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Focus on Grammar 5 Grammar Chart Transparencies

The purpose of the grammar charts is to help students notice the form of the structure, to pre-teach some of the grammar notes that follow, and to familiarize students with grammar terminology.The Focus on Grammar (FOG) transparencies are designed to help instructors use the charts more effectively in class by engaging students as they tackle a new grammar point together. Here are some suggestions for using the transparencies. Ask questions that will help students become aware of the form of the structure. For example, for modals to express degrees of certainty (FOG 5, Unit 6, pages 9192), ask students to study the charts looking for examples where the negative is expressed in the usual way (e.g., must, must not, may, may not, might, might not). Now have them look for examples where a modal doesnt have a negative counterpart using the same modal (have [got] to, had to, should, ought to). Have students use the examples in the charts to practice the form. In the unit on modals to express degrees of certainty (FOG 5, Unit 6, pages 9192), you might ask students for the opposites of: It must be true. (It cant be true. / It couldnt be true. /It must not be true.) It cant be true. (It must be true. NOT It can be true.) Use the charts with Grammar in Context. Ask students to look at Grammar in Context and nd examples that illustrate the points in the grammar charts. Students can also use the grammar terms in the charts to label items in Grammar in Context. Compare charts. For example, for the passive (FOG 5, Unit 13, pages 222223), there are charts for active and passive sentences. Ask,What happens in a passive sentence to the object of an active sentence? (It becomes the subject of the passive sentence.) What happens in a passive sentence to the subject of the active sentence? (It becomes the object of by used to indicate the agent.) Ask, What happens in a passive sentence to the verb in the active sentence? (It is replaced by a form of be + the past participle.) Help students understand grammar terminology through the use of the charts. All Focus on Grammar charts are clearly labeled. (Simple Present, Present Progressive, Action Verbs, Most Non-Action Verbs, Statement, Tag, Short Answer, Speculations about the Present, Speculations about the Past, etc.) Ask questions to make certain students understand what the labels mean. Use the charts to practice items from a list. For example, in FOG 5, Unit 9, page 143, students could practice the quantiers by making up sentences about themselves and classmates. Instead of She bought a couple of gifts, they could say,I read a couple of books, I borrowed a few CDs,I have many friends,I didnt use much salt, etc.
G

Ask students to provide personal examples. For example, Unit 15, page 260 of FOG 5, says,They enjoy kayaking. I went swimming. Ask students to say what they enjoy and what they did (over the weekend, e.g.). (I enjoy playing soccer. I went shopping.) Guidelines provided by Irene E. Schoenberg

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Grammar Presentation
PRESENT AND FUTURE TIME

PRESENT TIME: IN GENERAL OR NOW


Simple Present
Tourists often spend a lot of money.

Present Progressive
Be + Base Form + -ing A tourist is looking for a souvenir.

PRESENT TIME: FROM A TIME IN THE PAST UNTIL NOW


Present Perfect
Have + Past Participle We have visited 11 countries so far.

Present Perfect Progressive


Have been + Base Form + -ing Weve been traveling for three weeks.

FUTURE TIME: A TIME IN THE FUTURE


Simple Future
Will / Be going to + Base Form Youll like the hotel. Youre going to like the hotel.

Future Progressive
Will be + Base Form + -ing A week from now, youll be relaxing in the sun.

Simple Present
The tour starts tomorrow at 4:00 P.M.

Present Progressive
Be + Base Form + -ing Were visiting our friends later this summer.

Two Actions in the Future


Ill call you as soon as we land.

Future Perfect
Will have + Past Participle Well have arrived by 4:00 P.M.

Future Perfect Progressive


Will have been + Base Form + -ing We will have been ying for hours by then.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 1

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Grammar Presentation
PAST TIME

PAST TIME: GENERAL OR SPECIFIC (DEFINITE)


Simple Past
Weinlick needed to nd a bride. He advertised on the Internet.

Past Progressive
Was / Were + Base Form + -ing He was looking for someone special.

PAST TIME: NOT SPECIFIC (INDEFINITE)


Present Perfect
Has / Have + Past Participle The couple has chosen the date for the party. They have already sent the invitations.

PAST TIME: HABITUAL OR REPEATED


Used To + Base Form
She used to be a pharmacist.

Would + Base Form


Some days she would work 12 hours.

PAST TIME: BEFORE A TIME IN THE PAST


Past Perfect
Had + Past Participle He had met her before the wedding.

Past Perfect Progressive


Had been + Base Form + -ing He had been planning the wedding for months.

PAST TIME: AFTER A TIME IN THE PAST BUT BEFORE NOW (FUTURE IN THE PAST)
Was / Were Going To + Base Form
He knew he was going to marry soon.

Would + Base Form


He knew when the wedding would be.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 2

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Grammar Presentation
ACTION AND NON-ACTION VERBS
Action Verbs
Simple Form They normally drive to work. Progressive Form Today theyre taking the bus.

Most Non-Action Verbs


Simple Form People know he is a good employee. They want to understand his problem. This building belongs to the company.

Some Non-Action Verbs


Simple Form (Stative Use) I have a new cell phone. She appears very happy about the job. They think they need a new car. Progressive Form (Active Use) Im having problems with it. She is appearing in a new play. Please dont bother me; Im thinking.

Action Verbs
+ Adverb He works constantly. The computer is working well today.

Some Non-Action Verbs


+ Adjective (Stative Use) Your car looks good. The soup tastes delicious. She feels bad about what she said. + Adverb (Active Use) He looked thoughtfully at the message. You should taste that carefullyits hot! The doctor felt the bruise gently.

THERE + BE
Simple Form There were many requests for a new version. There are some problems with the invention. There wont be an alternative technology. There appears to be a need for a simple device.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 3

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Grammar Presentation
BE AND AUXILIARIES IN ADDITIONS, TAGS, AND SHORT ANSWERS

ADDITIONS REFERRING TO PRECEDING INFORMATION


Statement
You might think this is crazy. It sounds like its a ridiculous idea. You wonder if he might be wrong. Some people believe in you. See if you can solve it. He is working on this problem right now. Many of us have worked on this.

Addition
It is. It isnt. He is. Im not sure I do. Michael thinks you can. At least he says he is. All my friends have.

ADDITIONS OF SIMILARITY WITH SO, TOO, NEITHER, NOT EITHER


Statement
Michael is a good leader. Carolyn isnt jealous of her siblings. Annie doesnt play sports. George cant ski. George is studying engineering. Annie has visited Japan several times.

Addition
So is Dennis. Dennis is too. Neither is Alice. Alice isnt either. Karen doesnt either. Neither can Martin. So is Martin. Karen has too.

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 4 Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

ADDITIONS OF CONTRAST AND EMPHASIS


Statement
Theyre not rich, Theyre rich; Shes never studied Italian, Hes had many years of German; I dont have a computer at home, We have a lot of money; My mother is never home; They didnt go to college;

Addition
but they ARE* successful. however, they ARENT powerful. but she CAN speak it fairly well. he CANT speak it, though. but I DO use one at work. still, we DONT manage to be happy. she DOES keep in touch, however. they DID become successful, though.

*Capital letters are used here to show which words are stressed for emphasis.

TAG QUESTIONS
Statement
Thats a good idea, Youre working with Sam, Jeff has worked hard for this, We can visit your ofce, Annie works at the lab, Thats not a good idea, Im not doing well, Jason hasnt called, They cant come now, Megan didnt study,

Tag
isnt it? arent you? hasnt he? cant we? doesnt she? is it? am I? has he? can they? did she?

Short Answers
it is. I am. he has. you can. she does. its not. youre not. he hasnt. they cant. she didnt.

Yes,

No,

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 4

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Grammar Presentation
MODALS TO EXPRESS DEGREES OF NECESSITY (RANGING FROM OBLIGATION TO NO OBLIGATION)
Obligation (Necessity)
You must have to have got to had to call them. You must not cant are not allowed to couldnt werent allowed to call them. Necessity 100%

You

call

them.

You

call

them.

Advice
had better You should ought to You should have ought to have leave early. You had better not shouldnt shouldnt have leave early.

left

early.

You

left

early.

Expectation
You You are supposed to are to were supposed to were to take take a gift. a gift. You You are not supposed to are not to were not supposed to were not to do do this. this.

Suggestion
You You could might could have might have give given roses. roses.

No Obligation (No Necessity)


You dont have to You didnt have to call call them. them. 0%

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 5

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Grammar Presentation
MODALS TO EXPRESS DEGREES OF CERTAINTY
Speculations about the Present
It It must has (got) to may / might could be be true. true. It It cant / couldnt be must not may not might not be true. true.

Speculations about the Past


It must have had to have may have might have could have been true. It cant have couldnt have must not have may not have might not have been true.

It

been

true.

It

been

true.

Speculations about the Future


We should ought to may might could solve it soon. may not might not

We

solve

it soon.

We

solve

it soon.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 6

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Grammar Presentation
NOUNS
Proper Nouns
Professor Lee heads the Nutrition Institute.

Common Nouns
The professor teaches nutrition.

COUNT AND NON-COUNT NOUNS


Count Nouns
Article or Number A One The Two Noun snack snacks Verb is refreshing. are Nutrition Noun Rice is important.

Non-Count Nouns
Verb nourishing.

NOUNS WITH COUNT AND NON-COUNT MEANINGS


Count Meaning
Theres a hair in my soup! A chicken escaped from the henhouse. My favorite works of art are from China.

Non-Count Meaning
Sandra has black hair. We had chicken for dinner. It takes work to prepare a meal.

NON-COUNT NOUNS IN COUNTABLE FORM


Non-Count Noun
Ill have tea. You need advice. Lets play tennis. The stew needs more spice. Fruit is nutritious.

Countable Form
Ill have a cup of tea. Let me give you a piece of advice. Lets play a game of tennis. There are several spices in this stew. Many different fruits are grown in California.

USES OF NON-COUNT NOUNS


Non-Count Nouns in Uncountable Use
Id like some coffee. Cheese is produced in France. The sun provides light.

Non-Count Nouns in Countable Use


Please bring us two coffees. Brie is a soft cheese. I see a light in the window.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 7

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Grammar Presentation
INDEFINITE AND DEFINITE ARTICLES

A/AN: INDEFINITE ARTICLE


Non-Specic
SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS He saw a statue at an exhibition.

Generic
A statue is a three-dimensional gure.

ZERO ARTICLE (NO ARTICLE)


Non-Specic
PLURAL COUNT NOUNS NON-COUNT NOUNS PROPER NOUNS Easter Island has impressive statues. The statues are made of stone.

Generic
Statues are made in all shapes and sizes. Stone is an important building material.

Ms. Johnson spent a year on Easter Island. She worked in Egypt and Hawaii. She now lives in New York City.

THE: DEFINITE ARTICLE


Specic
SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS He nally got a computer. The computer he got is good. Its the best computer in the world. The rain forests in South America are being cut down. The stone from that quarry is very soft. She crossed the Sahara, visited the Pyramids, and sailed down the Nile.

Generic
The computer is a great invention.

PLURAL COUNT NOUNS NON-COUNT NOUNS PROPER NOUNS

The rain forests are in danger everywhere.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 8

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Grammar Presentation
QUANTIFIERS
Quantiers ONE EACH EVERY TWO BOTH A COUPLE OF SEVERAL FEW A FEW MANY A GREAT MANY LITTLE A LITTLE MUCH A GREAT DEAL OF NO ANY SOME ENOUGH A LOT OF / LOTS OF PLENTY OF MOST ALL With Count Nouns
One store is open. Each coin is valuable. Every bank is closed. Two stores are open. Both stores are nearby. She bought a couple of gifts. She bought several gifts. They have few investments. She has a few investments. Does he own many buildings? He owns a great many buildings. They have no bonds. They dont have any bonds. They have some stocks. You have enough stocks. He has a lot of / lots of clients. He has plenty of clients. Most banks are safe. All banks are insured.

With Non-Count Nouns


* They have little money. She has a little money. Does he have much property? He owns a great deal of property. They have no insurance. They dont have any insurance. They have some cash. You have enough cash. He has a lot of / lots of patience. He has plenty of patience. Most work is useful. All work is tiring.

* = quantier not used

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 9

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Grammar Presentation
MODIFICATION OF NOUNS
Adjective Modier Noun Modier
Winter wonderful I remember the amazing unexpected hockey U.S. games. victory.

Head Noun
Olympics. athletes.

Order of Adjective Modiers


Opinion I saw a I met its She had She wore a great fascinating large long Size Age new young round red Shape Color Origin French Chinese jade silk Material movie. director. earrings. dress.

Several Adjective Modiers


Different Modier Categories A great new epic movie Same Modier Category A serious, profound, and heartwarming movie A serious, profound, heartwarming movie A heartwarming, profound, serious movie

Compound Modiers
The movie has lots of The main character is a computer-generated strange-looking 10-year-old long-haired, short-legged scenes. creatures. girl. boy.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 10

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Grammar Presentation
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES: REVIEW AND EXPANSION

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES: PLACEMENT


Main Clause
Noun / Pronoun They met Ive read a woman everything

Adjective Clause
Relative Pronoun who that teaches psychology. discusses her work.

Main . . .
Noun / Pronoun The woman Everything

Adjective Clause
Relative Pronoun who that teaches psychology discusses her work

. . . Clause

is also a writer. is very positive.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS: WHO, WHOM, WHICH, THAT


Subjects: Who, Which, That
People I have a friend I have friends who that loves to talk. love to talk. This is a book These are books Things which that is useful. are useful.

Objects: Who(m), Which, That, *


People This is the doctor who(m) that we consulted. This is the test Things which that he gave us.

* = no pronoun

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 11 Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

WHOSE TO INDICATE POSSESSION


Whose + Noun
People She is the woman whose son is so famous. She is the woman whose son I am tutoring. Things Its the book whose reviews were so good. Its the book whose reviews I have just read.

WHERE AND WHEN IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES


Where
Place I remember the caf where we met.

When
Time (when) I remember the day (that) we parted.

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES: IDENTIFYING OR NONIDENTIFYING


Identifying Clause
No Commas The woman who / that created the test studied psychology. The test which / that / she created describes personality types.

Nonidentifying Clause
Commas Katharine Briggs, who created the test, studied psychology. The Myers-Briggs test, which she created, describes personality types.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 11

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Grammar Presentation
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES WITH PREPOSITIONS, QUANTIFIERS, OR NOUNS; ADJECTIVE PHRASES

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES WITH PREPOSITIONS


Main Clause
People / Things Preposition to Hes the actor for Its the studio

Adjective Clause
Relative Pronoun whom who(m) that * which which that whose she was talking. she was talking he works. he works movies I told you director I spoke for. about. of. to. Preposition

Thats the director Thats the movie


* = no pronoun

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES WITH QUANTIFIERS


Main Clause
People / Things I have many friends, Quantier all most a number some a few several a couple two of

Adjective Clause
Of Relative Pronoun whom are actors.

I was in a lot of movies, Thats the director, Thats the movie,

which

were successes. movies are classics. actors got awards.

whose

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES WITH NOUNS


Main Clause
Things He made comedies, I love that series, Noun an example of which an episode she directed.

Adjective Clause
Of Which is Some Like It Hot.

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 12 Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

REDUCING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO ADJECTIVE PHRASES


Adjective Clause
Hes the actor I saw the lm Thats the man I read the scripts whos from the lm school. which is based on that book. who was in charge of lighting. that are on my desk. Hes the actor I saw the lm Thats the man I read the scripts

Adjective Phrase
from the lm school. based on that book. in charge of lighting. on my desk.

CHANGING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO ADJECTIVE PHRASES


Adjective Clause
Hes the actor Troy is an epic Its a love story who plays the king. which stars Brad Pitt. that takes place in Rome. Hes the actor Troy is an epic Its a love story

Adjective Phrase
playing the king. starring Brad Pitt. taking place in Rome.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 12

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Grammar Presentation
THE PASSIVE: REVIEW AND EXPANSION
Active Sentences
Subject Cooper Someone Verb hijacked found Object the plane. the bills. Subject The plane The bills

Passive Sentences
Be + Past Participle was hijacked were found. (By + Agent) by Cooper.

Passive Verb Forms


Be (not) Past Participle

SIMPLE PRESENT PRESENT PROGRESSIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PROGRESSIVE FUTURE PRESENT PERFECT PAST PERFECT FUTURE PERFECT
The crime

is (not) is (not) being was (not) was (not) being will (not) be is (not) going to be has (not) been had (not) been will (not) have been investigated (by the new team).

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 13 Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

The Passive with Modals


Modals can (not) may (not) might (not) should (not) ought (not) to must (not) had better (not) could (not) might (not) must (not) should (not) ought (not) to Be / have been Past Participle

The case

be

reopened

in the future.

The case

have been

reopened

years ago.

The Passive Causative


Subject We She They He Have / Get had has had got is going to get Object the evidence the note the report a copy Past Participle checked analyzed. printed made. by professionals. (By + Agent) by experts.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 13

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Grammar Presentation
THE PASSIVE TO DESCRIBE SITUATIONS AND TO REPORT OPINIONS

DESCRIBING SITUATIONS OR STATES (STATIVE PASSIVE)


Active Sentences
Subject The people * The country The island The capital
*

Passive Sentences
Be + Past Participle are related is composed is connected was located Prepositional Phrase (to each other). of two regions. to the mainland. in the south. * (By + Agent)

= These forms do not occur.

REPORTING OPINIONS OR IDEAS


Active Sentences
Subject Verb say think believe allege That Clause

Some anthropologists

(that) the people came from the East.

Passive Sentences with It + That Clause


It Be + Past Participle is said is thought is believed is alleged (By + Agent) That Clause

It

(by some anthropologists)

(that) the people came from the East.

Passive Sentences with To Phrase


Subject Be + Past Participle are said are thought are believed are alleged (By + Agent) To Phrase

The people

(by some anthropologists)

to have come from the East.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 14

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Grammar Presentation
GERUNDS
Gerund as Subject
Gerund (Subject) Kayaking Swimming Not inviting him Verb involves builds will cause Object some risks. endurance. resentment. Subject They I We

Gerund as Object
Verb enjoy went dont advise Gerund (Object) kayaking. swimming. not inviting him.

Gerund as Subject Complement


Subject My sport His problem Verb is is Gerund (Subject Complement) skiing. not exercising.

Gerund as Object Complement


Subject He She Verb spends found Object time him Gerund (Object Complement) reading. not working.

Gerund as Object of a Preposition


Preposition She insists Hes accustomed They have a reason on to for Gerund going out giving not inviting every weekend. parties. Michael.

Possessive + Gerund
Possessive Emilys Bob and Helen worry about her the childrens their having so few friends. Gerund

Active and Passive Gerunds


Active Gerunds SIMPLE PAST Inviting them to her wedding was a nice gesture on her part. Having invited them to her wedding made her feel good. Passive Gerunds Being invited to her wedding was a great surprise to them. Having been invited to her wedding is a fond memory for them.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 15

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Grammar Presentation
INFINITIVES
Innitive as Subject
Innitive (Subject) To procrastinate Not to go ahead Verb causes proved Object a lot of problems. a mistake. Subject Not everyone He

Innitive as Object
Verb wants decided Innitive (Object) to procrastinate. not to go ahead.

Innitive as Subject Complement


Subject His job Their real intention Verb is is Innitive (Subject Complement) to motivate not to succeed. people.

It + Innitive
It It It Be is was Adjective foolish wrong (For / Of + Noun / Pronoun) (for Alice / her) (of Hal / him) Innitive to procrastinate. not to go ahead.

Verbs Followed by Innitives


Verb decided / hoped / neglected, etc. They convinced / told / urged, etc. expected / needed / wanted, etc.
* = not used

(Noun / Pronoun) * Steve / him (Steve / him)

Innitive

to call.

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 16 Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Adjectives Followed by Innitives


Adjective Hal is Hes Theyre reluctant careful happy Innitive to complete not to make to hear his work on time. mistakes. the test has been postponed.

Nouns Followed by Innitives


Noun He can always think of It seems like She always shows reasons the thing reluctance Innitive to put off to do. to nish a job. studying.

Too / Enough with Innitives


Too + Adjective / Adverb The project is Alice types too complicated too slowly Adjective / Adverb + Enough Steve is He didnt call intelligent enough quickly enough Enough + Noun They have enough intelligence intelligence enough Innitive to nish to meet Innitive to understand to get Innitive to pass the test. the situation. the job. on time. the deadline.

Active and Passive Innitives


Active Innitives Passive Innitives They expect to be invited. They were happy to have been invited.

SIMPLE PAST

She plans to invite them. She was glad to have invited them.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 16

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Grammar Presentation
ADVERBS: FUNCTIONS, TYPES, PLACEMENT, AND MEANING
Adverb Functions TO MODIFY VERBS TO MODIFY ADJECTIVES TO MODIFY OTHER ADVERBS TO MODIFY ENTIRE SENTENCES
The topic often causes controversy. The topic is extremely controversial. He treated the topic very fairly. Unfortunately, the topic is controversial.

Adverb Types MANNER TIME PLACE FREQUENCY


Some think he presents issues dishonestly. Miliary service for women has become controversial recently. The director found a new position there. The programs subjects are often unpopular.

Sentence Adverbs: Placement BEGINNING MIDDLE END


Clearly, these are bitter controversies. These are clearly bitter controversies. These are bitter controversies, clearly.

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 17 Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Focus Adverbs: Placement and Meaning


They Even She Only Men just dont dont just she can do men can can do even can only that. that. support what he says. They think hes wrong. They agree with him 100%. Anyone can do that task. Its amazing how many things she can do. Women cant. They cant do anything else.

participate.

Negative Adverbs: Placement and Inversion


We Rarely I have Seldom They Never rarely do we seldom have I never did they disagreed disagree with him. heard that idea. agree on such things.

Adverbs and Adverbials


Adverbs The participants came here. downtown. The debate was broadcast recently. this morning. Everyone talked excitedly. with enthusiasm. Adverbials

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 17

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Grammar Presentation
ADVERB CLAUSES

PLACEMENT AND PUNCTUATION


Main Clause
We watched TV a lot Tickets cost more

Adverb Clause
when the Olympics were on. because athletes earn so much.

Adverb Clause
When the Olympics were on, Because athletes earn so much,

Main Clause
we watched TV a lot. tickets cost more.

TYPES
Adverb Clauses of Time
Before I played basketball, The coach met with her players While the team was on the eld, I was a soccer player. after the game was over. the fans cheered continuously.

Adverb Clauses of Place


Ive seen children playing soccer Anywhere you go, I work out at a gym everywhere Ive been outside the U.S. sports stars are national heroes. wherever I travel.

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 18 Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Adverb Clauses of Reason


Since she plays well, He was unable to play in the nal game Now that television covers the games, I want her on our team. as he had hurt his ankle. billions of people can see the Olympics.

Adverb Clauses of Condition


Unless the tickets cost too much, Youll be comfortable inside the dome Only if she wins the gold medal well go to the game next Saturday. even if its cold and raining outside. will she get a professional contract.

Adverb Clauses of Contrast


They won the game, Although their team is talented, Swimmers are rarely injured, though they didnt really deserve the victory. they just didnt win. whereas hockey players are often hurt.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 18

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Grammar Presentation
ADVERB AND ADVERBIAL PHRASES

REDUCING ADVERB CLAUSES OF TIME TO ADVERB PHRASES


Adverb Clause
While they were in Italy, While I was in Italy, When I am traveling, When Sue is traveling, I keep a journal. they had trouble.

Adverb Phrase
While in Italy, * When traveling,
* = no change possible

they had trouble.

I keep a journal.

CHANGING ADVERB CLAUSES OF TIME TO ADVERB PHRASES


Adverb Clause
Before we left, Before Ann left, After they (had) investigated, When they saw Reg speak, the police identied the killers. many Italians were moved. we visited Rome. Before leaving, After investigating, After having investigated, On / Upon seeing Reg speak, the police identied the killers. many Italians were moved.

Adverb Phrase
we visited Rome.

CHANGING ADVERB CLAUSES OF TIME TO ADVERBIAL PHRASES


Adverb Clause
While they waited at the hospital, After they heard the news, they were deeply troubled. they decided what to do.

Adverbial Phrase
Waiting at the hospital, Hearing the news, they were deeply troubled. they decided what to do.

CHANGING ADVERB CLAUSES OF REASON TO ADVERBIAL PHRASES


Adverb Clause
As he saw the guns, Because they were unable to catch him, Because Ive been to Bari, Because Id been to Bari, Since they were accused by the police, he chose to ee. the pursuers red several shots. I hope to return. Having been to Bari, I hoped to return. they had to appear in court. Accused by the police, I hoped to return. they had to appear in court.

Adverbial Phrase
Seeing the guns, Being unable to catch him, he chose to ee. the pursuers red several shots. I hope to return.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 19

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Grammar Presentation
CONNECTORS
Connectors: Placement and Punctuation
Type of Connector Examples I was worried, so I did some research. Because I was worried, I did some research. I did some research because I was worried.

COORDINATING CONJUNCTION SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION

TRANSITION

I was worried. Therefore, I did some research. I was worried. I, therefore, did some research. I was worried. I did some research, therefore.

Connectors: Functions
Function Coordinating Conjunctions and, nor, or Subordinating Conjunctions Transitions besides, furthermore, indeed, in addition, moreover if, even if, only if, unless although, though, even though, whereas, while as, because, since consequently, otherwise, therefore, thus after, before, when, while afterwards, meanwhile, next otherwise however, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary, on the other hand

ADDITION

CONDITION CONTRAST

or but, or, yet

CAUSE / REASON EFFECT / RESULT

for so

TIME

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 20 Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Transitions: Connecting Sentences


Functions Examples She couldnt remember names. Human brains lose mass. Furthermore, she forgot addresses. Indeed, they may lose 10 percent a year. Otherwise, their memory might deteriorate. However, I always remember faces. Nevertheless, we shouldnt worry. Consequently, I couldnt recall her name. Therefore, he took a memory course. Meanwhile, his wife read a book. Next, she bought a memory video.

ADDITION

CONDITION CONTRAST

Older people should eat several small meals a day. I often have trouble with names. We all forget things.

EFFECT / RESULT

I wasnt concentrating when we met. He wanted to improve his memory.

TIME

He studied for his course. She completed the book.

Transitions: Connecting Blocks of Text


Functions Examples First of all, we need to distinguish between two types of memory. For example, you need to stay mentally active. To summarize: Memory improvement requires work. In conclusion, we can prevent the deterioration of memory.

LISTING IDEAS IN ORDER OF TIME / IMPORTANCE GIVING EXAMPLES SUMMARIZING ADDING A CONCLUSION

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 20

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
NOUN CLAUSES: SUBJECTS, OBJECTS, AND COMPLEMENTS

NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH THAT


Subject
That she loves them is obvious. That they give gifts is unfortunate.

Object
You can see (that) she loves them. She knows (that) they give gifts.

Complement SUBJECT COMPLEMENT ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT


The problem was (that) the car was so expensive. It is important (that) people develop a sense of humor.

NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH QUESTION WORDS


Subject
What I should give her is obvious. Why he did that wasnt evident.

Object
I wonder what I should give her. Can you explain why he did that?

Complement SUBJECT COMPLEMENT ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT


The mystery is how he could afford the car. Its amusing what she did with the bird.

NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH WHETHER OR IF


Subject
Whether shell like it is hard to tell. Whether its useful or not matters to me.

Object
I wonder whether / if shell like it. I care about whether / if its useful (or not). whether (or not) its useful.

Complement SUBJECT COMPLEMENT ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT


The issue is whether she needs such costly gifts. Hes uncertain whether shell like it.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 21

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
INDIRECT SPEECH

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH: STATEMENTS


Direct Speech
Subject Reporting Verb Direct Statement The report is wrong. She said, Candidate A leads in the polls. The Blues were defeated.

Indirect Speech
Subject Reporting Verb said She told Aaron / him the Blues had been defeated.
* = not used.

Noun / Pronoun * (that)

Indirect Statement the report was wrong. Candidate A led in the polls.

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH: QUESTIONS


Direct Speech: Yes / No Questions
Subject The reporter Reporting Verb asked, Do you think they are going to win? Direct Question Have you read the paper?

Indirect Speech: Yes / No Questions


Subject The reporter Reporting Verb asked Noun / Pronoun (Juana) (her) if whether (or not) Indirect Question she had read the paper. she thought they were going to win.

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 22 Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Direct Speech: Wh- Questions


Subject The mayor Reporting Verb asked, Who is ahead in the race? Direct Question Where do you vote?

Indirect Speech: Wh- Questions


Subject The mayor Reporting Verb asked Noun / Pronoun (Mr. Andrews) (him) where who Indirect Question he voted. was ahead in the race.

VERB CHANGES IN INDIRECT SPEECH


Direct Speech
Verb report am reporting reported He said, I have reported had reported will report can report should report would report could report should report the news. He said (that) he had reported the news.

Indirect Speech
Verb reported was reporting

OTHER CHANGES IN INDIRECT SPEECH


Direct Speech PRONOUNS POSSESSIVES THIS HERE AGO NOW TODAY YESTERDAY TOMORROW
Andy, are you listening? Mary asked. The boss said, Sue, bring your camera. Can I have this lm? Sam asked. Mrs. Brown asked, Will you be here? We came a year ago, Jim said. Bob asked, Are you leaving now? I need to work today, Jack said. The reporter asked, Did you call yesterday? Are you arriving tomorrow? Sarah asked.

Indirect Speech
Mary asked Andy if he was listening. The boss told Sue to bring her camera. Sam asked if he could have that lm. Mrs. Brown asked if I would be there. Jim said (that) they had come one year previously / before. Bob asked if I was leaving then. Jack said (that) he needed to work that day. The reporter asked if I had called the previous day / the day before. Sarah asked if we were arriving the next day.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 22

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
CONDITIONALS; OTHER WAYS TO EXPRESS UNREALITY

PRESENT AND FUTURE REAL CONDITIONALS


Present Conditionals
If Clause If it is hot, If it isnt hot, Result Clause I drink iced tea. I dont drink iced tea. If Clause If it rains, If it doesnt rain,

Future Conditionals
Result Clause we will close the windows. we wont close the windows.

PRESENT UNREAL CONDITIONALS


Actual Situations
If Clause It is rarely hot in Antarctica. It is usually hot in Egypt. It rarely rains in the Sahara. It usually rains in the jungle. If it were hot in Antarctica, If it werent hot in Egypt, If it rained in the Sahara, If it didnt rain in the jungle, it would be unusual.

Conditionals
Result Clause

PAST UNREAL CONDITIONALS


Actual Situations
If Clause They stopped, so they were late. They didnt stop, so they werent late. They helped the man, so he sent a gift. They didnt help the man, so he didnt send a gift. If they hadnt stopped, If they had stopped, If they hadnt helped the man, If they had helped the man,

Conditionals
Result Clause they wouldnt have been late. they would have been late. he wouldnt have sent a gift. he would have sent a gift.

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 23 Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

MIXED CONDITIONALS
Actual Situations
If Clause He didnt have children, so he is alone. His memory is not good, so he didnt buy his medicine. past If he had had children, present If his memory were good,

Conditionals
Result Clause present he wouldnt be alone. past he would have bought his medicine.

OTHER WAYS TO EXPRESS UNREALITY


Actual Situations
She will miss the sale. If only she wouldnt miss the sale. They wish (that) they could buy the chest of drawers. They cant buy the chest of drawers. If only they could buy the chest of drawers. They wish (that) they hadnt arrived late. They arrived late. If only they hadnt arrived late.

Wish / If only Statement


She wishes (that) she wouldnt miss the sale.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 23

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Grammar Presentation
MORE CONDITIONS; THE SUBJUNCTIVE

IMPLIED CONDITIONS
Nonstandard Condition
With a bit of luck, Without your help, But for his pension, She might be lucky; if so, He might get the chance; if not, She is lonely; otherwise,

(= Implied Condition)
(If we have a bit of luck,) (If you hadnt helped,) (If he didnt have a pension,) (If she is lucky,) (If he doesnt get the chance,) (If she werent lonely,)

Result Clause
well nd a place for her. I wouldnt have succeeded. hed have no income. shell meet some new friends. he wont retire. she wouldnt need company.

INVERTED CONDITIONS
Inverted Condition
Were he in love, Were he not in love, Had I seen her, Should we do it,

(= Standard Condition)
(If he were in love,) (If he werent in love,) (If I had seen her,) (If we should do it,)

Result Clause
he would get married. he wouldnt get married. I would have called you. we will celebrate.

THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES


Verbs of Advice, Necessity, and Urgency + Subjunctive
Main Clause The doctor suggested The boss demanded The reman insisted Noun Clause (that) Frank switch medications. (that) Rosa arrive at work by 9:00. (that) she leave the burning building immediately.

Adjectives of Advice, Necessity, and Urgency + Subjunctive


Main Clause It is advisable It is mandatory It is urgent Noun Clause (that) he arrive one-half hour before the appointment. (that) no one enter the building without a permit. (that) she get to the hospital at once.

Focus on Grammar 5, 3e, Unit 24

Copyright 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.