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Lower Sec.

EL (1& 2E/N)

Term Text Type Content Skills Language Features


1  Factual Recount 1. Organization of ideas  Nouns
 Personal Recount a) Orientation  Past tense
 Imaginative b) Series of events  Pronouns : 1st, 3rd person
Recount c) Reflection/evaluation : how you felt, how things pronouns
went  Definite articles
 Subject-verb agreement
2. Elaboration of ideas
 Cohesive devices eg.
a) Introductory paragraph that tells who, when,
Conjunctions
where, what of the subject
 Linking words related to
b) Series of paragraphs about the subject
time/ order of events (eg.
c) Topic sentence previews the details that will be
meanwhile, later, finally,
contained in rest of the paragraph
then etc)
d) Each paragraph describes 1 feature of the
subject  Adjectives (descriptive
details)
3. Concluding paragraph signals the end of the text,  Adverbs
reflecting how you felt or how things went  Punctuation for direct
speech
1. Organization of Ideas  Effective use of reporting
 Narrative
a) Orientation speech
b) Complication  Present tense for direct
c) Series of events speech
d) Resolution  Active verbs
 Passive voice
2. Elaboration of details
a) ‘Hook’ in introductory paragraph
- rhetorical question

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- dialogue
b) Sensory details : 5 senses
c) Elaboration of action
d) Using WH questions to generate details
e) Personal experience
f) Dialogue - review important information
- build character
- build atmosphere
g) Use ‘Show & Not Tell’ method : eg. use
movements & actions

2  Procedure
 Explanation
 Information Text
3  Exposition 1. Organization of ideas  ‘timeless’ present tense
a) Thesis / position  use of passive forms
b) Points of argument / discussion  use of connectors :
c) Summary - reason
d) Restatement of Position - cause & effect
- condition
2. Elaboration - choice
a) Use WH questions to generate ideas  use of linking words
b) Use facts (numbers, statistics) as support associated with
c) Use examples as support reasoning (eg as a
d) Use personal experience as support result, therefore)
 use of objective rather
3. Use topic sentences & elaboration for each than emotive language
paragraph
 use of conjunctions that
a) provides a generalized statement for each
signal addition of points
argument
(eg firstly, moreover,

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b) provides relevant evidence to support each furthermore)
argument
a) sequences arguments logically
b) provides links between each argument
c) maintains point of view that is consistent with the
original position
4  Revision

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Upper Sec. EL (3E/N & 4E/5N)
Term Text Type Content Skills Language Features
1  Exposition 1. Organization of ideas  ‘timeless’ present tense
a) Thesis / position  descriptive language, but
b) Points of argument / discussion factual & precise rather
c) Summary than imaginative &
d) Restatement of Position figurative
 use of connectors :
2. Elaboration - reason
a) Use WH questions to generate ideas - cause & effect
b) Use facts (numbers, statistics) as support - condition
c) Use examples as support - choice
d) Use personal experience as support  use of passive forms
 use of linking words
3. Elaboration of details associated with
a) Use different Question types to develop main reasoning (eg as a
ideas for a topic result, therefore)
b)Use patterns to develop main ideas for a topic
 use of objective rather
- a process or sequence
than emotive language
- an extended definition
 use of conjunctions that
- categories
signal addition of points
- cause & effect
(eg firstly, moreover,
- interpretations/ perspectives
furthermore)
4. Use topic sentences & elaboration for each
paragraph
a) provides a generalized statement for each

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argument
b) provides relevant evidence to support each
argument
d) sequences arguments logically
e) provides links between each argument
f) maintains point of view that is consistent with the
original position
2  Information Text
3  Factual Recount 1. Organization of ideas  Cohesive devices eg.
 Personal Recount a) Orientation Conjunctions
 Imaginative b) Series of events  Linking words related to
Recount c) Reflection/evaluation : how you felt, how things time/ order of events (eg.
went meanwhile, later, finally,
2. Elaboration of ideas then etc)
a) Introductory paragraph that tells who, when,  Adjectives (descriptive
where, what of the subject details)
b) Series of paragraphs about the subject  Punctuation for direct
c)Topic sentence previews the details that will be speech
contained in rest of the paragraph  Effective use of reporting
d)Each paragraph describe 1 feature of the subject speech
3.Concluding paragraph signals the end of the text,
 Present tense for direct
reflecting how you felt or how things went
speech
 Active verbs
 Narrative 1. Organization of Ideas
a) Orientation  Passive voice
b) Complication  Descriptive language eg.
c) Series of events Simile, metaphor ,
d) Resolution imagery to create vivid
2. Elaboration of details images in reader’s mind
a) ‘Hook’ in introductory paragraph  Non-finite verbs
- rhetorical question  Range of simple,

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- dialogue compound & complex
b) Sensory details : 5 senses sentences
c) Elaboration of action  Joining of clauses
d) Using WH questions to generate details through conjunctions,
e) Personal experience relative pronouns & non-
f) Dialogue - review important information finite verbs
- build character  Clauses correctly
- build atmosphere connected in compound
g) Use ‘Show & Not Tell’ method : eg. use & complex sentences
movements & actions

4  Explanation
 Revision

Useful websites:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/7751608/Junior-Recount