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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Systems and
components
(mechatronic toolbox)
Part 1

Stefan Dierssen

Content of module 2

— Part 1:
— System Overview
— Control types
— Peripherals (sensors/ actors)
— Basic systems

— Part 2:
— Control programming (overview)
— NC Controls
— Field communication
— Cycle time

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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Objectives

— Know the major elements of a mechatronic system

— Overview of control types and their application areas

— Functionality and characteristics of sensors and actuators

— Definition of base systems

Leadslide

requirements product
n

assurance of properties
t io
sys

gra
inte
te m

tem
des

Control Simulation 3D Visualization


sys
ig
n

domain-specific design

Control programming
Actors Sensors E-CAD
Basic System M-CAD

modeling and model analysis

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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Mechatronic system

Control technology

Control
Electro mechanical
Actors Sensors Border
Basic System
Mechanical design

Material Energy Information

requirements product
n

assurance of properties
io
grat
syst

inte
em

em
desi

Control Simulation 3D Visualization


syst
gn

domain-specific design

Control programming
Actors Sensors E-CAD
Basic System M-CAD

modeling and model analysis

Mechatronic system overview

Connection
possibilities

Control types
Types and
Types and
signals Control signals

Actuators Sensors

Basic system
Cycle time
Physical
connections

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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Signal flow of electronic controls

Control
signal adjustment
signal processing signal adjustment
(ampilifier)

Field communication

Output level Signal Input level


flow
Actors Sensors

Basic system

User

Mechatronic system overview

Connection
possibilities

Control types
Types and
Types and
signals Control signals

Actuators Sensors

Basic system
Cycle time
Physical
connections

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Definition “control”

— Control:

According to DIN 19237 the control serves for the influence of


the output variables of a system by one or more input
parameters due to the system specific behavior.
[G. Phal, W. Beitz, J. Feldhusen, K.H. Grote 2003, S. 571]

First control system / liquid level control

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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

First control systems

— Liquid-level Control:
— greece 300 B.C.: water clock; time measurement by
trickling water constantly into a container -> similar to
water level control in flush toilets

— Steam pressure control (1681)


— Denis Papin‘s safty valve: Weighting the valve top

— Speed control (1745)


— Pitching blades of a windmill

— Stability, Stabilization and Steering (1868)


— James Clerk Maxwell published stability criterion for third-
order system based on the coefficients of the differential
equation

— Mechnical control
— Cam discs

Mechanical control automatic lathe

weck

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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Sample of a cam disc

x X=f(φ)

Mechanical
angle input φ Output function f(φ)
Transfer element

Usages of cam discs

— Date indication in watches


(hours and minutes cam shafts from 1927)

— Cam shaft in engines:

— Cam shafts in textile machines:

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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Electronic cam disc


Mechanical
cam disc

Control Output function f(t)


Servo cam
disc

— The control takes over the functionality of the mechanical


transfer element

— Desired output function is directly executed by a servo drive

— Highly dynamic drives and mechanical base systems are needed!

— Synchronisation of multiple drives is a very important issue!

Electronic Controls

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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Overview of control types

Elektrical Controls
(Elektrische Steuerungen)

Logic control Sequential control


(Verknüpfungs- (Ablaufsteuerung)
Steuerung)

time bounded process bounded


Sequential circuit Combinatorial circuit (zeitgeführt) (prozessgeführt)
(Schaltwerke) (Schaltnetze)

Cyclic signal Event oriented signal


processing (zyklische processing (ereignisorientierte
Signalverarbeitung) Signalverarbeitung)

Sample of the different control types

Control type Description Application area

Logic control Input signals are assigned to Dredger control


output signals by boolean (Bagger), crane
(Verknüpfungs- logic without being control, simple
Steuerung) constrained for a sequential gate controls,
processing overpressure/
[DIN 19237] overheat controls

— Logic controls are the predecessors of sequential controls

— They are still used for simple applications, e.g. gate controls or
in cranes or dregger, where the human take of over the “control”
of the sequences to be executed

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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Overview of control types

Elektrical Controls
(Elektrische Steuerungen)

Logic control Sequential control


(Verknüpfungs- (Ablaufsteuerung)
Steuerung)

time bounded process bounded


Sequential circuit Combinatorial circuit (zeitgeführt) (prozessgeführt)
(Schaltwerke) (Schaltnetze)

Cyclic signal Event oriented signal


processing (zyklische processing (ereignisorientierte
Signalverarbeitung) Signalverarbeitung)

Sample of the different control types

Control type Description Application area

Sequential Control with forced Automization;


control sequential processing where CNC machines,
the switch from on step to robotics
(Ablauf- the following is dependent on
steuerung) the defined switching
conditions
[Deutsche Elektronische Kommission]

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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Types of sequential controls

Control Characteristics Applications Cycle Provider


type time

CNC Interpolated path Standard 0.01-1ms Siemens


generation/ tracking; machines (Sinumerik);
standard UI Fanuc (series
30i/300i);
NUM
PLC Control of analog/ Automation, 1-100ms Simatic;
digital i/o’s handling Rockwell, B&R;
Beckhoff

Motion Virtual upright shaft Automation, 0.01-10ms Simotion; B&R


control (Königs-welle) special
realisation; virtual machines
cam disc
(Kurvenscheiben)
embedded Usage of standard Communicati 0.01- Fanuc;
components (PC); on; 100ms
Miniaturisation

Control design

— Typical components of a PLC/ CNC/ embedded Control (CPU,


RAM, E/A,…)

PLC

CPU Memory
RAM
Processor
In-/output
Interface

Bus system

Interfaces Bus

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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Mechatronic system overview

Connection
possibilities

Control types
Types and
Types and
signals Control signals

Actuators Sensors

Basic system
Cycle time
Physical
connections

Definition “sensor”

— Sensor: A sensor converts a state variable of a technical process


of a quality which is not suitable as a signal into a signal which
can be transmitted, further processed and registered. [VDI 2206
2004]

— Converts a state variable of the basic system, into an information signal to


the control.

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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Classification of sensors

Sensor base types Application areas

Mechanical sensors Position, displacement, velocity, acceleration, vibration, stress


and strain, force, torque, pressure, surface topography
roughness, etc.

Electrical and magnetic Voltage, current, resistance, capacitance, inductance,


sensors magnetic, radiation

Acoustic and flow sensors Sound intensity (pressure), viscosity, flow rate frequency, …

Chemical and biological pH, enzymes, ions, gases, concentration, humidity, biological,
sensors frequency shift or Doppler

Optical sensors Intensity, wavelength, phase, vision, interference

Thermal sensors Temperature, infrared radiation image, etc.

Examples of sensors

Mechanical: Mechanical: Mechanical:


displacement accelleration pressure

Chemical: Optical: Electrical: Electrical:


concentration intensity inductance resistance

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Signal transformation in sensors

Control

InPro 8400 MT Trübheitssensor

Electrical

Sensor
voltage/
current

Physical reaction

Process
characteristics
Base System
state variables

Complex sensors

— Complex sensors are combined sensors that contain different


base sensor types (e.g. vision systems; sensors including
calibration sensors,…)

Structured light principle:


- A laser projects light into a scene in a
known direction
- The intersection of the laser with objects is
observed by a video camera
- By triangulation the distance of the object
can be measured

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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Mechatronic system overview

Connection
possibilities

Control types
Types and
Types and
signals Control signals

Actuators Sensors

Basic system
Cycle time
Physical
connections

Definition “actor”

— Actor/Actuator: Converts an information signal from the control,


into energy acting on the basic system.
[Bathelt, Jönsson, Dierssen 2005]

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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Classification of sensors and actuators

Actor types Application areas

Force / movement actors Synchron (AC/DC) drive, asynchron drive, linear drive,
relay, piezo-electric drive, pneumatic drive, hydraulic drive

Heat actors Resistance heating

Acoustic actors Speaker

Optical actors Displays, LEDs

Example of actors

Movement: Torque: Movement:


electromagnetic electromagnetic pneumatic

Light: Current: Sound:


LED voltage electromagnetic

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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Signal flow between controls - actors

Primary signal Control

Additional Low power


energy e.g. +/-10V_24V

Amplifier

Secondary
signal
High power
e.g. 220/380V; 0.1-300 A

Actor

Energy
Base System

Signal flow between controls - actors

Primary signal Secondary


signal
+/-10V_24V

Voltage (analog) current

information (digital) 0.1-300 A


torque
Control

Voltage (analog) pressure

information (digital) 0.01-300 bar

movement
Voltage Current/voltage

information (digital) 0.1- 10 A


heat

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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Mechatronic system overview

Connection
possibilities

Control types
Types and
Types and
signals Control signals

Actuators Sensors

Basic system
Cycle time
Physical
connections

Definition “basic system”

— Basic System:

Basis of the mechatronic system consisting of ordered and linked


elements that have an interface to the environment by defined
input and output parameters that influence the system.

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MECHATRONIC PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Objectives

— Know the major elements of a mechatronic system

— Overview of control types and their application areas

— Functionality and characteristics of sensors and actuators

— Definition of base systems

Product Innov@tion -- Maschinenbau 19