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2011 SC A3 Technical Colloquium

Determination of requirements for short-circuit currents with delayed zeros through digital computer simulations using the ATP program J. Amon F. (*) R. A. A. Gonalves ELETROBRAS FURNAS Brazil SUMMARY
In a deregulated environment, where planning for integration of generation, transmission and distribution has been forsaken in favor of market driven forces, utilities and Independent System Operators are becoming very worried about the effects and consequences of the possible connection of independent power producers to existing substations not foreseen in the long-term planning studies/forecasts. Besides the increase of short-circuit levels, circuit-breakers, in this environment, may have to be forced to interrupt more severe progressive faults nearby new generation station busbars. Of particular importance for the progressive faults is the possibility that the fault currents may not have zero crossings during many cycles (delayed-zero) right after the fault application. This could happen because of extreme offset, due to much larger dc components of fault currents caused by so many new generator units connected to the grid during simultaneous three-phase or two-line-to-neutral faults. For such cases, short-circuit interruption requirements are defined by prospective delayed-zero asymmetric short-circuit currents, normally build-up from system simulations, combining the fault sequence, the generator initial operating conditions and the voltage at the generation station busbar prior to the fault application. This phenomenon is theoretically imposed by some particular physical conditions within the electrical machines, when submitted to short-circuit application. Neglecting the arc resistance within the circuit-breaker chambers, the short-circuit impedances and the ground (zero sequence path) resistance, the phase angle of the voltages inside the electrical machines, and the machine impedance parameters are the major parameters that directly interferes with the amplitude of the sequential DC offsets added to the symmetrical short-circuit current of the first faulted phase. Therefore, the appearance of such DC-offset currents, added to the symmetric short-circuit current in each phase, may cause sequential (progressive) high DC-offset in the first phase, causing the zerocrossing of the total fault current to be delayed. Such requirements trend to be conservative, because the phase-to-ground faults and switching sequences are chosen at the simulations in order to produce the most severe DC-offsets. This evaluation is done in principle without considering the likelihood of their occurrence, and without considering as well the arc and fault resistance, that can provide some dumping of the dc component of the short-circuit current. Even though the interruption of delayedzero fault currents can be successful, the subsequent TRV and RRRV values may be above those figures recommended by IEC standards. Manufacturers inform that, with the present technology, they are not able to produce a circuit-breaker that completely fulfils such a severe interruption requirement. From the utilities side, an action, which is understood to be necessary, would be a comprehensive review of the criteria for studies, to produce prospective short-circuit currents with asymmetric zeros delayed more realistic, considering the improvement of the phenomenon modeling, including the representation of the physical parameters that are effective in damping the DC components of the short-circuit currents. This paper presents a calculation of short circuit currents with delayed zeros for a real case of a 330MW powerplant integration into the grid, performed according to the traditional conservative criteria, using the ATP program, as well as the influence on the results caused by the representation of some physical parameters in the effective damping of DC components of shortcircuit current. However, one real study does not include simulation of the circuit breaker arc. The manufacturer, in its turn, must demonstrate that prospective calculated short-circuit currents will have
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P. C. Fernandez ELETROBRAS

(*) jorgamon@furnas.gov.br

their zeros anticipated by the performance of arc resistance, occurring before the end of the full interrupting capacity of the breaker.

KEYWORDS
ATP program, circuit-breaker, DC component, delayed-zero, electrical arc, extinction chamber, progressive fault, prospective current, short-circuit, simulation

1 INTRODUCTION
During occurrence of short circuit in the vicinities of power plants, delays in the passage of fault current by the first natural zero are possible [1,2,3,4,5,7 and 9], leading to the prolongation of the arc, which may constitute a severe heating requirement within the circuit breaker chambers, especially for fast operation circuit breakers. The cause of the problem lies in the high values of the X/R ratio, which has as consequence the slow decay of the DC component of the short-circuit currents and the high Td values, responsible for the rapid attenuation of the AC component of the short-circuit current. These X/R and Td values are typical of power plants neighborhoods. Fault current interruption will be possible only if some physical parameter, effective in the damping of the DC components of the shortcircuit current, such as the resistance introduced by the arc inside the circuit-breaker chambers, is able to force the occurrence of the first current zero before the end of the breaker interrupting full capacity.

2 STUDY CRITERIA
In studies of delayed-zero current interruption, the strictly correct is the simulation of circuit-breakers by a model that considers the arc voltage in order to obtain the asymmetrical short-circuit current closer to the reality and not just the prospective figures. This is important because the arc resistance will cause an attenuation of the DC component of the short-circuit current causing the anticipation of the zero occurrence before that one obtained with the prospective current curve. The simulation of the circuit-breaker arc, however, requires information about specific features, usually only known by the manufacturers and may vary from one brand or model to another. So, before knowing the manufacturer of the breaker (in case of future installations), one cannot have more precise data on the circuit- breaker arc behavior during the interruption of fault currents. In the present study, therefore, the resistance of the circuit-breaker arc is not included in the simulations. Neglecting the arc resistance within the circuit-breaker chambers, the short-circuit impedances and the ground (zero sequence path) resistance, the phase angle of the voltages inside the electrical machines, and the machine impedance parameters are the major parameters that directly interferes with the amplitude of the sequential DC offsets added to the symmetrical short-circuit current of the first faulted phase. Therefore, the appearance of such DC-offset currents, added to the symmetric short-circuit current in each phase, may cause sequential (progressive) high DC-offset in the first phase, causing the zero-crossing of the total fault current to be delayed. Such requirements trend to be conservative, because the phase-toground faults and switching sequences are chosen at the simulations in order to produce the most severe DC-offsets. This evaluation is done in principle without considering the likelihood of their occurrence, and without considering as well the arc and fault resistance, that can provide some dumping of the dc component of the short-circuit current. The circuit breaker manufacturers, in its turn, must demonstrate that prospective calculated short-circuit currents will have their zeros anticipated by the performance of arc resistance inside the chambers, and that it will occur before the end of the full interrupting capacity of the breaker. 3 LABORATORY TESTS According to references 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7, the results of tests performed in laboratories with specific data of the respective manufacturers showed that the circuit-breakers were able to interrupt fault currents in the toughest conditions of asymmetry, provided on anticipation of the passage these currents through zero, produced by the insertion of the electric arcs resistances in series with the circuit formed from the separation of the contacts of the circuit-breakers. It should be noted that the circuit-breakers of the
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references above mentioned were either air-blast or first generation of SF6 ones, that is, arcing times higher than these of the nowadays SF6 circuit-breaker technologies, what, somehow, means an advantage, leading to greater effectiveness in anticipation of the zeros of the short-circuit currents, in addition to its bigger thermal short-circuits withstand capacity, being designed to naturally longer arcing times. In fact, for the recent projects of generation [10 and 11], it has often been noted that some manufacturers have reported difficulties to produce such an equipment to manage these severe disruption requirements with the present technology of SF6 circuit-breakers, with reduced arcing times. Under the utilities point-of-view, an action would be a comprehensive review of the criteria for studies, in order to produce more realistic prospective asymmetric short-circuit currents with delayed zeros, considering the improvement of the physical phenomenon modeling, including the representation of the physical parameters that are effective in damping of DC components of the short circuit-current, such as the arc resistance inside the chambers of the circuit-breaker, the fault resistance and the path resistance between the fault point and the circuit-breaker (both positive sequence and zero sequence).

4 DIGITAL SIMULATIONS
The digital simulations for a typical study to determine requirements for short-circuit currents with delayed zeros, performed using the ATP program [12], aim to find severe prospective situations, with regard to the delay of the first zero crossing of short-circuit currents. For that, types and instants of the application of the fault are combined with the operating conditions of the machinery of the plant at the instant of fault occurrence, regardless the likelihood this could happen, as follows: Fault types: o o o o Solid three-phase grounded; Solid progressive, evolving from two phase to three-phase grounded; Solid progressive, evolving from single-phase for three-phase grounded; Solid progressive, evolving from single-phase for two phase grounded and then, to threephase grounded. Instants of the application of the fault: o At the instant of zero voltage in one phase (three-phase fault); o At the instant of zero voltage between two phases (three-phase fault); o At the instant of zero voltage between two phases, and then 90o electric afterwards, at the moment of zero voltage in the third phase (progressive fault); o At the instant of zero voltage in one phase, and then 90o electric afterwards, at the moment of zero voltage between the two remaining phases (progressive fault); o At the instant of zero voltage in each phase, in turn (progressive fault). Operating conditions of the machinery of the plant: o No load; o Capacitive load (line charging load). It should be noted that the occurrence of a fault at the instant of zero voltage causes the maximum short-circuit current asymmetry. If at that instant the generator is feeding capacitive loads, the shortcircuit current will increase from an initial value equal to the peak load current, while maintaining the same polarity of it, further increasing the value of its asymmetric peak. Thus, according to the combination of parameters above mentioned, 10 cases have been simulated, as described in Table I, below.

TABLE I - SIMULATED CASES


Case

Fault type three-phase three-phase three-phase three-phase Progressive 1ph/3ph-g Progressive 1ph/3ph-g Progressive 2ph/3ph-g Progressive 2ph/3ph-g

Instant of the application of the fault At the instant of zero voltage in one phase At the instant of zero voltage in one phase At the instant of zero voltage between two phases At the instant of zero voltage between two phases At the instant of zero voltage in one phase, and then 90 electric afterwards, at the moment of zero voltage between the two remaining phases
o

1 2 3 4 5

Operating condition of the machinery of the plant No load Capacitive load No load Capacitive load No load

At the instant of zero voltage in one phase, and then 90o Capacitive load electric afterwards, at the moment of zero voltage between the two remaining phases At the instant of zero voltage between two phases, and then 90o electric afterwards, at the moment of zero voltage in the third phase At the instant of zero voltage between two phases, and then 90o electric afterwards, at the moment of zero voltage in the third phase No load

Capacitive load

9 10

Progressive At the instant of zero voltage in each phase, in turn 1ph/2ph-g/3ph-g Progressive At the instant of zero voltage in each phase, in turn 1ph/2ph-g/3ph-g

No load Capacitive load

4.1 Case Example The case example of this is Simplicio Hydro Power Plant (330 MW), located in Rio de Janeiro State, which is being commissioned at the moment for operation. The system to which the plant is connected is shown in Figure 1, below:

Figure 1 - Simplicio Hydro Power Plant - Interconnected System Integration The main data of the machines of the plant are: o Step-up transformers: S = 123 MVA (138 kV - Y-t) / (13.8 kV ), X12= 12% (Step-up transformers base) Q (quality factor) = 40.

o Generators: S = 113.33 MVA, Ra =0.0032 pu, XL=0.16 pu, Xd=0.73 pu, Xq = 0.33 pu, Xd=0.25 pu, Xq = 0.27 pu, Tdo=7.5s, Tdo = 0.07s, Tqo = 0.22 pu. The system was adjusted so that the plant was absorbing reactive generated by the transmission lines (double circuit) between Simplicio and Rocha Leo substations, with the maximum allowed operating voltage (1.05 pu.). The worst condition with respect to delayed zero corresponded to only one machine in operation in Simplicio, because, in this case, the reactive generated by both lines have to be absorbed by one machine only. Among the conditions shown in Table 1, cases 9 and 10 had the worst results for fault currents with delayed zeros. Initially, resistances were not considered beyond those inherent in the system. The Oscillogram 1 shows the currents of a progressive three-phase fault at the high-voltage terminals of the step-up transformer, in case 9 (no load):

Oscillogram 1 - Case 9 Progressive 1ph/2ph-g/3ph-g fault No load No additional resistance From Oscillogram 1, it can be seen that, despite the circuit-breaker opening time be about 3 cycles (protection time + circuit-breaker opening time), delays in fault currents occur with a maximum value of about 95 ms. Oscillogram 2 shows the currents of a progressive three-phase fault at the high-voltage terminals of the step-up transformer, in case 10 (capacitive load):

Oscillogram 2 - Case 10 Progressive 1ph/2ph-g/3ph-g fault Capacitive load No additional resistance Delays in fault currents occur with a maximum of approximately 120 ms.

5 RESULTS
For the same application of fault condition, the operating condition cases with capacitive load (cases 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) show more severe results than that similar ones, corresponding to no-load condition (cases 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9) for both the asymmetrical peak value as well as the delay in the occurrence of the first natural zero of the short-circuit current. This was expected because, as already stated, when the generator is feeding capacitive load, the shortcircuit current increases from an initial value equal to the peak load current while maintaining the same polarity of it, further increasing the value its asymmetrical peak, causing further delay in the occurrence of its first natural zero crossing. Among the cases with more severe results (cases 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10), the most critical are those corresponding to progressive faults (cases 6, 8 and 10), what was also expected because in these cases, the short-circuit occurs at the zero-voltage instants in at least one of the phases. Finally, the case considered the most pessimistic among cases 6, 8 and 10 is the number of 10. This was also already expected, since the short-circuit is applied at instants of zero-voltage in each phase. Summarizing what has been described, the most severe cases were case 9, with the first fault-current peak of 4.5 kA and the first zero at 90 ms, and case 10, with the first fault-current peak of 5 kA and the first zero at 110 ms, considering the measurements made at the circuit breakers connected to the highvoltage terminals of the step-up transformers. These delayed-zeros currents are extremely severe for the interruption with modern SF6 circuit breakers. In this context, the representation of fault resistance introduces a damping of the DC component, significantly anticipating the zeros of the fault-currents. To represent, in simplified form, the fault resistance (the arc resistance has not a linear behaviour), studies have shown that for currents above 100 A, the electric field approaches from 1000 ~ 1200 V / m [8]. For the present case example, the fault current reaches values of about 5 kA. The distance between phases is about 4 meters and the minimum distance between conductor and tower considered was 2 meters. Neither the tower foot resistance nor the return resistance (path resistance between the fault point and the circuit-breaker) have been considered. Therefore, the minimum resistance assumed as fault resistance was 0.4 . With this resistance case 10 was reprocessed and the behaviour of currents and voltages are presented in Oscillogram 3.

Oscillogram 3 - Case 10 Progressive 1ph/2ph-g/3ph-g fault Capacitive load Fault resistance of 0.4

Therefore, considering only the fault resistance, it has anticipated the maximum time of delayed-zero from approximately 120 ms to about 70 ms.
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On the other hand, there is the possibility (however remote) of a circuit-breaker to be energizing a transmission line that had been previously under maintenance, and by mistake, the grounding switch or ground security cables were forgotten closed at the line terminal. In this case, there would be no fault resistance, but on the other hand, the maximum dispersion between the circuit-breaker contacts of 5 ms (pole spread), makes it unfeasible to have the closure of three circuit breaker poles at the zero voltage in the three phases (zero voltages occur every 1/6 cycle, i.e. 2.78 ms). In this context, there is the possibility of the closing of two phases of three at zero crossing of the voltage wave. The first at zero voltage, the second at 2.78 ms and third at 5 ms (instead of 5.56 ms). Even in this condition, the off-set is very high, almost equaling the condition in which the three phases are closed exactly at the zero voltages. It should be considered that the generator would be absorbing less reactive because, in this particular case, one of the 138 kV lines between Simplicio and Rocha Leo substations would be out of operation. Oscillogram 4 shows voltages and currents in this condition.

Oscillogram 4 - Case 10 Progressive 1ph/2ph-g/3ph-g fault Capacitive load No additional resistance Considering the maximum circuit-breaker pole spread of 5 ms Delays in fault currents occur with a maximum of approximately 95 ms.

6 CONCLUSIONS
The analysis of the simulated case results leads to the conclusion that the most critical one was number 10, with the first short-circuit current zero crossing occurring at 120 ms. This case was, therefore, initially considered as standard for defining the prospective delayed-zero short-circuit current for the 138 kV circuit-breakers of Simplicio power plant substation. As stated earlier, in the present study, the resistance of the circuit-breaker arc was not included in the simulations (developed within their chambers) which, in turn, would cause attenuation of the DC component of the current, anticipating the true zero crossing of the short-circuit currents to a time before the one obtained with the prospective current curve. There is the possibility (however remote) of a circuit-breaker to be energizing a transmission line that had been previously under maintenance, and by mistake, the grounding switch or ground security cables were forgotten closed at the line terminal. Even in this condition, the off-set is very high, almost equaling the condition in which the three phases are closed exactly at the zero voltages (case 10).

The manufacturer must demonstrate that prospective calculated short-circuit currents will have their zero crossings anticipated by the performance of arc resistance, occurring before the end of the full interrupting capacity of the breaker. It is recommended further that the equation describing the physical behaviour of the electric arc, internal to the chambers of the circuit-breakers, be derived from the laboratory tests and, subsequently, be incorporated into simulations to improve the modeling of the phenomenon.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors would like to take this opportunity to give thanks to Anton Janssen for his help in the development of a draft TOR for a new SC A3 working group on short-circuit currents with delayed zero titled NEW REQUIREMENTS FOR SHORT-CIRCUIT WITHSTAND CAPABILITY OF HV EQUIPMENT, already proposed and under consideration by SC A3 members.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
[1] Schramm, H. H., Kulicke, B. Shutdown Short- Circuit with Delay in Passing by Zero Current in Itaipu 550 kV Substation, CIGR-Brazil - V SNPTEE RE/GSE/15, Group VIII, Recife, 1979 (*) [2] Lima, J. A., Santagostino, G. e Corradi, E. -"Short-Circuits Near Large Synchronous Machines Evaluation of the Short - Circuit Currents and General Circuit-Breaker Stresses During its Interruption". Paper no. 13-01 1982 CIGR Session - Paris, Sep./1982. [3] Morais, S. A. et alli - Interruption of Fault-Currents with Delayed Zeros by 550 kV Foz do Iguau Circuit-Breakers 550 kV, CIGR-Brazil - VII SNPTEE - BSB/SGE/15, Subgrupo VIII-1, Braslia, 1984 (*) [4] Maia, M. J. A. et alli - Interruption with Delayed Zeros with 550 kV Circuit-Breakers at Xingo Hydro Power Plant, CIGR - Latin America - VI ERLAC - CE 13 Switching Equipment, Foz do Igua, 1995. (*) [5] Bichels, A. - System Studies and Laboratory Tests for the Circuit-Breakers of Segredo Hydro Power Plant Aiming to Break Fault Currents with Delayed Zeros, CIGR - Latin America - VI ERLAC - CE 13 - Switching Equipment, Foz do Igua, 1995. (*) [6] Canary, I. M., Braun, D., Kppl, G. S. Delayed Current Zeros Due to Out-of-Phase Synchronizing PE- 596- EC-0-05-1 - IEEE 1997 [7] Amon, J. F. Impact of the North-South interconnection in the Calculation of Short-Circuit Currents with Delayed Zeros for 525 kV Circuit-Breakers of Serra da Mesa Hydro Power Plant, CIGR - Latin America - VII ERLAC, CE 13-Switching Equipment, Puerto Iguaz, 1997. (*) [8] Peelo, F. D. Current Interrupting Using High Voltage Air-Break Disconnectors - Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2004. [9] Larivire, P. Vinet, D. - An Evaluation of the Short-Circuit Transient Current on Circuit Breakers for the Hydro-Qubec Sub-Transmission Network in the Presence of Subsynchronous Phenomenon of the 735 kV Series Compensated Transmission System - Paper No. IPST05 054 - International Conference on Power Systems Transients (IPST05), Montreal, Canada, 2005 [10] Gonalves, R. A. A. - Delayed Zeros Studies for 138 kV Circuit-Breakers of Anta and Simplcio Hydro Power Plants FURNAS Internal Report- 2007 (*) [11] Gonalves, R. A. A., Amon, J. F. - Analysis of Electrical Studies of Delayed Zeros of the Executive Project Santo Antnio Hydro Power Plant FURNAS Internal Report- 2010 (*) [12] Alternative Transients Program (ATP) - Rule Book - 1992. (*) Published in Portuguese only