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ROME 133 78 BC

ASH FULTON

QUICK TIMELINE:
123 First tribunate of Gaius Gracchus 122 Second tribunate of Gaius Gracchus 121 Civil disorder in Rome. Gaius Gracchus killed. Many followers of the Gracchi are executed. Defeat of the Arverni and Allobroges. Gallia Narbonensis becomes a Roman province. 119 Marius tribune. Abolition of the Gracchan land commission. 116 Senatorial commission despatched to Numidia to mediate on succession. 113-101 Cimbri and Teutones invade Roman territories 113 Cn. Carbo defeated at Noreia by the Cimbri 112-106 Jughurtine War 112 Jugurtha sacks Cirta. War declared on Jugutha. 110 War in Africa. 109 Metellus gains some successes against Jughurta 107 Marius elected consul, succeeds Metellus for command in Africa and captures Capsa. Cassius defeated by Tigurini in Gaul. 106 Birth of Cicero and Pompey. Marius advances into western Numidia. Bocchus of Mauretania surrenders Jugurtha to Sulla. 105 Cimbri and Teutones destroy Roman armies at Arausio. 104-100 Second Sicilian slave war. 104 Marius consul second time, reorganizes Roman army. 103 Marius consul third time. Land allotments for Marius' veterans. Marius trains army in Gaul. 102 Marius consul fourth time, defeats Teutones near Aquae Sextiae (Aix-enProvence). M. Antonius sent to Cilicia to deal with pirates. 101 Marius consul fifth time. Marius and Catullus defeat Cimbri at Vercellae (Vercelli). 100 Marius consul sixth time. Rioting in Rome. Marius restores order. Birth of Julius Caesar. 98 Marius leaves Rome for Asia. Revolt in Lusitania 96 Ptolemy Aion bequeaths Cyrene to Rome by testament 95 Mithridates ordered out of Paphlagonia and Cappadocia. 91-89 Social War between Rome and its Italian allies 90 Roman setbacks in Social War. Lex Julia: Latins, Etruscans, and Umbrians remaining loyal to Rome are given Roman citizenship. 89-85 Fisrt Mithridatic War. - War with Mithridates VI of Pontus over his territorial ambitions. 89 Victories of Strabo and Sulla. Lex Plautia Papiria: Roman citizenship conceded to all allies south of the Po. 88 Proposal to transfer command in Asia from Sulla to Marius by tribune Sulpicius Rufus. Sulla seizes Rome. Mithridates overruns Asia Minor. 87 Cinna and Marius in control of Rome, massacre Sulla's supporters. Sulla lands in Greece and besieges Athens. 87-84 Consulships of Cinna 86 Marius consul seventh time, dies. Sulla conquers Athens, defeat Mithridates

armies at Chaeronea and Orchomenus. 85 Treaty of Dardanus with Mithridates. 84 Cinna killed. Carbo sole consul. 83-82 Second Mithridatic War 83 Sulla lands in Italy. Murena begins Second Mithridatic War 82 Civil War in Italy. Sulla victorious. Proscribtions in Rome. Sertorius leaves for Spain. Pompey crushes Sulla's opponents in Sicily. 81 Sulla dictator. Constitutional reforms. Pompey defeats Marians in Africa. Sertorius driven out of Spain. 80 Sertorius lands in Spain again. 79 Sulla resigns dictatorship. Sertorius defeats Metellus Pius 78 Death of Sulla. P.Servilis starts three year campaign against pirates

Rome
PRE REPUBLIC ROME: Around 750 BC small settlements developed on the seven hills that later made up Rome. Around 600 BC Etruscans who controlled northern Italy, concurred Rome and the surrounding Latin tribal areas. In 509 BC the roman and Latin tribes revolted and won there independence from the Etruscans. More significantly than overthrowing the E the new population of the seven hills village rejected the traditional system of rule, the monarchy. For the next 600 years these people would do everything in their power to avoid and resist the concept of an autocratic rule. They wanted no king of Rome. Once the E were overthrown the people of Rome instituted a system of government that had an elected leadership. They became a republic. Once Rome was free of the E they spent the next 150 years bringing the rest of Italy under their control. By 330 BC they controlled northern Italy and by 272 BC they controlled the whole of Italy. But the Italians were not Romans, they were provinces of Rome or conquests of Rome or allies of Rome and they had varying responsibilities to Rome but they did not have the rights of Romans. The creation of a powerful independent roman republic required the organisation of a new social structure and as with any dynamic society, this structure was liable to change. When the republic is first structured around 450 BC a very disseminative class system develops. Over time this system changes this course involves the study of the system and its changes. THE PATRICIAN CLASS: The roman society was divided into 2 groups Patricians and Plebeians. The Patrician class were those who could trace their lineage back to the time of the roman kings. Some Patricians such as the Julii clan claimed descendants from Venus. The Patricians were the aristocracy of Rome and they held political, social and economical power. (p35) 1. Only patricians could be senators and thus consuls. (p71, 69)

2. Patricians controlled all the parliamentary offices, these where known as magistrates (minister or senior ranking public service.) 3. Patricians held all religious offices and were responsible for all the auguries (reading the future) 4. Patricians controlled all the courts and Law was based on precedent that they themselves set. 5. Patricians could not marry the plebeians. If they did the children became plebeians. 6. Only patricians could own land, and they had access to the land capture by Rome public land or the Ager Publicus. 7. Patricians could not engage in trade and industry and this was to product the opportunity for plebeian emergent and the erosion of patrician power. P 40 THE CURSUS HONORUM: (the ladder of offices) Within the roman political structure at first was only opened to patricians. The Lex Villia Annalias past in 180 BC created the Cursus Honorum which formalised the progress of patrician romans through the hierarchical political structure. The lowest rung on the ladder was the Quaestors it was essentially a fiscal (tax) official (a local government treasure.) You become a Quaestor at the age of 27. There was a 2 year interval between moving up, a 10 yr interval between holding the same position, and positions only lasted a year. Following a year as Quaestor and 2 years off it was possible now to stand for election as an Aedile which was essentially a town counsellor. The Aediles were responsible for civic affairs and whilst it was not an essential step in the Cursus Honorum it was a usual step. At 33 a patrician could run for election, as a Praetor. This was essentially a government minister. They held immense power and they were one step away from the ultimate political power of consul. The praetors were either urban or alien. The urban praetor was the supreme civil judge for roman affairs. The alien praetor dealt with affairs dealing with the Italians. The next stage in the Cursus Honorum was consul. The consulship was the equivalent to a prime ministership. There were 2 consuls who served for one year. They held authority a jointly although the senior consul (the one elected by the most votes) was dominant. The consuls were accompanied on all public occasions by 12 Lictors or bodyguards and each Lictor carried a bundle of rods known as the Fasces. These were a symbol of Imperium and imperium was the right to rule. Praetors also had imperium but at a lesser level they were accompanied by 6 Lictors. The consuls responsibilities were to: Commend the army Conduct elections Run the senate and implement senate decisions, which is ironic since the original purpose of the senate was an advisory body. Throughout the history the role and power of the senate and its membership is one of the most contested issues. By 150 BC the senate had become the controllers of the consuls rather

than the advisers to the consuls; and the senate had achieved its pinnacle of oligarchic power (ruled by the few.) THE SENATE: For the patricians of Rome the senate was their exclusive control. Starting as an advisory body of 100 respected patricians it quickly expanded to 300. Membership of the senate was determined by the censors and was based on reputation and wealth. At 30 yrs old a patrician with sufficient money and reputation could apply to be a senator. The censor selected on a bases of vacant positions, since an appointment to the senate was for life. Despite the fact that appointment was for life, senators could be removed from office, by the censors for financial or moral reasons. Novice appointment to the senate were senatores padarii, they could not speak in the senate they could only voted. They sat behind senior senators (back benchers) later on plebs were admitted to the senate patricians of the same rank always spoke first. The power of the senate came not from its ability to pass laws because it was only a process of recommendation, the senate drew its power from three things: 1. It controlled the money that is, the treasury 2. They were responsible for all foreign affairs i.e.: Romes relationships with other states. 3. They controlled all things when Rome was at war, and Rome was often at war. The senate had the ability in times of emergency to pass the (SCU) Senatus Ultimatum Consultus. In other words an emergency decree. The senate also had the authority in times of emergency to appoint dictator for a limited time period. THE ASSEMBLIES: (comitia) The senate could only refer legislation. It could not pass legislation. A senate recommendation was known as a consulta and these were passed in the appropriate assembly. There were three assemblies, the centuries, the people and the plebeians. 1. The centuriate assembly or comitia centuriata. The assembly consisted of both patricians and plebeians who ere included on the bases of economic factors and belonged to a century. A group of an equal standing, they elected consuls, praetors and censors i.e.: all the magistrates within the imperium. They also conducted treason trials in the cases on consula and pre-consula acts against the interests of Rome. Voting was not individual but by the centuries (as in the US electoral college system) 2. The peoples assembly or comitia populi membership limited to all patricians who passed laws concerning patricians based on consulta that originated in the senate, they elected the Aediles, Quaestors and military tribunes. Voting was again, not individual but based on tribe. 3. The assembly of the plebeians pr comitia plebus. Only plebeian membership in acted laws concerning plebeians that were known as plebiscites. This

assembly elected the tribune of the plebs a position of changing fortunes throughout the roman republic. Votes were done not as individuals but as tribes. THE DICTATORS: In times of emergency could be appointed by the agreement of the 2 consuls after a proposal by the senate. The imperium was absolute and over road all magistrates. The dictator could appoint a lieutenant who was known as THE MASTER OF THE HORSE. PLEBIANS: At the birth of the republic, plebeians were deprived of power by the patrician romans, who set the system up. Plebeians had no authority and were completely subject to the decisions of the consuls. They had no opportunity of appeal. The had no role in religion or law. They had non binding marriage vows. They could not own land but could be granted land by patricians who had access to the public land. (ager publicus) in return plebeians gave patricians drops of money and political loyalty. Plebeians would fight with there patrician master in times of war. Plebeians paid a war tax. The great opportunity for plebeians came from the fact that they could participate in trade and business. In this way they began to build up wealth. As they accumulated wealth their demands for access to political powers and this a means to get equity, increased. RELIGION: Roman religion dealt with controlling gods who required ritual and sacrifice. The gods needed to be pleased and their messages interpreted. Roman priests were state officials of the patrician class who conducted the rituals and read the auspices. No event, election, ceremony, treaty, decision or war could be made without reference to the auspices. Religion in Rome was a state religion, priests were politicians and magistrates and religion was a part of the political process. The three main gods were JUPITER (protector of the state) JUNO protector of women MINERVA protector or artisans. These gods care for all sections of roman society and each house would have had a shrine to at least one god. Within the roman system the chief priest was the PONTIFEX MAXIMUS but each group or college within roman society has its own religious figures of pontiffs which is chief of sacrifice, augurs readers of the auspices and flamens who carried out the procedures the vestal virgins brought luck to Rome. The most important aspect of roman religion was divination. The act of finding out by various means whether the gods did or didnt approve of a proposed action. Augury involved the interpretation of natural events, haruspicy involved the examination of animal organs. Portents was the interpretation of unusual unnatural phenomena eg: eclipses and unusual birth or prodigies. Were also signs from the gods. The very important college of augurs interpreted these various signs.

Everything summarised: Patricians: Large land owners Privileged Controlled assembly Right to vote Could be senators Controlled parliamentary space Controlled religious offices Could not marry plebs Owned land Could not engage in trade. Political: Imperium: supreme authority Cursus Honorum: ladder of offices Consuls: Commanded army Chief elections Implemented decisions Presided over senate One year in office 2 consuls City praetor: romans Supreme civil judge Commanded army Summon comitia centuriata Introduced legislation Alien praetor: non-roman people Dealt with law suits 6 lictors 6 praetors Office held for 1 yr Aedilles: Maintained streets Regulated traffic Public buildings and Water supply. Political seats Lowest to biggest:

Quaestor, adeile, praetor, consul. Equivalence: Quaestor- treasury official, tax officer Adeile- town council or mayor Praetors- government ministers back benches Consuls- (2) prime misters. Sensors- governor generals Senators- council of nobles. ITALY: IN 509 BC TO 265 BC was Rome against Italy and won the whole Italian peninsula. As a result of the conquest, the plebeians wanted a greater share in the decision making in Rome and the spoils of war and Rome now had under its control a variety of new population groups. After 265BC there were 4 classes in roman society: 1. Patricians 2. Plebeians 3. Latins 4. Italians Roman citizenship rights: Public rights: 1. To vote in the roman assembly 2. To hold office as a magistrate 3. To pay taxes 4. To serve in the roman legions 5. To be subjected to roman magistrates Private rights: Connubium= recognise roman marriage and inheritance Commercium= is the right to own and sell land Provocatio= providing the right of appeal to assemblies against the magistrates. Why plebeians wanted power in Rome: 1. There was more land controlled by Rome thus more places (magistras) for plebeians to want a share in political powers. 2. The plebeians helped with war and became poorer because of it so they felt they deserved shares in the spoils of war. 3. They needed access to the debt laws as they had severe debts because of the war.

TIBERIUS GRACCHUS
By 133BC it had become very clear to some thoughtful Romans that the problems of Rome needed to be addressed. Indeed the prater Laelius had attempted to address Romes problems as early as 145bc. His attempts had met with such vigorous heated opposition and he abandoned his reforms and received the title Laelius the wise. SOURCES ON THE GRACCHII: Only fragmentary sources remain from primary accounts and these primary accounts are heavily prejudice by the fact that the writers came from the class that opposed the reforms or were intimidated by the violence to write fairly at the time. Secondary authors would of relied upon hear say. Cicero writing some 80yrs after the event would have been able to draw from people who had known people who would have been there. He would also had been able to access documents/speeches that are now lost to time however Cicero was a alter conservative and this would of altered his view point. Later historians such as Appian and Plutarch rite some 300 yrs later and are clearly relying on Cicero and their own interpretations of the events given that by tis time the roman republic is a mere memory. The need for reform : The crisis in Rome was a product of Romes military triumphs, (conquests in Carthiage and Greece) but this conquest was creating military problems for Rome it is important to understand that the need for reform was not driven by any social conscience, the problems effected Romes military power and thus had to be addressed, the plight of the urban mob was at best secondary but more accurately irrelevant. TIBERIUS: Tiberius came from a family with a enormous Dignitas. He was not some new radical. His grandfather Scipio had defeated Carthiage and had adopted the name Africanus. His mother was Scipios daughter Cornelia who after Tiberius fathers death had been courted by the king of Egypt. Tiberius father had been twice consul, once censored a successful general and admired Proventil governor. He had a huge reputation for fairness amongst those people pf Spain who he had defeated. Tiberius was born in 163BC. He was raised by his mother Dowager Cornelia. Tiberius was educated by 2 Greeks who were both hugely influential and some historians blame these Greeks for inspiring in Tiberius emotions and ideas that put him in conflict with his class. These were Diophane and Biossius. Diophane was a teacher of rhetoric (the art of argument). Biossius was a stoic (an early form of socialism).

TIBERIUS MOTIVES: There is great historical debate on why man with the class and background of Tiberius would affront the senate in such way that he challenged roman order and was seen as a trader to his class. Cicero writing some 80 yrs after the event refers to the impact that the Numantine Treaty had on Tiberius. Clearly Cicero is drawing on fairly recent oral history when he makes the point that the senates .. Of the Numantine Treaty was a source of outrage and fear and this matter drove that brave and distinguished man to abandon the responsibility of the senators. Essentially Ciceros argument is that when the senate betrayed him he became determined to betray the senate. Other historians see this a emplastic explanation. TG was not a lone voice, he had impressive credentialed support with in the senate. He could boast the backing of at least 4 consults, one sensor, a pontif maximus and a principles senates. His support in the senate would of guaranteed a fair hearing for his reforms, and it is not unlikely that even his opponents in the senate, both the oppositions stephanic and those senators whos land was threatened, would not of given him a fair hearing. In fact many senators were well aware of the urgent need for land reform. Thus the repressing question for 133BC is why does Tiberius attack the powers of the senate in such a provocative manner. While some historians claim Tiberius was looking for revenge against the actions of the senate, others view his experiences on root to and in Spain as a cause. Plutarch makes the point that while Tiberius was travelling through ETRURIA on his way to Numantia he was troubled by the lack of free roman farmers and the existence of Latifundia run by slaves, however Plutarch also gives other motives less honourable for Tiberius reforms. One was a desire to impress his mummy and the other was the jealousy of a more successful peer namely Spurus Postunius. In the end Plutarch places great emphasis on Tiberius response to public pressure of the port. but it was above all the people themselves who did most to arouse Tiberius. Calling upon him to recover the public land for the poor. Modern historians have yet different interpretations for Tiberius motives. D.C earl, writes that Tiberius was political motivated trying to seize power for his faction by presenting popular reform. He was more concerned by the power then the people. CAREAPINO supports this view whilst Scullard draws all these possible causes together and presents Tiberius as a man with both high and low motives. TIBERIUS LAND REFORM The land proposed by Tiberius were fair the 600acres that would be granted to wealthy patritians owning large amounts of Latifundia was a substantial amount of land in the context of European agriculture. More over the land passed to their ownership at no fee giving them .. Over something that had been previously temporary. Many Patritians would have been unaffected by these

changes or even benefited. A majority would have lost land but perhaps had improved, mortgages, or a lotted as dowries. Scullard makes the point that these objections probably had been overcome and that many of the senators would have been directed by the better angles of their nature to consider the good of the community first. Agenda: Many writers both ancient and modern have placed on Tiberius the motive of returning the farming stock to the land with a view to redefine the problems within the army. Scullard claims that the land settlement would not of been sufficient enough o repopulate the armies stock and thus brings into question Tiberius motives. Was he: 1. Trying to do the best for Rome 2. Trying to gather for Tiberius a huge client base. 3. To simplify annoy/challenge/insult/provoke. For the Rome senate the problem with Tiberius was not his reform of legislation but was his approach to the legislation. He chose with no apparent justification or need to ignore the mos Maorem (the way things have been done) and take his lex agria directly to the people. Scullard does offer some explanation of Tiberius decision to circumvent the senate, and that relates to a floor in the roman system. Under the mos horium After his first year as tribunate he would be out of office for at least two. A uniform decision in the senate could well see his land bill lost time. When Tiberius took his bill to the Concilium Plebus it was vetoed by Octavius a tamed tribune controlled by the senate. Tiberius attempted to appeal to the senate but was hauled down. Tiberius returned to the assembly of the plebs and had Octavious voted out as tribune, his bill now passed into law. Not only has Tiberius alienated the senate by going around them directly to the assembly but he has now also rendered the senates means of controlling the popular assemblies, i.e. the veto by the tame tribune Tiberius has yet another shot to fire at the senate. The senate controlled the treasury and they denied Tiberius the funds for his land reform. The people for responsible for the land reform were the outcasts of the senate made up of Tiberius, his brother and father in law. Denied funds the Lex Agera was failing but the death of Attalus the king of Pergumn created an opportunity for Tiberius. At titulus a client of Rome made Rome his heir and Tiberius now introduced a law that aloud him to use this inheritance to fund his land bill. Tiberius introduced a bill that made the use of Attilus inheritance to fund his plans for settlement. He had insulted the two remaining absolute powers of the senate namely foreign affairs and finance. He then announced his intention of running for a second consecutive term as tribune of the plebs. The senate was outraged. Rome was on the verge of civil war. As the danger for Tiberius increased. According to Plutarch, he responded by passing more laws that appealed to the people. 1. Less military service.

2. New appeal process. 3. Creating judges from the Equites class to equal the senates judges. Critically Plutarch accuses Tiberius of trying to lessen the power of the senate rather than from passion and partnership than from any rational regard to equity and the public good. The senates reaction to Tiberius. The senate did not specifically oppose the lex agrea. The real issue was the power of the senate. As patritians denied commercial active, politics was there rassion detre (reason to live). If the senate came incompetent because of the actions of the tribunes patritians served no use for purpose, thus Tiberius was a problem on 4 levels: 1. He denied the senate the right to refer the bill to the Concilium Plebus. 2. He manipulated public opinion to remove the tame tribune Octavus 3. Convinced the Concilium Plebus to take control of Paragium, to finance his land bill 4. He interfered with foreign affairs. According to Cicero Tiberius Gracchus shattered the stability of the state. Tiberius was operating on people power. He had become a demagogue. When he stood as tribune for 132BC the senate had become talking about kings and crowns. Bradley: chief priest Scipio Nasica probably believed that he was championing the liberty of the republic against the domination of Tiberius Gracchus. The senate had to act for its own survival, and since he consul Scievla would not in act the S.C.U the Pontif maximus (chief priest) believed he must save the public from tyranny. They killed him and his supporters (tut tut to murder). TIBERIUS AGRAIAN REFORM Basically in 133BC Tiberius Gracchus proposed a agrarian (land) bill to the peoples assembly without prior consolation with the senate. Although the bill became highly controversial which resulted in the tut murder of Tiberius and his followers, the bill was not at all radical. THE BILL That a commission of 3 people should allocate small holdings of land owned by the state (senators and the rich) known as ager publicus to landless citizens. Basically the wealth were permitted to keep 500 iugera (326ACRES) each and a additional 250 iugeria a for each 2 sons or daughters. Therefore small and poor citizens preferably past farmers could settle on the land but could not sell it in the future.

Gaius Gracchus

At the time of the Gracchi reform was long over due, and the programs put forward by them were genuine attempts to deal with the acute problems of the day. Gaius impact was far more reaching with many effects of his tribunate. These effects include the senates power was weakened however not broken, exposed to both the senate and the equates the power of the mob, the mob realised that they could gain some of the benefits of the empire, revealed the use to which the tribunate could be used as a weapon against the senate and it showed the future demagogues the way they can gain political advantages. However there was disadvantages to these reforms. They unintentionally worsened the conditions of the people in the provinces and the senate now had a powerful weapon for crushing opponents. According to Plutarch Gaius had no intention of remaining inactive despite the assassination of his brother Tiberius. Gaius became a demagogue by introducing the first radical law to provide cheap grain to the urban mob. By 122BC Gaius was clearly taking up where his brother had left off. Gaius made a name for himself speaking in courts, and in one occasion according to Plutarch, the force of his eloquence aroused the people to an static and almost frenzied enthusiasm. So that the long dormant fears of the autocratic party revived once more. From the reforms it is clear that there was not a single objective that Gaius wanted to achieve with his reforms. However both Plutarch and Appian agree that he possible wanted revenge or to just break the power of the senate. Gaius was elected quaestor in 127 BC but when the senate extended the appointment of consul, Gaius refused to stay in the province. Gaius used his public speaking ability to defend him against leaving his post prematurely. Gaius had started an early political career, and in 123BC he was elected tribune. According to Bradley he was not only resourceful, determined and imaginative, he had formulated in the ten years after his brothers death a clear program of reform. He had also learned from his brothers mistakes and knew that a coalition with other groups in Roman society would need to be built up. In Gaius first year of tribunate he introduced a number of political, economical and judicial reforms. He had a judicial law passed to transfer the power of the courts from the Senators to the equestrian class. According to Appian, the senate was now subjects, the knights were rulers and political mastery was turned up side down. Gaius remarked once this law was passed that he has broken the power of the senate once and for all. The new force in Roman politics was the wealthy but previously insignificant

knights, then he also drove a wedge between them and the Senators. He also proposed a massive road building scheme that was designed to improve transport, employment, improve supplies and thus improve communication. This would also have advantages for Gaius as it would put a multitude of contractors and artisans under obligations to him (Plutarch) and thus made his cliental bigger and they were there to do what ever he wished. These services won him the devotion of the people and was easily re-elected in 122 BC. As a result of the Gracchi actions the Roman people or Urban Mob discovered that in the concilium plebes they could become a great power when combined with a tribune. They too realised that they were not getting there fair share and they were a dangerous force as the threat of the mob turned many a politician. It was the existence of this landless mass that made the creation of colonies a political tool. The tribunate was intended safeguard the ordinary citizens from being unreasonably treated by the magistrates. However the Gracchi showed that the tribunate could be used for as an implement for change. They had used it to challenge and destroys the senate and help revealed the potential for men to promote their own political careers. In 122BC the senates opposition grew intensity through out the year. Unlike the legal procedures and violence employed by the senate with Tiberius, the senate was far more cunning to stop Gaius. They used Livius Druses a fellow tribunate to out do Gaius and his reforms in front of the urban mob. Not by using any force or opposing the common people but by gratifying and obliging them with such unreasonable things as otherwise they would of felt it honourable for them to incur the greatest unpopularity in resisting. (Plutarch). These reforms were designed never to take effect but the stole Gaius political appeal. Gaius genuine proposals were undermined by Druses. The undermining proposals put forward by Druses were according to Plutarch neither creditable in themselves nor beneficial to the community since his whole objective was to outbid Gaius by satisfying and gratifying the people. Such proposals was when Gaius proposed two colonies populated by respectable Romans was counted by Druses 12 colonies each of 3000 lowly Romans. The senate also began a campaign against Gaius reputation. They spread rumours the Gaius was not a man of his word. This was done by saying that after he had promised to support the Latin allies but then failed the test of his power. Gaius was not elected for a third term and this left him vulnerable to attack by his enemies which led to him being killed. The much needed reforms proposed by Gaius were dissatisfied by the

senate. He adopted methods which were away from the mos maorum and endangered the balance between the people, magistrates and the senate. In taking no notice of the traditions the both Gracchians were provocative and the senate believed they had no other way to counter the threat of their position except by using violence. GAIUS PROGRAM OF REFORMS: Type Economic: Roads Aim To provide employment To improve communication To help farmers get grain to markets. Economic: Army To improve conditions in the army Clothing for soldiers was to be provided by the state and youths under 17 were forbidden to enlist. The contract for the collection of taxes in the province of Asia was auctioned in Rome by censors. The successful contractors paid a lump sum to the government and then collected the taxes plus their profit from the provinces through their agents. Description Provision was made for the construction of an extensive system of secondary roads. Results Roads which had previously been built for strategic purposes now provided direct communication between fertile areas, and facilitated Italian agriculture This measure helped the peasantry, who made up the bulk of the legions. This reform gave the equites and their agents great opportunities to make enormous profits in the provinces both legally and illegally.

Economic and political: Provinces

To finance his social reforms To gain the support of the equites for later legislation To avoid creating a body of financial officials To protect provincials in Asia from exploitation by rapacious governors and their staff

Judicial and political: Courts

To gain the favour and support of the equites for his legislation concerning the allies. To give the equites a share in government to balance and so weaken the powers of the senate. To protect the welfare if the provincials.

Lez Acilia: the court of extortion for trying corrupt governors was transferred from the senate to the equites. The senatorial juries in the past had been too lenient towards corrupt governors, who were members of their own classrecent scandals.

This gave the equites some political power in the state in keeping with the importance as a class. This reform put the provincial governors at the mercy of the equites in the courts of the tried to check abuses, so many governors turned a blind eye to the activities of the equites. The senate continued to choose the provinces to be allocated, since they knew what was needed in foreign affairs.

Political: Provinces

To prevent senators from rewarding their friends with favourable provinces. To improve efficiency in provinces.

A measure which compelled the senate to allocate the provinces prior to the consular elections. Previously the senate decided the provinces after the consuls year of office

Political: Allies

To solve a potentially dangerous situation which was embittering political life. To recognise the support and loyalty given by the allies to Rome in times of crisis. To gain the allies support in his attempts to further weaken the senate.

This was a farsighted proposal to extend full citizenship to the Latin allies and Latin status to the Italian allies.

This proposal vetoed by the tribunate Livius Drusus, was opposed by most sections of society. The nobility feared that an influx of new voters might disturb their control of the assemblies, while equites wanted to avoid giving any advantages to Italian commercial rivals. The roman plebs had no wish to share the benefits of citizenshipcheap grain and entertainment. Gaius was persuaded by his mother, Cornelia, to drop the measure Popilius, the consul of 132BC who had presided over the tribunate which tried and condemned Tiberius followers was impeached and exiled.

Juditial:

To avenge his brothers deathaimed specifically at Octavius. To avenge his brothers death by challenging this senates actions in putting Tiberius supporters to death without a trial.

Any magistrate disposed from office by the people should be disqualified from further office. Any courts with powers of capital punishment not set up by the people were declared illegal; this was made retrospective.

Economic: land

To continued his brothers work and broaden it to help more unemployed.

Economic: Colonies

To relieve over crowded cities of poor and unemployed To continue his brothers policy of rehabilitating the peasantry. To also attract those with capital and establish industries.

Tiberius agrarian bill was reenacted, with certain amendment providing for larger allotments so that free labourers could be employed. The foundation or proposed foundation of colonies in Italy and over seas: by the Lex Rubria, a colony called Junonia was proposed for the former site of Carthage. Large allotments with absolute ownership for 6000 settlers were planned. The colony May have been intended to include some Italians as well as roman citizens.

Although there was a considerable increase in small scale- farmers, the reform only touched the surface of the problem. Coloines were useful in alleviating the crowed conditions in Rome and the plight of the poor. Two colonies were founded in southern Italy: Minervia at Soclacium and Neptunia near Tarentum.

Economic: Grain

To relieve the growing poverty and hunger of the Urban mob To reduce the annual fluctuations in corn prices. To prevent speculation and private profiteering in grain To provide employment on building of warehouses. To (perhaps) detach the plebs from their patrons.

Lex Frumentaria: the state was to buy up the grain supplies in bulk to be stored in public warehouses built at Ostia. The government would then sell a monthly ration to roman citizens at a low price.

The vital grain measures alleviate the hunger of the poor and gave Gaius, for a short time, the support of the urban mob. This measure probably contributed to the mobs selfish refusal to support citizenship for the allies.

An assessment of the Gracchi: An objective assessment of the Gracchi is very difficult to make, since it relies on the ancient sources (which are bias), on probable motivations and on what might have happened. At the time of the Gracchi reform was long overdue, and the programs put forward by them were genuine attempts to deal with the acute problems of the day. When they were frustrated by the conservatism and the selfishness of the oligarchy, they adopted methods which threatened the balance between the senate, the magistrates and the people that had existed for a very long time. In this way they could be regarded as revolutionary. They probably interoperated the problems too simply. Roman society had changed, but they were in too much of a hurry to implement what they saw as the solutions to the problems, while the senate persisted in maintaining the status quo in the face of the changing society. In ignoring tradition the Gracchi were provocative, and the senate had no way to counter the threat to its position except by violence.

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE GRACCHI ON ROME?


The tribunes of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus marked a turning point in Roman political history.

The tribunate: The tribunate was never intended to bring about change, it was intended to protect the ordinary citizen from being unjustly treated by the magistrates. However, the Gracchi showed the way that the tribunate could be used as an instrument for change. They used it to undermine the traditional powers of the senate and revealed the potential for ambitious men to promote their own political careers. The peoples assembly: As a result of the actions of the Gracchi, the roman people discovered that in their assemblies they could wield great power when combined with a tribune. The concilium plebes, however, did not represent the whole Roman people; in fact it came to be associated more and more with the urban mob, people who were not equipped for the task of governing an empire. The tribunes of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus opened the way for the roman mob to use its authority selfishly. Those issues which appeal particularly to the urban mob were not necessarily in the interests of all roman citizens. After the Gracchi, the assemblies were more than ready to support any aspiring politician who promised them benefits and relief. Since the majority of the senatorial class could only hope to maintain their position by developing policies that would win some degree of popular support, the assemblies became pawns in the struggles for political supremacy. Optimates and the Populares: After the Gracchi period, the ruling body (senatorial class) was divided into two groups referred to as the Optimates and the Populares. Cicero said that Tiberius Gracchus tribunate divided one people into two factions. Optimates comprised the majority of the senators and nobles, they were oligarchs and wished to maintain the status quo as prior to the upheaval of the Gracchan period. Any changes that would adversely affect the their authority, prestige and economic interests were opposed. Occasionally they sponsored a popular measure if it would gain some political advantage for their group. The Optimates were a powerful, determined and cohesive group who could be utterly ruthless in protecting their interests. The Populares, also senators, were men of reform, who proposed measures to the people without consulting the senate first. They did not support continuous government by the people, but they did believe that the assembly had the right to decide any issues put before it without prior senatorial approvement. Some of the Populares after Gaius Gracchus May have been genuine reformers, but many were interested in only political advancement, they did not always present a united front and many of them later became Optimates when it suited their careers. Although Appian says that repeatedly the parties came into open conflict, the Optimates and the Populares were not political parties as such, although there was hostility between them which eventually erupted into civil war. The senatus consultum ultimum (SCU): When the senate passed a decree that Opimius the consul was to see to it that the state took no harm , it sanctioned the use of violence to crush its

opponents. The senatus consultum ultimum (last decree of the senate) remained the only method of dealing with political threats throughout the life of the republic. Violence and civil war: Roman society had change, producing great social contrasts and intolerable economic and social abuses. The Gracchi had attempted to solve some of the problems associated with these changes, but many of their reforms left the roman state and the provinces of Rome in a worse situation than before. They brought to a head issue which resulted in increasing violence and civil war. There was a need for constitutional reform since the machinery of government was still geared to a city-state rather than an empire, but the violent reaction of the senate to the Gracchi inhibited peaceful changes and the Roman republican system was only changes by violent or illegal means.

Gaius Marius

The most contemporary view is that Marius was an unusual but not unique politician who sought glory and reputation for himself within the traditional constitutional framework. Sallust sums him up as: a hard worker, a man of integrity and an experienced soldier. Indomitable on the battle field, he was frugal in his private life, proof against temptations of passion and riches, a covetous only of glory. Plutarch agrees with much if Sallust description, but adds a number of unflattering characteristics - arrogance, a fierce manor and expression, an inability to control his passions when in power and a dislike of all who outshone him. Marius later career is later summed up by Plutarch in the following way: a bloodthirsty and savage old age, shipwrecked by his passions, his illtimed ambition and his instable greed Was born in Arpinum, southeast of Rome into a plebeian family. According to Sallust once he reached military age he set himself to learn the art of warfare which hardened him and protected him from demoralising influences Marius early career 133-109 BC

He served as a junior officer under Scipio Aemilianus at Numantia in 133. *he showed outstanding bravery *ready acceptance of discipline Stood for tribune in 119. According to Plutarch he showed independency and courage in the first instance by proposing a bill that displeased his patron and the rest of the senators *threatened the arrest if bill cancelled. *won the support of the people. During this tribunate his opposed a bill that would of favoured the proletariat.

It seems to indicate that he was a man who would favour neither side at the expense of the general good Marius was unsuccessful at gaining the aedileship for 117. Accused of using bribery for gaining praetorship in 115. 114 he was pro-magistrate in Spain *close connections with equates *built up business interests. In 111 he married Julia Caesar. This brought he closer to power Jugurthine War and his First Consulship:

In 109 Marius was on of Metellus legates in the Jugurthine War *revealed military ability *developed connections and support. -won the support and affection of soldiers - promised the equites peace if he was consul - took advantage of plebeians looking for new man. With these classes help he secured a large body of supporters who urged his claims to the consulship in the most complementary terms Elected consul in 107 BC Before leaving Africa he recruited an army- not in accordance with traditional custom, from the propertied classes, but accepting any man who volunteered- members of the proletariat for the most part.

This had disastrous consequences- the army was give a place of unprecedented power in the political life of Rome. CAUSED THE COLLAPSE OF THE REPUBLIC! This opened up the legions to men who in civilian life were unemployed who could make the army a profession. Marius appointed Sulla as his quaestor in the war against Jugurthia. *Sulla at this point had no military experience *Sulla raised a large cavalry Believed he could end the war quickly but found it difficult. *found only way was to distance J away from allies Sullas skill and courage that ended war, however Marius still got the credit. It was, according to Plutarch this that sowed the seed of that irreconcilable and bitter hatred between Marius and Sulla which nearly brought Rome to ruin. Cimbri and the Teutones and successive consulships!

After the war in Numidia, Marius got the command against the Cimbri and

Teutones, under the lex Villia Annalis, however he could not be elected consul in absence. This was over turned and was elected consul for 104 BC Cimbri and Teutones were moved away from the north of Italy. Under his second consulship he reorganised the army - voluntary recruitment - new training methods - organisation and secondary improvements While ever Rome was under threat from the Cimbri and the Teutones Marius was in consulship Re-elected in 103 for consulship 102 BC Marius became associated with L. Saturninus. This alliance proved to be disastrous for him. Saturninus gained Marius his 4th consulship in 102 BC. According to Plutarch Saturninus called upon the people to elect Marius as consul In 102 BC Marius annihilated the Teutones. In 102 BC (in absentia) Marius was elected into his 5th consulship. Also in this year he defeated the Cimbri. 6th Consulship and Saturninus: In 101 BC Marius returned a hero to Rome. He wanted to advance himself further and wanted the opportunity to command in another trouble spot and his 6th consulship

Thus he openly allied himself with Saturninus and Glaucia. With the help of these two men gained his 6th consulship. However according to some sources bribery was used. Once in office tried to grant land and citizenship to veterans (to perhaps Latin status) This caused resentment and opposition from the urban plebs. At the age of 70, in 87 BC he was consul for the 7th and final time. Marius died during this consulship. Mariuss military reforms: Reform Description Significance

Recruitment

Volunteers from among the landless were signed on for an extended period, such as sixteen years

The army became a career and semiprofessional soldiers rather than a citizen militia. The troops depended on their generals to look after them during the campaign and after demobilisation. Since the state failed to organise any pension scheme, individual commanders were forced to involve themselves in politics to provide for their veterans. Soldiers were thus tied to their generals and this allowed the later development of armies loyal to an individual rather than to the state.

Organisation

The three separate lines based on age and equipment were done away with, as all legionaries now carried the same equipment provided by the state. The legions were divided into 10 cohorts of three maniples each. The cohort became the main tactical unit of the army and it was divided into 6 centuries. A legions 60 centuries were led by centurions who were experienced veterans. There were 6 military tribunes attached to each legion. The silver eagle was adopted as the special standard of each legion. A new wooden spear with a detachable metal head was introduced. The weak wooden nail attaching it would break on impact with an enemy shield. Each soldier carried all his own baggage as well as weapons. They were referred to as muli Mariani Marius mules.

The legion became more efficient. Firm leadership was provided for the ordinary soldier by the hardened centurions.

The men developed a special loyalty to their legion.

Equipment

This prevented the enemy from hurdling the javelin back.

The army became more mobile and independent. The troops were able to make camp each night without waiting for the baggage train as was the previous practise.

Training and discipline

A new system of drill was introduced, based on the training given in the gladiatorial schools. This had already been used by Rufus, consul in 105. Marius lost no opportunity to toughen up his men with forced marches and runs in full equipment, and he never allowed them to become idle: they diverted a river and built a canal while waiting for the Cimbri and Teutons to return.

The discipline imposed and the skills developed made the roman army one of the finest fighting machines of antiquity.

The significance of Marius career: The career of Marius, a plebeian who had risen to the top position in the state through military excellence, weakened the hold of the senatorial aristocracy on Roman politics even more than the Gracchi had done. 1. The people when they replaced Metellus with Marius, usurped the traditional right of the senate to appoint military leaders and allocate provincial commands. 2. Republican institutions were undermined when the Lex Annalis was voted by the election of Marius to five consecutive consulships. This example paved the way for the extraordinary commands later granted to Pompey and Julius Caesar and made possible a future military monarchy. 3. In throwing open the legions to the plebs on voluntary basis, Marius converted the roman army into a professional force of soldiers, providing a career for a large number of the unemployed. With his military reforms he prepared the way for victories of his more famous successors Pompey and Caesar. 4. The loyalty of the new recruits was to their commanding officer or general rather than ti the senate or to the people. The use of Marius soldiers in the riots of 100 showed that the new style army could in the future be used to destroy the established order just as easily to maintain it. 5. The collision between the senate and Marius over land grants for his veterans raised the question of pay and pensions for the army. Had the senate provide the soldiers with cash or land at the end of their term of service, instead of

leaving this to the generals, it might have retained its hold on the roman army. Instead it played into the hands of the generals and brought nearer the day when commanders would use the armies as though they were their own private forces. The first civil war in Italy was due to the personal conflict of two military leaders Marius and Sulla. 6. Marius career illustrated the incredible power that a tribune and a military commander could wield in the state. 7. The opposition of the urban plebs and the senate to Saturninus proposals for fair treatment for the allied soldier on retirement added to the growing resentment of the allies.

Lucius Cornelius Sulla


The Italian/Social War 1 Out of the Social war both Marius and Sulla emerged equally triumphant. 2 Marius needed another conflict to secure himself his seventh consulship, as without war, Marius served no purpose. 3 Conflict was stirred up with Mithridates and Sulla was given command against him to protect Rome and their best interests. Mithridatic war 1 King Mithridates VI of Pontus took advantage of Rome attention in the north and social war. 2 Mithridates challenged Rome and the Asia Minor region under the control off Rome. 3 Mithridates expanded himself into Turkey and Modern Armenia, which outraged the equites, whose milk cow was Asia Minor at the time. 4 But nothing could be done about this at the time as the threat from the north was too overwhelming. 5 Once Marius had overthrown the German he attempted to provoke Mithridates, but he held back until in 96BC he interfered with the Romes strong client, Bithynia. 6 Sulla was to rectify these events, put Mithridates in his place and put events on hold. 7 Mithridates realised that he was too strong for the two generals and so he pushed on, crushing the Roman forces and moving in on roman interests. 8 He won the support of the Greeks, by offering them tax concessions and encouraged them to throw away their roman connections. 9 By 88BC, Rome was under serious threat and attack from Mithridates as he landed himself a stable position in Athens. 10 Sulla was seen as the most suitable general to take action and bring him down. 11 Sulla dealt with Marius and Sulpicius and took the proconsular command with 5 legions. 12 Sulla used his strategy and managed to expel the Pontic forces from

Greece. 13 This made way for an open road to Asia. 14 Sulla had another army sent to destroy him but they mutinied on Flaccus, where Fimbria made to move against Sulla and create peace on his own with Mithridates, but Mithridates, realizing defeat, negotiated peace with Sulla, who happily took it. Rome between the social war and the end of the first Mithridatic war. 1 Tribunate of Sulpicius Rufus. 2 In 89Bc there was a huge concerning debt in Rome, where the senators were in debt to the equites. 3 In 88BC, Rufus introduced a program of legislation as tribune of the plebs. 4 Newly enfranchised socii were to be distributed among the 35 tribes. 5 Senators owing more than 2000 Denariis would lose their seats in office until their debt was paid. 6 Marius would replace Sulla in command of the Mithridatic war. 7 He did this asblock legislation and so had 3000 equites surround him, and follow him to the Capitol building, where the senate was assembled. 8 Sulla fled to Campania with a new army of more loyal soldiers. 9 Sulla brought his army on Rome and both Marius and Rufus fell under the control of Sulla's command. Sullas Reforms 1 He used the Comitia Centuriatia (assembly of the equites), to put a price on both Rufus and Marius heads. Marius fled to the safety of his veterans in Africa and rufus was killed. 2 Sulla undertook a radically reactionary approach to take Rome back to the way it was. He tried to change the Roman constitution. He wanted to overturn the reforms. 3 He intimidated the assemblies and the equites and the head count into accepting his reforms using his army. 4 All legislation had to be taken through senate to be referred to the assemblies. 5 The comitia tribute and Confinium Plebes was bypassed for all legislation. 6 Interest payable on all loans and debts was reduced to 1/10 of existing rate owed. Rome during Sullas absence. 1 The populares were in disarray as the optimates were dominant. 2 The consul Cinna broke his oath to Sulla and reintroduced the legislation of Sulpicius Rufus. 3 Results of Cinna consulship 4 Hostility in urban mob and Italian Allies. 5 Mob manipulated the by the equites.

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The patricians were determined to thwart the extension of real power to the Italians. Increased violence in senate and patrician class. The client base was controlled by whoever controlled the Italians. These groups in Rome combined to exploit the white trash, urban mob of Rome. The Italians were defeated and Cinna was outlawed, but he then returned, joined with Marius from Africa. Rome fell to the control of Marius and Cinna, letting the slaves loose, producing much slaughter. On Marius seventh consulship, he died. Cinna pursued a dictatorship and appealed all Sullas laws.

Sullas Revenge 1 Sulla sent a warning to Rome of the vengeance they should expect. 2 Consuls for 84BC were Cinna and Carbo. 3 Their newly formed army was conscript and raw recruits and taken to Brundisium, they mutinied and murdered Cinna and Carbo fled back to Rome where he was joined by Strabo. 4 They were determined to gain acceptance and Strabo took the name Magnus Pompey. 5 Carbo couldnt hold Sulla back and in 83BC he had reached Campania. 6 Marius son rallied his fathers veterans and they were confined to a siege at Praenesta as the war front stretched across Italy. 7 Carbos army fled from Sulla and so he then moved in on Marius, who had been preoccupied with the Samnites. 8 The Samnites tried to lure Sulla away from Praenesta by attacking Rome but Sulla split his army, maintaining the siege and confronting the Samnites at the battle at The Colline Gate. 9 This battle saw the end of the challenge to Sulla, and within weeks, Praenesta fell and young Marius was killed. Sulla gets Nasty 1 The proscription of Sulla. 2 Sulla had absolute power and caused a blood bath with his revenge. 3 Sulla undertook to impact more method into his killing, but killed more ruthlessly. Cary 4 He posted lists of names and their prices. 5 He used the slaves to massacre those named and once those listed were killed, all their property and money was confiscated. 6 Sullas proscriptions bonded men to their generals, which would later be used to control and manipulate Rome for their own personal interests. 7 This massacre, created for the senate and optimates, a more uniform culture.

Sulla became dictator but it was extended further than six months as he was given the responsibility of redrafting the constitution.

The legislation of Sulla. 1 Sullas legislation aimed to reinforce the authority of the senate and take things back to the way they had been prior to the reforms of the Gracchans. AIMS: 2 Strengthen the senate. 3 Restrict the powers of the tribunes. 4 To curb the independence of the regular magistrates. 5 To avoid the dangers from proconsuls in the provinces. 6 To increase the number of magistrates available for administration and jurisdiction. 7 To recognise the courts and juries. THE REFORMS: 1 The senate was enlarged by 300 new men from good equestrian families. This was to make up for the numbers lost through wars, massacres and proscriptions. 2 Sulla had future automatic recruitment from ex-quaestors. 3 Senates approval was required before any legislation was passed onto the assemblies. 4 The senate was to continue to decide the provincial commands. 5 Tribunes could not propose legislation and their right to veto was extremely limited. 6 Tribunes were deprived of their judicial powers and anyone holding office of tribune was banned from any future offices. 7 Sulla redrafted the Lex Villia Annalis, so that the cursus honorum was to be strictly enforced and he set minimum ages for each office. 8 A man could not hold the same office position twice within a ten year period. 9 Censors were deprived of their most important function; they could no longer draw up the lists for who sat in the senate. 10 He increased the number of quaestors to 20, and praetors to 8. 11 Sulla regulated the method of appointing the provincial governors, the senate still decided on the allocation n of the 10 provinces. 12 The command of each province would be done on a rotating annual basis. 13 A treason law was passed so that provincial governors could not leave their provinces during their term. They were all tried in Sullas controlled court system. 14 Consular imperium remained superior. 15 The number of standing courts was increased to 7, and procedures for treating each type of crime and suitable sanctions were clearly laid down, with no appeals available. 16 The penalty for electoral bribery was increased, and the juries were once

again recruited from he senator, not the equites. 17 Sulla abolished the cheap grain ration distributions. 18 Sulla was able to carry through with his reform process more extensively with the use of his dictatorship. But the most significant reform was made possible by the revival of the PATRUM AUCTORITAS/Senate Veto. Since the Gracchans, the senates power and authority had been seriously undermined by the radical tribunes. But when Sulla and his reactionary reforms process came along, he did not change the constitutional rights of the senate, he simply restored the ones they had lost. 20 He expanded the size of the senate and so it became easier for them to dominate with the help of the equite class. This was similar to the policy of amalgamation started by Livius Drusus, of the senatorial and equites aristocracy. 21 Equites or NOVI HOMINES could not achieve higher office than the senatorial nobility, so the senates retained their chief magistracies.
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Sullas place in History 1 Sulla was an outstanding figure, where in his early life he was indolent and immoral. 2 He came from an aristocratic family, and was capable of vindictive savagery. 3 He conquered Rome, established the ultimate dictatorship, created tyranny based on fear, and redrafted the roman constitution before retiring on his farm before he died. 4 When Sulla had absolute power in Rome, he made no attempt to take Rome down an imperial path. 5 Sulla failed to resolve the great problems of Rome. 6 His legislation was practical but not fair seeing. 7 He used his army as a political tool. 8 He put the role of the Equites to the floor and reinstated the senates authority. SULLA was ultra-conservative, fixing the apparent problems of Rome but only doing a half job. HE could have made then Roman constitution solid but he didnt.

EQUITES
The Patrician class were limited in their economic pursuits by the Mos Maorem. They could not engage in any other business than property. When the nonpatricians began to emerge as a class they had the advantage of being able to

operate in all fields o commerce. As merchants, money lenders, artisans and entrepreneurs. Over time, a wealthy group of non-patrician Roman citizens emerged. As with all Roman citizens, they were liable for military service and their wealth allowed them to purchase horses, which made them the cavalry of the Roman legions. Their name, as a group, was Equites. Referring to their possession of horses/equines. They were also known as knights. By 133BC they had become a financially powerful section of Roman politics. And in the period to 78BC, using the radical tribunes and influence of novo homus Marius, they extended their power. Three areas became significant 1. The growing power of the tribunate. 2. Increasing influence of knights in the senate. 3. Enhancing control of the judicial system. Especially their extortion courts. Their role was also changed in the period by Marius reforms, which freed them from the time absorbing duties in the legions.

Equites, latin word for horseman. Became involved in public works such as building of roads and bridges. Collected state revenues, taxes etc. They wanted some political influence but this would bring them into conflict with the senatorial class. As a result of Gaius reforms the power of the equits grew. They collected taxes of provinces but ended up exploiting them. Received enormous profits in the provinces. They shared an equal balance with the senators in government. They tried corrupt governors, transferred from the senators to the equites. Equites became third political party. Weakened the power of the senate. Equites along with the senate, murdered the Gracchans. During their Jugurthan war the equites were outraged with the disruption of trade and activities and pressured the senate to declare war on Jugurtha. Marius gained support of the equites by prolonging the war and promising peace if he were in command. The people and equites interfered in foreign affairs to begin Marius unconstitutional continuous consulships. Saturninus/ Glaucia returned control of the courts to the equites. They would try cases of Roman peoples treason. Sulpicius believed that by introducing his debt relieving measures he would gain the equites support.

THE SENATE:
The changing role of the senate 133BC - 78 BC Since the formation of the roman republic, the senate had been the prominent governing body. Prior to the equality of powers awarded to the plebeians, the

senate had being the domain of the patricians. The patricians had a special relationship with the gods of Rome and believed that they acted with what today would be referred to as nobless oblige or what Meier calls state wisdom or an instinct for government. Even after the liberalisation of the senate, the patricians set the tone and dominated proceedings, they were the Partres, the fathers of Rome. The senate had responsibility for the commonwealth, it determined foreign policy, received foreign embassies, concluded alliances, made decisions on war and peace, ordered military levies, appointed military commanders and provincial governors, issued directives for the waging of war, settled disputes between cities (compromise) and ruled all important and many unimportant matters of policy. The magistrates, if not controlled, guided by the senate, and even is the senators occasionally acted from personal or partisan interests, if is likely that at least a majority of them regularly addressed themselves to the interests of the whole. However, as Meier points out, the senate relied upon compromise and consensus and this was only possible as long as the points of controversy were remained limited.

All senators were determined to gain a dominant position at the expense of anyone. A land bill proposed, but by-passed the senate, this created tension and outrage Senate rejected Numantine treaty. Senate was afraid of loosing control over the affairs of Rome. Scared of change to the traditions and life. The minor breach of custom angered the senate. The senate had control and influence over tribunes Outrage that Tiberius would finance his land reforms with money form Asian provinces, it challenged the senate authority. Gaius Gracchus faced opposition from the senate and intensity increased throughout the year. Senate used corruption to counter proposals Used omens to undermine bills proposed Bribery was often used. The SCU was passed to defend their murderous actions on the Gracchii Used combined force of senators and equites to defeat the Gracchians Gaius is said to have wanted to undermine the senates authority. Gaius would reduce there powers and privileges Power weakened by the equites Tribune was used as a weapon against senate Rome bribed a number of senators Pressured by equites for war Senate intended Metellus command in Numidia. Saturninus proposed measures to get revenge on senate. Used passage of bills of veto and bad omens to stop laws.

Death of Memmius outraged senate. Imposed SCU on Marius to restore law and order amongst Rome. Marius weakened the hold of senatorial aristocracy on Roman politics. Took away the traditional privilege of the senate to appoint military leaders and allocate provincial commanders. Senate now made to provide cash and land for veterans. Sulla was favoured by the senate. Sulla and Sulpicius attempted to strengthen the senate. Sullas aims to strengthen the senate: enlarge numbers, provide future automatic recruitment, legislation had to passed by senate first, adequate numbers were now available for courts, senators now owe support to senators, Interference from censors now prevented, Senate elected by indirect popular elections.

TRIBUNATE:
How was the tribunate of the plebs used by individuals for their own advancement during the period 133-78 BC ? The role of the tribunate from 133-78 BC There was four main men who were tribunates that changed the way the tribunate operated. Gracchi used the tribunate as an element of change. Gracchi showed the people that in their assemblies they could wield great power if combined with a tribune. Saturninus and electoral violence. Saturninus and the courts that try cases of treason against the Roman people. TIBERIUS GRACCHUS Tiberius Gracchus became one of the ten tribunes elected for 133 BC Within a few months he had presented a highly controversial bill for land reform to the peoples assembly without reference to the senate - bypassed the senate He then over came the veto of a fellow tribune by having him disposed from office - angered senate Organised the use of recently acquired treasure of king of Pergamums to fund his proposal - interfered again with the senates power. Attempted to have himself re-elected as tribune for the following year. By the use of the tribunate Tiberius had shown a way for ambitious men to use it for their own benefits. Tiberius tribune divided one people into two factions. He was upsetting the status quo- the way things were done. His tribune was adding to the fear of the senate loosing their traditional authority.

According to Cicero Tiberius Gracchus shattered the stability of the state. GAIUS GRACCHUS

Gaius was elected tribune in 123BC and quickly asserted his predominance over the other tribunes. Gaius was resourceful, determined and imaginative. In the ten years after his brothers murder he had formulated a clear program of reform. In his first tribunate he introduced and carried out a number of economic, political and judicial reforms. He was re-elected for a second term of office. Senate used another tribunate - Livius Drusus - this year to counter many of Gaius genuine proposals. Drusus won the support of the people and Gaius was not re-elected for a third term.

Effects of the Gracchi The tribunates of Tiberius and Gaius marked a turning point in Roman political history. When Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus sought to establish the liberty of the common people and expose the crimes of the oligarchs, the guilty nobles took fright and opposed their proceedings by every means of their disposal. Sallust. In ignoring tradition the Gracchi were provocative, and the senate had no way to counter the threat to its position except by violence. The tribunate was never intended to bring about change, it was intended to protect the ordinary citizens from being unjustly treated by the magistrates. However the Gracchi showed the way that the tribunate could be used as an instrument for change. They had used it to undermine the traditional powers of the senate and revealed the potential for ambitious men to promote their own political careers. SATURNINUS Elected tribune in 103 BC he proposed a number of measures that he hope would help him get his revenge on the senate and build up a popular following. His first attack on the senate he put forward a proposal to prosecute the consuls responsible for the disaster at Arausio in 105 BC. Responsible for the introduction of a court to try cases of treason against the Roman people. Put forward a corn bill to reduce the price of grain to one-eighth of that laid down by Gaius Gracchus. Ignored a veto from tribunes and senators - outrage. Gave Marius veterans land allotments. Tribune for a second time. The third year Saturninus tried for tribunate, however was marked by illegalities and murder, electoral violence. Was elected. SCU issued again from senate Saturninus was murdered.

Saturninus gained the support of the masss with his legislations on 103 BC. Cicero describes him as the greatest scoundrel since the world began, and was very cleaver and crafty and extremely witty. He had the common people in his pocket, and he had bound the equestrian order to him through the good turn his law did for them. SULLA Once Sulla was supreme leader in Rome his objectives was clear-cut, to reestablish stable and efficient government in Rome. The second priority of Sullas aims was to restrict the powers of the tribunes. The tribunes could not propose legislation to the people except those measures sanctioned by the senate. Their right of veto was limited They were deprived of their judicial powers. Anyone holding the office of tribune was barred from further political office. Sulla virtually destroyed the tribunate, stripping it of those powers with which it had undermined the authority of the senate since the time of the Gracchi. He left the tribunician power of shadow without substance.

VIOLENCE
In 133BC the Pontiff Maximus lead a group of outraged censors to commit murder in defence of the status quo. The murder of Tiberius Gracchus was the beginning of a violent period in Roman history. This is an indication of the frustration that Romans felt with the system. Some violence was committed to produce change and some to resist change. Some was revenge to change whilst other violence was the revenge for the change. What the violence in Romes inability to be adaptable and it was this lack of adaptability that was to bring about the destruction of the republic given the choice between adapt or die, the Roman nobility rejected the former and became victim of the latter. Violence is Human Nature.. 2000 years ago the senear of civilisation was thinner than what we would expect today, life was cheaper and death more common, thus, violence was never far from the surface for the Roman patricians it was a product of their inability to control their radical tribunes in a constitutional manner. For the tribunes and people like Gaius Marius, it was a way of gaining revenge and change. For Sulla, it was a way of turning back the clock and avoiding change, but none of it resolved any issues, for the violence still continued with Ceasar, war against Pompey, Caesars assassination, Brutus war with Mark Antony, and in the end, the republic collapses to be replaced by an autocracy. Tiberius Gracchus Tiberius Gracchus was murdered by Scipio Nasica at the Capitol.

He believed it was to the liberty of the public against the domination of Tiberius Gracchus Cicero Many of the Gracchan supporters were murdered and all were tossed into the Tiber.

Gaius Gracchus His reforms led to the disturbance on the capitol between the supporters of both groups. One of Opimius servants killed. During GG period, the senate passed the SCU. Senators and equites killed Gracchan supporters and GG. Throat cut. VIOLENCE AND THE CIVIL WAR>>> The Roman state brought to a head, issues which resulted in increasing violence and civil war. The violent reaction of the senate to the Gracchi initiated peaceful change and the Roman republican system was only changed by violent or illegal means. L. Opimius put to death, all the Gracchan supporters.

Saturninus First attack was when he prosecuted all the consuls responsible for the disaster at Arausio in 105BC. When one of Saturninus bills was vetoed but he continued on, the senate had Caepio break up a meeting by force. For Marius to pass his land bill about the allies , he brought force into the forum to create pressure, he used his veterans. When Saturninus was elected third time to tribunate but when consular candidate Memmius appeared likely to win, he was killed. Senate passed the SCU, for Marius to restore order and arrest any of Saturninus associates. Both Glaucia and Saturninus were beat to death with roof tiles. Marius took revenge on Rome by slaughter. Cinna was murdered when troops refused to go to gate. Colline Gate.

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