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The Communication Process Chapter: 1

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1. Why we communicate? Why learn to communicate?


Definition: Communication. Why do we communicate? A. Initiating Action: 1. Expressing needs and req. 2. Persuading & motivating others. B. Impart Information: 1. Creating awareness. 2. Creating understanding. 3. Persuading others. 4. Influencing others. C. Establishing relationships: 1. Nod of recognition. 2. Use of names. 3. Looking into eyes. 4. Keeping in touch. 5. Style and role. Why do we receive communication? 1. Common aims. 2. Relevance. 3. Conformity. 4. Accessibility (Less effort is required) 5. Credibility of sender. 6. Attractiveness. Major Reasons to receive: 1. Credibility i. Personal appeal (Past exp, social conditioning) ii. Perceived authority (Prestige and reputation etc) iii. Perceived Intention (Unbiased, expertise) 2. Congeniality:

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2. How we communicate?
The Communication Cycle. Stages of Communication Process: 1. Impu lse to communicate. 2. Enco ding the msg (v, NV, Mixture) 3. Relay ing the msg (Channel and medium)

Levels of communication: 1. Interpersonal communication with oneself. 2. Interpersonal communication b/w: a) Indv to indv b) Indv to group. c) Group to indv. 3. Impersonal Communication: (No direct contact b/w the source and receiver) Level of Communication emphasizing the role of face to face communication: Level 1: Direct, face to face, 2-way, verbal and non-verbal most effective. Level 2: 2 way, not face to face (e.g. by telephone) Level 3: Least effective, 1 way no immediate feedback (e.g. TV)

Channel: the particular path via which the msg is sent, connecting the sender and receiver.

Medium: the tools or instruments which is used e.g.(visual, written). Choice of medium depends on: i. Time ii. Complexity of msg. iii. Distance. iv. Need for a written record. v. Need for interaction. vi. Confidentiality. vii. Sensitivity. viii. Cost. Decoding the msg. Understand correctly. Interpret correctly. When msg can be disguised? Sarcasm (contrary speech to an article) Innuendo (hint) / suggestions. Double meanings. The interpretation of correct meanings requires knowledge to: Context. Relationship. Tone of voice.

3. Potential Problems in Communication:


1. Distortion: The way in which the meanings of comm. msg is lost in handling, occurs at encoding and decoding stage. Foreign language, incorrect word, jargons, unfamiliar pictures, differing attitudes, lack of concentration. 2.

5. Giving feedback (+ vs. -)

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3. Noise: Distraction and interference in the comm environment, obstructing the process of comm. by affecting the accuracy, clarity or even the arrival of msg. Physical noise, technical noise, social noise, psychological noise, redundancy. 4. Other potential problems: 1. 2. 3. 4. Not communicating. Sending the wrong msg. Omission of info. Overload. 5. Lack of clarity(misunderstanding) 6. Contradicting Non-verbal signals 7. Perceptual bias or selectivity. 8. Poor listening or reading skills (Loss of concentration) 9. Failure to seek or offer feedback. 10. Failure to plan for physical context of communication. 11. Lack of credibility. 5. Problems in communication at work: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Looking for hidden msg. Attempts to sabotage comm. Giving incomplete info (to protect colleague) Managers asserting their authority. Specialist background. No consultation to subordinates by managers. Lack of opportunities to participate. No interest in matters of org. Withholding info as a matter of power.

7. Personal Differences:
Racial, ethnic or regional origins. 2. Religious beliefs and traditions. 3. Social class and socio-economic groups. 4. Education and training. 5. Age 6. Gender 7. Health and fitness 8. Personality traits. 9. Intelligence 10. Occupation or profession. 11. Interests.

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8. National Differences:

4. Role of perception in communication:


Definition: Perception: Physical stimuli are only one input to the process of perception. There are also internal inputs from the indv himself. E.g. own motives, expectations, personality, past experience, etc = unique. Selective Perception: What makes us pay more attention to one thing and filter out another? 1. Nature and intensity of stimulus. 2. Expectations, motives and interests. 3. Attitudes and beliefs. Expectations: Past experience 1 2 _ 4_ 6 (3, 5) Motives and Interests: Our attn is drawn to comm which seem to be relevant to the satisfaction of our wants at a given time. The stronger the need, the greater the tendency to filter out the irrelevant stimuli.

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Attitudes and beliefs: An attitude is Relatively consistent Learned Predisposition (rujhaan)

To behave in a certain way in response to a given object. A belief is a perception in which we have confidence. We tend to belief: Personal factors. Credible source.

Because these things depend on perception, our beliefs are highly subjective.

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