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REDOX REACTION Definition of oxidation and reduction according to 4 aspects a) Oxidation occurs when there is (i) a gain in oxygen (ii)a loss of hydrogen (iii)a loss of electron (iv)an increase in the oxidation state RUSTING AS A REDOX REACTION Corrosion of a metal is a redox reaction in which a metal is oxidized by losing electrons to form positive ions Metals which are more electropositive corrode faster When iron corrodes , the process is also known as rusting. Two conditions for the rusting of iron to occur are -The presence of water -oxygen Arrangement of metals in the descending order in terms of the ease of corrosion. K Na Al Zn Fe Sn Pb Cu Ag Au The diagram below shows the mechanism of rusting b)Reduction occurs when there is (i) a loss of oxygen (ii)a gain of hydrogen (iii)a gain of electron (iv)a decrease in the oxidation state

The following table shows the redox process in rusting by stating the electrode and write the half equation for each terminal

Terminal A B

Electrode Anode Cathode

Half-equation FeFe2+ + 2eO2 + 2H2O + 4e- 4OH-

Overall redox equation in rusting : 2Fe(aq) + O2(g) + 2H2O(l) Fe(OH) 2(s) Name for the rust : Iron(III) oxide Chemical Formula for the rust : Fe2O3.xH2O, where x varies Three main ways to prevent rusting -by using protective coating -by forming alloys -by using sacrificial metal Three metals that can be used in sacrificial protection for an underground iron pipe -magnesium -aluminium -zinc A reagent that is usually used to detect the presence of iron (II) ion in a laboratory experiment. -Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution THE REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS AND ITS APPLICATION In the reactivity series, metals are arranged in the order of their reactivity with oxygen The metal at the top of the series is the most reactive. They burn more vigorously and most quickly in oxygen. The more reactive the metal is the more powerful it is as a reducing agent. K Na Mg Al Very Reactive Unreactive Reactivity Decreases Zn Fe Sn Pb Cu Hg Ag Au


When metal X is heated with an oxide of metal Y , metal X will displace metal Y from its oxide if metal X is more reactive than metal Y X + metal Y oxide of X + Y Reactivity Decreases K Na Mg Al C Very Reactive Very Unreactive Zn H Fe Sn Pb Cu Hg Ag Au

If metal remove oxygen from carbon dioxide , the metal is more reactive than carbon

metal + carbon dioxide metal oxide + carbon If hydrogen is more reactive than the metal oxide , the metal oxide, the metal oxide will be reduced to metal hydrogen + metal oxide metal + carbon dioxide Two application of the reactivity series -to predict the possibility of reactions involving metals -to predict the method of metal extraction from its ore.

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