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Basic Kaizen Patterns & A3 Thinking:

Some observations and reflections on TPS

Art Smalley President Art of Lean, Inc.

Art of Lean, Inc.

TPS development timeline


Influences
Mass Production moving conveyor lines Scientific Principles Of Management Standardization Of Parts
Looms

TPS Development
Automotive Company

1902

1937

1950

1973

2008

Sakichi Toyoda

Kiichiro Toyoda

Eiji Toyoda

Taiichi Ohno

Fujio Cho

Guess what it did not just happen overnight!


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TPS Summary* 1945-1965


Topic / Dates
1. Process flow 2. Conveyance 3. Set up Reduction 4. Kanban 5. Purchase Parts Management 6. Ordering System 7. Production Instruction 8. Multi-Process Handling & Standardized Work

1945-55
50 Machining and Assembly Line Flow 50 Machine Shop Flow 53 1-4 Material Handling Call System

1955-65
55 Engine to Vehicle Plant Flow 60 Intra Plant Flow 60 Intra Plant Time Delivery

55 Fixed quantity unfixed time based system 50 1-4 Hour Set Up Time 48 Replenishment pull pilot 62 15 Minute Average C/O (New Technology Danly Stamping Presses) 62 Company wide pull established

JIT

53 Machine shops implement pull & level scheduling 55 Fixed quantity delivery control system 65 Adoption of supplier kanban 55 Monthly Production Plans 57 Adoption of Sequence List 63 JIT Production Instruction Signals 47 1 Man 2 Machines

53 Standardized Work 55 1 Man 7 Machines (average in machine shop)

Jidoka

49 1 Man 4 Machines 50 Andon lights on engine assembly line

9. Visual Control & In Process Control

62 Full work control system / Pokayoke

*Source: . Toyota 50 Year History Published 1987 Art of 2005 Art of Copyright Lean, Inc. Lean, Inc.

TPS Summary* 1965-1985


Topic / Dates
1. Process flow 2. Conveyance 3. Set up Reduction 4. Kanban 5. Purchase Parts Management 6. Ordering System 7. Production Instruction 8. Multi-Process Handling & Standardized Work
65 10 Day Order Entry System 70 Daily Order Entry System 71 Development Plant Production Instruction Signals 80 Adoption of Automatic Signals 86 New Technology System

1965-75
75 Synchronization of Flow Between Plants

1975-85
75 Development of Equipment for Flow Production

70 All Plants on Call Conveyance Method 77 Cross Docking Methods 83 Review from Sales to Manufacturing 71 3 Minute Average C/O Press Machines 75 Single Minute C/O Machines at Suppliers 77 Kanban Auto Sorting and Reading 77 Bar Code Reader for Supplier Kanban 74 New Order System 85 Lead Time Reduction Project

JIT

75 Company Wide Standardized Work

Jidoka

9. Visual Control & In Process Control

66 Full Automated Machining Lines (JIT & Jidoka Fulfilled Kamigo Model Plant)

*Source: . Toyota 50 Year History Published 1987 Art of 2005 Art of Copyright Lean, Inc. Lean, Inc.

Sample early training courses in Toyota


Training Within Industry (TWI) Courses - Started in 1951 & its influence continues today 1. Job Instruction 2. Job Relations 3. Job Methods -- Replaced in 1955 by the P-course training 4. Job Safety -- Added by Toyota to the above courses Various P-Courses taught by Mr. Shingo Started in 1955 and continued until 1980 taught on average 3 times per year mainly on: 1. Motion analysis 2. Time study analysis 3. Operational analysis 4. Process analysis TQC related courses (Starting around 1962 with the TQC program) 1. QC Circle activity 2. Basic problem solving 3. Statistical quality control Standardized work established in the early 1950s and refined up until1978 Kaizen training course formalized in 1978 and replaced the P-course Role of a Supervisor formalized in 1970 and continues today 1. Role of a Team Leader 2. Role of a Group Leader

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TPS Summary 1973


Practice over theory Managing Director

Ohno Taiichi

1. TPS is a series of related activities aimed at elimination of waste in order to reduce cost, improve quality, and improve productivity. 2. Scientific Mindset: On the shop floor it is important to start with actual phenomenon and search for the root cause in order to solve the problem. In other words we must emphasize getting the facts..
First TPS Manual. 1973 Education & Training Department

3. In problem solving the purpose must be made clearin Kaizen the needs must be made clear.
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TPS Kaizen Patterns (e.g. Method) Three main types (and many derivatives) 1. Man 2. Material 3. Machine Method

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Generic Automotive Plant


Components
Engines
-Casting -Forging -Machining -Assembly

Vehicle Plant
Stamping Body Weld Paint Plastic Injection Final Assembly Line

Transmission

Chassis

Relatively Machine Intensive Relatively People & Material Intensive

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Parts Suppliers

Process Based Layout In Ohnos Machine Shops


Mills
WIP

Lathes
WIP

Gear Cutter
WIP

Grinder

WIP

WIP

WIP

Build up of WIP between stations and departments Over-production of wrong items / under-production of needed items Specialized operators only ran one type of machine Hard to realize productivity gains / work un-balanced Defects were hidden Down time problems were not obvious Lots of busy work but too little value added work

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Conversion To Product Flow In Ohnos Machine Shops


Crank Shaft Line

Mill

Lathe

Lathe

Heat Treat

Grind

Measure

Stop overproduction. Avoid build up of WIP between stations Build in quality at the source Level the quantity produced on a daily basis (dont over-produce or under-produce) Pull production based upon downstream demand not a push Operators run more than one type of machine (multi-machine handing & multi-skilled) Work load balanced to takt time and adjusted monthly Defects are surfaced rapidly and dealt with as they happen (ideal case) Down time problems are surfaced and dealt with as they happen (ideal case) Reduction of waste in the overall sense and total system productivity gain

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Manpower Related Kaizen Time Study Motion Analysis Work Element Analysis Standardized Work & Kaizen

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Time Study

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Motion Study Frank & Lillian Gilbreth (Therbligs)

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Work Elements & Analysis Unit


Job Level Task Level Work Element
Set A & B together Pick up driver Fasten tight Assemble C&D Insert screw Tighten screw

Motion Level

Motion Element
Stretch arm Grasp driver Lift & disengage Pull down

Assemble A&B Make Widgets

General level
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Minute details

Standardized Work
Definition: a document centered around human motion that combines the elements of a job into the most effective sequence with minimal waste to achieve the most efficient level of production possible under current conditions. -Repetitive cyclical work -High process and part quality -Low equipment downtime -Takt time -Work sequence -Standard work in process -Process capacity sheet -Standardized work combination table -Standardize work chart

3 Requirements Actual Standardized Work in TPS

3 Elements 3 Forms

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Standardized Work Forms

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Toyota Machining Line 1950 versus 1990

1945 Machine Tool in Toyota 1 Person operates 1 machine Low Productivity / Low Quality

1990 Machining Line in Toyota 1 Person operates 20+ machines High Productivity / High Quality

Toyota Supplier

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Standardized Work & Kaizen (Monthly Cycle)

1. Clarify the Goal (T.T.) 6. Evaluate the New Method 2. Analyze the Current Situation

5. Implement the Plan 4. Develop Implementation Plan


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3. Generate Original Ideas

Kaizen Patterns Three main types (and many derivatives) 1. Man 2. Material 3. Machine Method

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Generic Automotive Plant


Unit Plants
Engines Stamping
-Casting -Forging -Machining -Assembly

Vehicle Plant
Body Weld Paint Plastic Injection Final Assembly Line

Transmission

Chassis

Relatively Machine Intensive Relatively People & Material Intensive

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Parts Suppliers

Material & Information Flow Analysis (MIFA/VSM) Takt Time Flow


-Material -Information

Inventory Process Info Lead-time

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Learning To See
1. What is takt time? 2. How to create flow? 3. Where is the pacemaker? 4. How to implement pull? 5. Make to order to make to stock? 6. How to level production? 7. What pitch increment? 8. How to improve process flow?

CLP
1. Which products should you hold in a finished-goods inventory, and which to stock? 2. How much of each product should you hold in finished goods? 3. How will you organize and control the finished-goods store? 4. At what single point will you schedule the value stream? 5. How will you level production at the pacemaker? 6. How will you convey demand to the pacemaker 7. How will you manage information and material flow upstream? 8. How will you size your markets and trigger withdrawal pull? 9. How will you control batch processes upstream from the market? 10. How will you expand the level pull system across the facility? 11. How will you sustain your level pull system? 12. How will you improve your level pull system?

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Kaizen Patterns Three main types (and many derivatives) 1. Man 2. Material 3. Machine Method

Art of 2005 Art of Copyright Lean, Inc. Lean, Inc.

Generic Automotive Plant


Unit Plants
Engines Stamping
-Casting -Forging -Machining -Assembly

Vehicle Plant
Body Weld Paint Plastic Injection Final Assembly Line

Transmission

Chassis

Relatively Machine Intensive Relatively People & Material Intensive

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Parts Suppliers

Old Toyota Machines 1950s 1960s

Cincinnati Milling Machine

Toyoda Transfer Machine

Danly Stamping Press

Automated Body Welding Machine


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Machine Related Workshop

Problem Solving 101


1,600 1,200 800 Gap = 400

WHY?

Machine Capacity*

Customer Demand*

Actual Output*

*Per Shift in this example Art of 2005 Art of Copyright Lean, Inc. Lean, Inc.

Six Machine Losses


Categories Manpower Stoppages* Availability Types Breakdowns Changeover Cycle time Performance Small stops Quality Scrap & rework Yield or start- up losses

Machine Losses

Material Stoppages*

*Note: Considered separately in the previous two sections Art of 2005 Art of Copyright Lean, Inc. Lean, Inc.

Six Sample Losses (One Example)


Illustrative Example

Units per shift

648

100 Net loss Per shift 38.3%

20

65 30 20 13

248

Losses!

400 61.7%

GC1444 Capacity

Breakdowns

Change Over

Cycle Time

Minor Stops

Scrap

Rework

Actual Average Output

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1. Breakdowns
Paretos Curve Graph
# of incidents (%)
Man Machine

Cause and Effect Diagram

Problem

Method

Material

Type of incident

The same type of rigor that is used in quality problem solving should be applied to machine breakdown problem solving

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2. Set Up Reduction For Changeover


Line Name Part Name Process Name No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Machine Name Time Study
Start End Total

Set Up Reduction Worksheet


(Work element analysis, time study, problem identification sheet) Part Number Category
Int. Ext.

Main Set Up Work Elements

Problem Point

Countermeasure

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3. Machine Cycle Time Study


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Automatic doors open Remove part from machine (or auto eject, etc.) Load next part Clamp part / Coolant on Table index Grinding wheel on (or tool rotates, etc) Rapid feed advance Air cut Rough cut Dwell Finish cut Air cut Rapid feed retract Table return / Coolant off / Air blow Unclamp part Automatic door open Repeat cycle 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 2 18 2 20 2 4 4 2 76

Usually only 50% of the machine cycle time is value add

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4. Minor Stops (Machining example)


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cutting chips on fixtures Limit or proximity switch problems Part jamming Operator adjusting something Confusion of on-line and off-line work for operator Etc.

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5 & 6. Scrap and Yield Losses (Machining Example)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Process Capability

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

What is the actual capability of the process? Which dimension is in trouble? By exactly how much? Since when? How is the condition of the tool? Where is the datum? What is its condition? How is the part located and clamped? How is the part measured and gauged? What is the condition of the various fluids (coolant, oil, grease, etc.) What is the actual machining cycle? What mechanical interference might be occurring? What is misaligned in the machine how much? What is the condition of the spindle head / bearing unit (e.g. run out) How is the tool holder condition? How good is the incoming material? What else is worn that can cause variation?

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TPS Summary 1973


Practice over theory Managing Director

Ohno Taiichi

1. TPS is a series of related activities aimed at elimination of waste in order to reduce cost, improve quality, and improve productivity. 2. Scientific Mindset: On the shop floor it is important to start with actual phenomenon and search for the root cause in order to solve the problem. In other words we must emphasize getting the facts..
First TPS Manual. 1973 Education & Training Department

3. In problem solving the purpose must be made clearin Kaizen the needs must be made clear.
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TPS is built on the scientific way of thinking*


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. General Scientific Method Define the question / make observations Gather information and facts Form hypothesis Perform experiment and collect data Analyze data Interpret data and draw conclusions Summarize results

*Quote by Taiichi Ohno. Graphic and comment by Hajime Ohba Toyota Supplier Support Center

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

TPS Basic Problem Solving / Kaizen Define the problem / opportunity Analyze the causes Set a goal Implement the action items Check the results Follow up / Standardize

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Fujio Cho & Russ Scaffede Example Teach your managers the importance of standards. Standards are a basis for comparison. Without a standard I cant objectively tell what has changed let alone improved. With no standard there can be no kaizen
-Time -Quantity -Quality -Cost -Etc.

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Tom Harada & Art Smalley Example Show me your thinking I want to understand the rational basis for your explanation(i.e. not the emotion). Tell me What, When, Where, How much, and Why. Focus less on Who. If you cant explain the situation with proper facts and details then Im probably not going to trust you How do you know if you have arrived at a root cause?

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Its the Thinking Pattern Stupid!


Scientific Method*
Make Observations Gather Information Form Hypothesis Perform Experiment to Test Hypothesis Analyze Data Draw Conclusions & Summarize

Problem Solving*
Define Problem Analyze Causes Set a Goal Implement Corrective Action Items Check Results Follow Up / Standardize

Kaizen Steps*
Clarify the Goal Analyze Situation Generate Original Ideas Develop an Implementation Plan Implement Action Items Evaluate Results / Standardize

*Generic patterns. Other versions exist.


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Generic A3 Report Format Example


Plan Do, Check, Act

Background

Countermeasures

Current Situation

Effect Confirmation Goal

Root Cause Analysis Follow Up Actions

(Left Half)
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(Right Half)

Final Comments / Q&A


1. 2. Part II of A3 Thinking to be continued by Prof. Durward Sobek Samples of different A3s on www.A3thinking.com -Problem Solving -Status Reviews -Proposal Writing Respect for People & Continuous Improvement Getting people to think and take action is key

3. 4.

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