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1 Assignment
Steven Bastean 24-Jan-12 Ch. 1 Assignment Key Terms Adapter card a small circuit board inserted in an expansion slot and used to communicate between the system bus and peripheral device. Also called an interface card. Binary number system number system used by computers, it has only two (2) numbers, 0 and 1, called binary digits or bits. BIOS (basic input/output system) firmware that controls much of a computers I/O functions. Such as communication with floppy drive and monitor. BIOS setup bit program in BIOS that can change values in CMOS RAM. Also called CMOS setup. Bus paths, or lines, on the motherboard on which data, instructions, and electrical power mover from component to component. Byte a collection of 8 bits that can represent a character. Cards adapter boards/interface cards placed into expansion slots to expand functions of a computer, allowing it to communicate with external devices such as monitors or speakers. Central processing unit (CPU) principal part of a computer system, composed of the main memory, control unit, and arithmetic-logic unit. Chipset a group of chips on motherboard that controls the timing and flow of data and instructions to and from the CPU. Clock speed speed or frequency in megahertz that controls activity on the motherboard. CMOS (complementary metaloxide semiconductor) technology used to manufacture microchips. CMOS RAM memory contained on the CMOS configuration chip CMOS setup program in BIOS that can change the values in CMOS RAM. Also called BIOS Setup. Data bus lines on the system bus that the CPU uses to send and receive data. Data path size number of lines on a bus that can hold data. DIMM (dual inline memory module) mini circuit board installed on the motherboard to hold memory, can hold up to 4 GB of RAM on one module. Expansion cards circuit board inserted into a slot on the motherboard to enhance the use of the PC. Expansion slots narrow slot on the motherboard where an expansion card can be inserted. Firmware software that is permanently stored in a chip. Flash ROM ROM that can be reprogramed or changed without replacing chips Floppy disk drive (FDD) drive that can hold either a 5 1/2 or 3 1/4 floppy disk. Also called floppy drive. Floppy drive drive that can hold either a 5 1/2 or 3 1/4 floppy disk. Also called floppy disk drive (FDD). Front side bus (FSB) another name for system bus.

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Ch. 1 Assignment
Gigahertz (GHz) one thousand megahertz or one billion cycles per second. Graphics card Video card Hard copy output from a printer to paper. Hard disk drive (HDD) main secondary storage device of a pc magnetic and solid state Hard drive main secondary storage device of a pc magnetic and solid state Hardware physical components of a PC Hertz (Hz) unit of measurement for frequency calculated in terms of vibrations or cycles per second Host bus another name for system bus. Keyboard input device through which data and instructions may be typed into a PC Magnetic hard drive one of two technologies used by hard drives where data is stored as magnetic spots on disks that rotate at a high speed. The other technology is solid state drive (SSD). Main board or motherboard. Main board in the PC Megahertz (MHz) one million hertz or one million cycles per second Memory physical microchips that can hold data and programing Microprocessor principal part of a computer system, composed of the main memory, control unit, and arithmeticlogic-unit. Monitor the most commonly used output device for displaying text and graphics on a computer. Motherboard the bus between the CPU and memory on the motherboard. The bus frequency in documentation is called the system speed, such as 400 MHz Also called the memory bus, front-side bus, local bus, or host bus. Mouse a pointing and input device that allows the user to move a cursor around a screen and select items with a click of a button. Non-volatile memory refers to a kind of RAM that is stable and can hold data as long as there is power to the memory. Parallel ATA (PATA) an older IDE cabling method that uses a 40-pin flat or round data cable or an 80-conductor cable and a 40-pin IDE connector. Parallel port female 25-pin port on a PC that transmits data at 8 bits per second, usually used with printer. Peripheral device Port Power supply Primary storage Printer Processor Program

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Ch. 1 Assignment
Protocol RAM (random access memory) ROM (read-only memory) S/PDIF (Sony-Philips Digital Interface) sound port Secondary storage Serial ATA (SATA) Serial port Software Solid state drive (SSD) Startup BIOS System BIOS System board System bus System clock Traces Universal serial bus (USB) port Video card Video memory Volatile Reviewing the Basics 1. Why is all data stored in a computer in binary form?

It was easy way to read and write due to the fact that they only understand 0, 1.


What are the four (4) primary functions of hardware?

Input, output, storage, and processing.


What are the two (2) main input devices and two main output devices?

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Ch. 1 Assignment
Input: keyboard and mouse Output: monitor and printer.


What three (3) things do electronic hardware devices need in order to function?

A method for the CPU to communicate with the device, Software for instruction, and electricity for power.


How many bits are in a byte?


What is the purpose of an expansion slot on a motherboard?

To connect peripheral devices to the motherboard (sound/video networks).


Which component on the motherboard is used primarily for processing?



Name the two (2) main CPU manufacturers. AMD and Intel


Order the following ports according to speed, placing the fastest port first: FireWire, eSATA, USB.

eSATA then FireWire then USB

10. What are two other names for the system bus?

Front side bus and host bus

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Ch. 1 Assignment
11. What type of output does an S/PDIF port provide? Digital Audio Port 12. Why is an SSD hard drive more reliable under rugged conditions than an IDE hard drive? They have no moving parts that can disintegrate under rugged conditions. 13. How is the best way to determine if a cable inside a computer is a data cable or a power cable? Power cables always have 4 or more separated wires going into a plug and data cables have all their wires inside the sheath. 14. List three (3) types of ports that are often found coming directly off the motherboard to be used by external devices. Serial port, parallel port, USB port. 15. What is the purpose of the S/PDIF port? Connects to an external home theater audio system, providing digital output and best signal quality. 16. What is the most common type of memory module? DIMM 17. What is the difference between volatile and non-volatile memory? Volatile is temporary and needs constant power to hold data and non-volatile is permanent and holds memory even when power is turned off. 18. Of the two types of storage in a system, which type is generally faster and holds data and instructions while the data is being processed? Which type of storage is generally slower but more permanent? RAM ROM 19. What technology standard provides for up to four devices on a system, including the hard drive as one of these devices? What are two common industry names loosely used to describe this standard? Serial ATA Standard SATA and Serial ATA 20. What is a measurement of frequency of a system bus and CPU? Which is faster, the system bus or CPU? Frequency is generally measured in hertz, megahertz, or gigahertz. CPU 21. Name three types of buses that are likely to be on a motherboard today. PCI, AGP, ISA 22. A power supply receives 120 volts of ______ power from a wall outlet and converts 3.3, 5, and 12 volts of ____ power. AC and DC

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Ch. 1 Assignment
23. ROM BIOS or firmware chips that can be upgraded without replacing the chips are called ____________. Flash ROM 24. BIOS setup allows a technician to change configuration settings on a motherboard stored in _____________. CMOS RAM 25. Name three examples of secondary storage devices. Hard drive, CD, Floppy disk. 26. A hertz is ___ cycle per second; a megahertz is ___ cycles per second, and a gigahertz is ___ cycles per second. 1, 1 million, and 1 billion. 27. An AGP slot is normally used for a (n) ___ expansion card. Video 28. How many sizes of PCI Express slots are currently manufacture for personal computers? 4 29. Name the three purposes the motherboard ROM BIOS serves. Start the computer, manage simple devices, and change settings on motherboard. 30. From where does CMOS RAM receive its power when the computer is not turned on? Powered by somewhat of a trickle of power from a small battery located on the motherboard or computer case.

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