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Experiment No.

2
To investigate the relationship between specific energy (E) and depth of flow (y) in a rectangular channel. Objectives: 1. To study the variation in specific energy as a function of depth of flow for a given discharge in a lab flume. 2. To validate the theories of E ~ y diagram. Apparatus: S6 tilting or lab flume with manometer flow arrangement and slope adjusting scale. Hook Gauge

Related Theory: Flume: It is a channel supported above the ground level. Specific Energy: It is the total energy per unit weight relative to channel bed.

Assumptions: 1. Normal flow conditions exist in channel. Normal Flow: Steady uniform flow means normal flow. 2. Bed slopes is very small that is S < 1:10. 3. Velocity correction factor ( = 1 )

More variation in velocity more value of

assuming slope is very small that y d

Energy equation at the surface of water ( )

Energy equation for stream line at bottom of the channel.

Energy equation for stream line at y1 from channel bed. ( ) ( )

Q = AV

V= Q/A
( )

Where, q = discharge intensity 3. Specific energy curve:


(E ~ y diagram) It shows variation in specific energy as a function of depth of flow.

Velocity head = 0 No flow condition above E = y line. B = point of minimum specific energy Yc = Critical depth of water Emin = minimum specific energy = critical velocity and flow condition is critical flow condition The point A and C have same specific energy but different depth this is called alternative depth. Region between A and B is super critical and region between B and C is sub critical. 4. Critical Depth (yc) : It is the depth of flow in the channel at which specific energy is minimum and mathematically it is written as ( )

)=0 ( )=0 ( )

5. Froud No : It is the ratio of inertial forces to the gravitational forces and mathematically written as

6. Critical flow: It is the flow corresponding to the critical depth or it is the flow for which fraud No. is 1 7. Sub Critical Flow: It is the flow with larger depth and low flow velocity and its fraud No < 1 8. Super critical flow: It is the flow with lesser depth and large flow velocity and its Fraud No > 1 9. Critical Velocity: It is the velocity of flow at critical depth. 10. Alternate depths: For any values of specific energy at a constant discharge other than the critical point where are 2 depths one greater than critical depth and other less than critical depth these two depths for a given specific energy is termed as alternate depth.

Minimum specific energy: Emin It is the specific energy at critical depth under critical velocity conditions in a channel.

For Emin , y = yc

This expression is only for rectangular channel Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Maintain the constant discharge in the open channel. For any particular value of slope find the average depth of flow of water. Calculate the specific energy using this relation. Repeat this procedure for different values of slopes. Draw a specific energy curve at minimum. Find out depth and minimum specific energy. Find yc theoretical and Emin theoretical.
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