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The language of change (changes over period of time) Introduction The (graph, chart,) shows changes in the amount

of chicken and beef eaten in the USA over the last 50 years. The (graph shows) the fluctuation in the number of people at a London underground station over the course of a day from 6 am to 22pm. The graphs shows oil production capacity in millions of barrels per day for selected gulf countries The pie charts show changes in American spending patterns between 1966 and 1996, as it can be seen clearly from the charts, spending habits of us families changed remarkably over the 30-year period. Over the period 1971 to 1997 as a whole, there was a significant/marked decline in the consumption of butter and margarine and a corresponding rise in the consumption of low fat spreads. Example one: - The graph shows (changes, fluctuation, the percentage of) in (head, activity, participation, consumption, using, sum of money spent) in (country, cities, location) (over the last 30 years, between 1972 and 2002, over a period of 20 years, from 1970 to 1990).

Analysis : first sentence The most significant feature is that ( head , title ) , (have , has ) ( declined, increased, decreased )(drastically, sharply,etc) in both the USA and Canada since (1980,mid-1980s, beginning of 1980..ect). Although Canadian production is much (lower, higher , ) more (faster ,slower), it echoes the US figures, declining or increasing at the same rate - The biggest change in graph is the increase in poultry consumption; this soared from just 12k/person/year in 1950 to almost 50kper person per year in 2000, increasing four times. - The main users of the internet in Taiwan are young adults between 16 and 30 years old. They accounted for more than half of all users. In 1999 the number dropped slightly to 45%, but even in 2000 they were the biggest group - Overall more and more people are able to read and there have been significant improvements for women, although they lag behind in literacy - The most obvious trend in the graph is that women have lower illiteracy rates in most of the countries in the graph. For example, in Bangladesh in 1990, 45% of men could read and write, but only 25% of women. - Between 1972 and 1977,US fish catches averaged between 2.5 and 2.75 million tonnes per year, while Canadian landings fluctuated between 800,00 and 1.1 million tonnes. In 1997, however, there was a big increase in fish caught in the US and this rise continued up to a peak of 5.5 million tonnes in 1999. During the same period , canadas catch increased from 1 million tonnes to 1.5 million tonnes, an increase of 50%. - in 1983 around 50% of club members participated in swimming, so this was clearly the most popular activity. However, this figure decreased steadily to 15% Analysis second paragraph From 1987 onwards, there was sudden decline in both countries. US figures tumbled to 4 million tonnes in 1995, a drop of 28% plunged to 0.5 million tonnes, a drop of 66%, in the following four years, US catches fluctuated around the 4 million tonnes mark, while Canadian catches rose very slightly .

Inclusion Inclusion, almost all the countries in the graph have a long way In summary, while adults between 16 and 50 represented the great majority of internet users in Taiwan, their share declined as more children and older users the web. Useful words There was a steady downward trend in both x and y between 1974 and 1994. Both activities then levelled out briefly before continuing to fall Activity X remained fairly steady over the period, reaching a small peak in about 1986. Meanwhile there was an increase in activity y, which exceeded activity x for the first time in 2000. Adjectives Nouns Slight Increase / rise (in) Steady / gradual Decrease / decline/ fall (in) Sharp / steep / rapid Upward / downward trend (n) Marked / significant Recovery Verbs Adverbs Rise / increase Slightly / steadily/ gradually Fall / decline / decrease Sharply / steeply/ significantly / rapidly Be at / reach a peak Level out Remain steady exceed Time expressions In 2000 / recent years, etc. Since (point of time ) July / 2000 For (period of time ) several months / ten years During / over the year / the period 1999 to 2009, Between May and December / 1999 and 2009 House prices have fallen steadily since the beginning of 2008 Car sales reached a peak during the month of June There was a slight increase in the cost of living between 2005 and 2007 The most obvious trend in the graph The second biggest trend in the graph Reporting tenses 1. Since last summer prices have fallen / have been falling. 2. During the period from June to December last year prices fell. 3. over the next few days, prices will fall 4. for the time being, prices fall / are falling 5. by the year 2000, prices had fallen 6. between 1958 and 1988 prices fell 7. for nearly twenty years now prices have fallen, have been falling 8. In about 1900, prices fell. 9. This company has specialised in microtechnology for over a decade. 10. By the time the war was over, almost a million people had lose their lives. 11. We are confident that during the coming months we will see an increase in profits. 12. Between May and June each year, thousands of students receive their exam results. 13. The regulations did not exist prior to 2005. 14. The president collapsed while he was jogging. 15. The latest statistics on child poverty show a need for urgent action 16. During the last recession , a large number of companies ceased trading 17. At the moment we are doing everything in out power to solve the problem, 18. The internet is becoming an increasingly important study tool in recent years. 19. Kuwait and Iraq are both expected to double their output between 1990 and 2020.