombia, 345 feet down, there is an excavation large enough to hold 10,000 people. Only a small amount of all the salt produced seasons - our food. The rest of it is used in other ways - to preserve food, to cool refrigerated railroad cars, to cure animal hides, to melt winter snow and ice. Chemical compounds made from table salt are also used in manufacturing things like glass, soap, paper, and rayon, in heat-treating, smelting, and refining metals, and in water-softening. Common table salt is necessary in many ways we take for granted our very lives depend upon it.
Margaret Gramatky From "Cricket" American English

I. Read the text You Cant Live without It. Note both the order in which the ideas come in the text and the important details. II. Read the text again and find the answers to the questions below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What are extra amounts of salt dangerous for? Why must you replace the salt lost from your system? What do farmers do to keep domestic animals healthy? What elements does salt consist of? Many years ago salt was used as money, wasnt it? What idiomatic expressions with the word salt are given in the text?
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7. What do they mean? 8. What was salt a symbol of? 9. What ways is salt used in? III. Write the summary of the text in English. Text 13. CANNED FOOD

One of the first men to make a commercial success of food conservation was Henry John Heinz. He started by bottling horse-radish, and he was so successful that in 1869 he founded a company in Pittsburgh, USA. Like other Americans of his generation, Heinz made his name a household word throughout the western world. At last, man seems to have discovered how to preserve food without considerably altering its taste. The tins f food (Heinz tins!) which Captain Scott abandoned in the Antarctic were opened 47 years after his death, and the contents were not only edible, but pleasant. The main argument against conserved foods is not that the canning of food makes it taste different; rather, people complain that the recipes which the canning chefs dream up are tedious or tasteless. But any recipe is tedious or tasteless when it is eaten in great quantities. And a company like Heinz can only produce something if it is going to be eaten in great quantities. The tomato is very pleasant to eat when it is freshly picked. A regular diet of tomatoes alone could well prove tedious. The canning companies try to cook the tomato in as many ways as possible. The Heinz factories in Britain use millions and millions of tomatoes every year. They claim that if all the tomatoes were loaded on to 15-ton lorries, the line of lorries would stretch for 60 miles. But there are many people who do not like to eat food out of season. They like their food to be fresh, and they like to cook it themselves in the old-fashioned way. But it is very difficult for modern man to realise what it is like to live without the advantage of pre-packaged and canned food. European society in its present form could not cope without modern methods of food processing. Imagine your local supermarket without all the cans of prepackaged foods. here wouldnt be much variety left, and what was left would have to be increased enormously in order to give the same amount of food. The supermarket would turn into a chaos of rotting vegetables, stale bread and unhealthy meat. The health problems would be insurmountable, unless we all went back into the country to support ourselves. So next time you reject canned food as being tasteless or unimaginative, remember that you can only afford to eat fresh food because canned food exists. I. Read the text and decide whether the arguments contained in the italicized sentences are for or against food canning. II. Translate the text.

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Text 14.

THE BEATLES

The Beatles became nationally famous in England in October 1962, when their first single record, Love Me Do, entered the Hit Parade at number 27. The famous four who recorded that song were, of course, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and drummer Ringo Starr. This was the original line-up of the band. Three years before, when John Lennon was 19 and George Harrison approaching his seventeenth birthday, the group was offered its first big job - playing at the famous Star Club in Hamburg. In those days there were five Beatles: Pete Best on drums, Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and the mysterious fifth Beatle, Stuart Sutcliffe. The Beatles returned to England penniless and exhausted. Stuart Sutcliffe left the group and stayed in Germany, where he died a few months later. The Beatles began a series of lunchtime concerts at Liverpools Cavern Club. They were now playing better than ever. The lunchtime concerts were a great success. The road outside the club was always crowded with girls who worked in nearby shops and offices. They came to see the Beatles during their lunch-break. Local shopkeepers often complained about the crowds and the noise. The man who ran the local record shop went to see what all the fuss was about. His name was Brian Epstein, the man who became the Beatles manager. The first thing that Epstein did as manager was to sack Pete Best. There are many different stories about why this happened. Probably it was because there was a serious clash of personalities between Lennon and Best. Lennon said: He goes, or I go. In Bests place came Richard Starkey (Ringo Starr), the drummer they met in Hamburg. The job of producing the Beatles records went to George Martin, an extremely nice and remarkably old-fashioned man who worked at the EMI studios in Abbey Road, North London. George Martin became the brains behind the recording successes of the Beatles (although John Lennon never agreed with that). Martin had some unusual and immensely successful ideas. He persuaded the group to have instruments on some of their songs that they didnt want to begin with: the cello on Yesterday, the violins on Eleanor Rigby, the oboe on Youve Got To Hide Your Love Away. During the sixties, it seemed that the Beatles were always in the news headlines. They made successful records and interesting films. Lennon caused anti-Beatle demonstrations in America by saying that the Beatles were more popular than Jesus Christ. Beatlemania was the word used to describe the reaction of fans all over the world. When Epstein died in 1967, things began to go wrong for the Beatles' industry. The relationship between Lennon and McCartney became very difficult; they disagreed about music, they disliked each other's wife, and they disagreed about who should be the new manager of their affairs. Eventually, an American called Allen Klein bought a controlling interest in the group. This was the beginning of the end, as McCartney couldnt stand Klein.
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During the seventies, the Beatles went off in their different directions, Lennon became a solo performer and then property speculator in New York, buying and selling expensive apartments. McCartney formed a middle-of-the-road pop group called Wings with his wife, Linda. George Harrison was rarely seen, but spent time raising money for charity. Ringo Starr began a surprisingly successful career as a film star. John Lennon was murdered in New York in December 1980. In October 1982, 20 years after Love Me Do entered the British Hit Parade, a Beatles song was again in the Top Ten. The song was... Love Me Do.
Ken WILSON From Modern English International

I. Read the text The Beatles. Find the key sentence in each paragraph of the text. II. Suggest a headline to each paragraph. III. Make up the plan of the text The Beatles. Retell the text according to your plan.

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Text 15.

ROCKNROLL & BEATLEMANIA

All four Beatles were born during 1940s and grew up in the seaport of Liverpool, the city on the banks of the River Mersey. In the post-war years in Britain, many teenagers of the 1950s were influenced by events taking place across the Atlantic, in America. Film stars and fashions were copied and the youngsters wanted something different from their parents, they sought out their own kinds of music and style - they discovered rocknroll! In 1957 the emergence of a young truck driver named Elvis Presley had its effect here in England with release of his record Heartbreak Hotel. NEMS was one of the busiest record shops in the centre of Liverpool, owned by Brian Epstein. A very successful businessman, Brian always liked to please his customers and because of numerous requests about the Beatles he decided to find out for himself more about the band. Brian visited the Cavern one lunch-time when the Beatles were playing and although he was only 27 years old he felt very out of place in his smart suit, shirt and tie. However, he was struck by the charisma and music of the Beatles and asked them to visit him in his office. Brian told the group he would like to become their manager, but he did point out that some things would have to change, especially their scruffy image - this they agreed to, provided they didnt have to change their music. The Beatles began playing together in 1959 appearing in German and English clubs until a string of hits in 1962/63 made them Britains top new band. The music scene of the early 1960s was very different from the present day. With the music charts being dominated on both sides of the Atlantic mainly by American artists, it was quite unusual for a British star to enter the charts. But things were soon to change, word was spreading about four young men from Liverpool, who were taking England by storm. What followed is usually called Beatlemania. The group couldn't appear in public without police protection. They had conquered the world but not seen it, prisoners in hotel rooms. One of their records had been promoted in the USA and the American DJs had been plugging this new British sound, so when the Beatles arrived at Kennedy Airport USA for the first time in February 1964 the welcome was beyond their wildest dreams; 5,000 screaming fans were heard above the screeching of jet engines. They appeared on the Ed Sullivan show in front of 75,000,000 people, coast to coast. One of the songs they sang was I want to Hold Your Hand; this was their first American No.1 hit. John, Paul, George and Ringo became more than just pop stars - they became the voice of a new generation. Managed by Brian Epstein and produced by George Martin, they had hit after hit on both sides of the Atlantic. They made interesting and original films, too - for example Help and A Hard Days Night. In April 1968 they formed 'The Apple Corporation'. They opened new offices in Savile Row the following June. Apple was going to have many divisions - films, music, electronics and even a clothes boutique. It was the dream of the Beatles to give
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others opportunities they themselves had been denied when starting in business in the very beginning. By 1970 though, mixture of drugs, arguments and money problems brought the bands career - and the swinging sixties- to an end. I. Read the text RockNRoll & Beatlemania and say what facts are new and exciting. II. Read the text again to find the answers to the questions below. 1. The idol of early 60s was a young truck driver. Whats his name? What was he? 2. Why did he influence the youngsters of England? 3. What was NEMS? 4. Who was the first manager of the Beatles? How did they get acquainted? 5. What does Beatlemania mean? 6. How did Americans welcome the Beatles in February, 1964? Why? 7. What other activities did the Beatles organize and take part in? Why did they do that? 8. What were the reasons for the bands career end? III. Compare the texts The Beatles and RocknRoll & Beatlemania. Outline the similarities you can find between the two texts.

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KEYS
Unit 2 Text B Answers to Task II: A. b answers are correct B. 1c 2a 3b 4a 5a 1c 2d 3e 4f 5b 6a 1. mouse 2. file 3. scanner 4. upgrade 5. keyboard 6. disk 7. modem 8. flame 9. boot (MICROSOFT)

C.

D. 1 F 2T 3F 4T 5T 6F 7-T

E.

F.

(1) PC (2) information (3) web (4) e mail (5) on screen (6) chat (7) video (8) generation (9) interactive

Answers to the Quiz Moscow, the Heart of Russia 1c 2a 3b 4c 5 (1) b (2) c (3) a 6a 7 c In 1770 Catherine II denied the request 8 a 540 m high 9 (1) a In 1863, 3.6 km long (2) b (3) c the largest and the most beautiful 10 (1) a (2) a

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Unit 4 1. If problem: three cats, one after another 2. World Capitals: 1. London 2. Canberra 3. Athens 4. Cairo 5. Kuala Lumpur 6. Rome 7. Caracas 8. Teheran (Tehran) 9. Valletta 10. Madrid 11. Tokyo 12. Lima 13. Khartoum 14. Managua 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. Nairobi Brussels Ankara Buenos Aires Seoul Jakarta Mexico City Dacca (Dhaka) Baghdad Oslo Ottawa Manila Dublin Lome Amman

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LITERATURE
Hello 1, 1997. Lets Speak English 3-4 (7-8), 1996. Moscow News, 8-24, 1994. Speak Out 4, 2000. Students Grammar / The University of Birmingham, Collins Cobuild, 1991. 6. Systems Magazine / October 2000, Vol. 15, 10. 7. Elizabeth Hardy 1000 Questions and Answers / Treasure Press, 1985 8. Francoise Grellet Developing Reading Skills / Cambridge University Press, 1981. 9. . / ., 1998. 10. . / ., 1980. 11. .. ., 1999. 12. .., .., .. / ., 1993. 13. .., .., .. 500 / ., 1966. 14. .. / -, 2000. 15. Machine Design, 1981-83. 16. Production Engineering, 1980. 17. 1970 1990. 18. .. 95 / ., 1998. 19. .., .. / ., 1980. 20. .., .. Topics for Discussion / ., 1998. 21. .., .. / ., 1983. 22. .., .. / ., 1976. 23. .. Read Learn Discuss -, 1998. 24. .. / ., 1997. 25. .. / ., 1997. 26. .. English Grammar Guide / ., 2000. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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