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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012

1. ABBREVIATION
AC......................................................................... alternate current CB..........................................................................circuit breaker COPE..........................................................community oriented practical education DOL .....................................................................direct on line EB..........................................................................electrical bell EI...........................................................................electrical installation ELC.......................................................................electrical light control ES..........................................................................electrical switch FC..........................................................................flexible conduit FR...........................................................................forward and reverse GW.........................................................................grounding wire IEI....... ...................................................... Industrial electrical installation JB......................................................................... junction box MC.......................................................................motor control N..........................................................................neutral P............................................................................phase RC........................................................................rigid conduit REI.......................................................................residential electrical installation SBG ....................................................................selam business group SPST...................................................................single pole single throw

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012

2. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
First of all I would like to thank my adviser instructor Abedela for his support and his great advice to make this project come to in accomplish and also for his comment for my project. I would also like to thank Selam Business Group Head manager Ato Deriba

Girma, teachers, Mr. Adissu Terefe and Mss Wubit Endalkachew and the
students for their willingness to provide me data regarding my practical work. I would also like to thank Hawassa university technology faculty department of electrical and computer engineering for giving permission paper to work Industry internship course in the company. Our deepest thank also goes to our friends who have a little contributed in all aspects of the successful of this project .We also assisted the computer use system.

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012

3.

INTRODUCTION

This report has been written in order to present the practical work I have been done during my internship. It was requested by the department of electrical and computer engineering. This report describe about the general concept of electrical installation which includes residential electrical installation and industrial electrical installation. Under residential electrical installation we have explained some important tools, materials, protective devices and their applications. This report also describes the basic residential electrical installation wiring. Under this residential electrical installation the report includes the layout and wiring diagram of controlling light from one position, two positions, three positions and the types of switch required for this purpose. The description of electric Bell & Socket and their wiring & layout diagram is also included in the report. Under industrial installation I have explained motor, motor controlling, direct on line starter motor and its power & control circuit diagram. We have also explained the connection and operation principle of DOL. I have explained forwardreverse connection of DOL motor and its power & control circuit diagram and its operational principle. We have also explained sequential starter motor, the power and control circuit diagram of two sequential motor and its connection & operation principle.

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012

4. BACK GROUND
It is obvious that higher educational institutions are sending senior class degree program students to various institutions for industrial internship course. The student can do this practical training in any organization either governmental or non governmental organization, which has works electrical engineering or related fields. This on job training is done after completing the third year courses for TVET electrical engineering

students of Hawassa University.


The main objective of this program is to expose the senior students to the real job world and assist them to acquire problem solving practical skills and knowledge in their area of study. It is also serves as a means to get feed backs from different institutions and the students for reviewing and producing a dynamic curriculum.

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012

5. OBJECTIVE
The objectives of this report are: To describe what I have accomplished for the community oriented practical education (COPE) course during our internship. present the practical activity I have performed during our internship for the Department To prepare reference that contains basic description and instruction of electrical installation for the reader. To highlight the knowledge and skills we have gained from the internship for reader. To recommend the department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. To express our best gratitudes for those persons who help us. .

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012

6. DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT


DURING THE INDUSTRY INTERNSHIP SESSION
Electrical installations may not mean anything to you. Let us first try and see what this means. An Electrical installations according to the EI Wiring Regulations, is an Assembly of associated electrical equipment to fulfill a specific purpose and having certain Co-ordinate characteristics. Electrical installation is a task which usually requires an experienced electrician to ensure a safe environment is maintained in your home or business. EI Work provides full coverage for all current Electrical Installation courses, suitable for college students and modern apprentices. EI Work covers both theory and practice for the trainee who wants to understand not only how, but why electrical installations are designed, installed and tested in particular ways .The material includes major sections on safe electrical site working, inspection, testing and certification, diagnosis and repair of electrical faults. Wiring safety codes are intended to protect people and buildings from electrical shock and fire hazards. This scheme is designed to allow members to self-certify the electrical installation work they carry out only within the context of their primary work activity. The time required for electrical installation work is reduced and the productivity of labor in such work is raised primarily through the use of industrial methods of installing electrical equipment and through the delivery to construction sites of structures for the installation of wiring and elements of electric wiring in consolidated sub-assemblies and units, which are fabricated and assembled in electrical-installation prefabrication shops. 6.1. TOOLS AND MATERIALS USED IN ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION 6.1.1. Tools used in electrical installation

Electrical installation work requires some very specialized tools and equipment such as:-screwdriver, pliers, diagonal cutters, wire strippers, meters and continuity tester. Prepared by: Asmare Yenealem Page 6

Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 A .Screwdriver:- It is used to tighten or loosen screws, which fasten components like Out lets to the wall. It is an important hand-held tool. B. Pliers; - The two most common pliers are the side-cutting pliers and needle-nose Pliers. These are used to grip, hold or bend wires. - Needle-Nose Pliers:- It is used for bending bare electrical wire ends before You attach them to screw terminals located on switches, outlets and circuit breakers. C. Diagonal Cutter: - It likes jaws that run diagonally to the handle. These particular pliers cut through wires or even small screws. D. Wire Stripper:- It is used to remove the insulation from the end of a cut wire without damaging the conductor.

E. Meters:- In order to make sure electrical installation complies with electrical regulations, testing equipment is used. Ammeters measure electrical current in amperes and voltmeters measure the electrical difference of two points. ohmmeter measures electrical resistance in ohms.

F. Continuity Tester: - It is one of those special tools used in electrical work. This piece of equipment tests for whether current is passing from one terminal to another. A continuity tester becomes very valuable when you are looking for short circuits or improper grounding. 6.1.2 Materials used in electrical installation

Some of the basic materials used in electrical installation are Conduit, Junction box, wire & cable etc. A. Conduit An electrical conduit is an electrical piping system used for protection of electrical wiring. Electrical conduit may be made of metal, plastic, fiber, or fired clay. The term Prepared by: Asmare Yenealem Page 7

Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 "conduit" is commonly used by electricians to describe any system that contains electrical conductors, but the term has a more restrictive definition when used in wiring regulations. Electrical conduit provides very good protection to enclosed conductors from impact, moisture, and chemical vapors. Varying numbers, sizes, and types of conductors can be pulled into a conduit, which simplifies design and construction compared to multiple runs of cables or the expense of customized composite cable. A conduit body is used to provide access to wires placed within conduit. This differs from a junction box, which both allows access for pulling wires and space for splices.

Types of conduit
Conduit systems are classified in to two based on the material used to make the tubing. These are

1. Rigid conduit
Rigid conduit is un threaded tubing. RC is approved for use under most conditions and in most locations. Although RC is generally the most expensive type of wiring installation, its inherent strength permits installation without running boards and provides additional damage protection. Its capacity facilitates carrying more conductors in one run than in any other system, and its rigidity permits installation with fewer supports than the other types of wiring systems. Moreover, the size of conduit used in the system's installation usually provides for the addition of several more conductors in the conduit when additional circuits and outlets are required in the run.

2. Flexible conduit
The flexible tubing does not maintain any permanent bend.FC allows you to install wiring in areas where rigid conduits are difficult to place. Flexible Conduit is typically used in dry areas where it would be difficult or impractical to use rigid conduit. FC is made Prepared by: Asmare Yenealem Page 8

Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 of self-interlocked ribbed strips of aluminum or steel that forms a hollow tube through which wires can be pulled. Installing FC is a simple and straight forward task, but is one that requires knowledge of existing local and national electrical codes that safeguard its application.

B. JUNCTION BOX A junction box is a box used only for connecting wires together. Junction boxes are metal or plastic, where wires go to live when they are joined together. An electrical junction box is a container for electrical connections. It sometimes includes terminals for joining wires. Junction boxes form an integral part of a circuit protection system where circuit integrity has to be provided, as for emergency lighting or emergency power lines. A JB is an electrical box used to run multiple conductors in two or more directions to bring power to various electrical devices. JBs are required to be installed so they are always accessible; Never install a junction box in a concealed wall or ceiling space where is can not be accessed in the future. Wire connectors (wire nuts) and wire lengths take up a lot of space in a box. JB can be used to connect additional sockets to circuits, add lighting points, extend circuits. They are a way of getting power from an existing source and taking it some where else. They can also be used for repairs. Symbol of junction box

C. WIRE AND CABLE

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 Wire and cable Standards are intended to be compatible with the installation requirements of the Electrical installation. Wire or cable varies according to the actual conditions under which the cable will operate.

Wire
Electrical wiring in general refers to insulated conductors used to carry electricity. The wire is the conductor used in electrical installment. It is usually located inside a cable for easy and safe use. Copper and tinned copper are the most commonly used wires today, because they have low resistance and low cost. Wire is measured by its diameter and grouped by gauge number. The smaller the number is, the thicker the wire. For home use the common gauges are 10 and 20. Larger wires carry more current. So be careful not to push too much power into your appliance with a wire that is too big. This will cause burning of fuses or even the electric appliance may be ruined. Symbol of wire

Cable
A cable contains two or more wires or conductors wrapped together in one jacket. It has a hot or positive in it to carry the current and a neutral line to complete the loop. Often the third wire is also there to act as a ground wire. The cable is classified according to the number of wires it contains and their gauge. The cable is marked with letters and numbers that indicate the type of insulation the wires and the cable have. the resistance of the wires in the cable and the number of conductor in the cable are also marked by numbers. A cable has a hot or positive in it to carry the current and a neutral line to complete the loop. Often the third wire is also there to act as a ground wire. It's a backup path to ground in the event of a short. Grounding wires provide a low resistance path from the electrical appliance to the ground, thus protecting the user against electrical shocks. Two conductor cable: it contains a black hot wire and a white neutral wire.

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 Three conductors cable: Contains black and red hot wires that must be fused, each carrying an 110V current, and a white neutral wire. This is the most common cable for home wiring because it accommodates the 220v homes usually require. 6.2 PROTECTIVE DEVICES These devices used to protect damage to the various parts of an electrical circuit, Wiring system, Apparatuses etc. Over current protection devices are essential in electrical systems to limit threats to human life and property damage. A motor protection device includes a detection unit for detecting an operating state of a motor and outputting a detection signal; a reference unit for generating a variable reference signal; a discriminating unit for comparing the detection signal with the variable reference signal to discriminate whether the motor is in an abnormal condition; and a protection unit that receives a result of discrimination from the discriminating unit and limits a driving current for the motor when the motor is in an abnormal condition. The motor protection device is characterized in that the reference unit adjusts the variable reference signal according to a motor rotation detection signal, so that the motor rotation detection signal and the detection signal are used synchronously in discriminating whether the motor is in an abnormal condition, and the motor in an abnormal condition may be doubly protected. Some of these protective devices are described as follow:

a. Circuit Breaker CB is a protective device that opens a circuit upon sensing a current overload. An electromagnetic device that opens a circuit automatically when the current exceeds a predetermined value. The CB is found in an electrical service panel and is an electrical device used to protect the electrical wiring from an overloaded (over current) condition when exposed to more electrical current than it is designed to handle. Similar in function to an electrical fuse which will blow when overloaded, the circuit breaker will turn off or

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 "trip" when in an over current condition. However, unlike the fuse which is rendered useless when it blows, the circuit breaker is not damaged when it trips, and can be reset. During abnormal conditions, when excessive current develops, a circuit breaker opens to protect equipment and surroundings from possible damage due to excess current. These abnormal currents are usually the result of short circuits created by lightning, accidents, deterioration of equipment, or sustained overloads. The advantage of a CB is that it can be reset after it has been tripped; a fuse must be replaced after it has been used once. When a current supplies enough energy to operate a trigger device in a breaker, a pair of contacts conducting the current is separated by preloaded springs or some similar mechanism. b. Fuse A fuse is a type of sacrificial over current protection device. Its essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows, which interrupts the circuit in which it is connected. Short circuit, overload or device failure is often the reason for excessive current. A fuse interrupts excessive current so that further damage by overheating or fire is prevented. Wiring regulations often define a maximum fuse current rating for particular circuits. Fuses are selected to allow passage of normal current and of excessive current only for short periods. A fuse consists of a metal strip or wire fuse element, of small cross-section compared to the circuit conductors, mounted between a pair of electrical terminals. The fuse is arranged in series to carry all the current passing through the protected circuit. The resistance of the element generates heat due to the current flow. Symbol of fuse c. Relay Relays are electro mechanical devices and basically consist of an electro magnet and a number of contact sets. It connected to various points of an electrical system, to detect abnormal conditions occurring within their assigned areas. They initiate disconnection of the trouble area by circuit breakers. These relays range from the simple overload unit on Prepared by: Asmare Yenealem Page 12

Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 house circuit breakers to complex systems used to protect extra high-voltage power transmission lines. They operate on voltage, current, current direction, power factor, power, impedance, temperature. In all cases there must be a measurable difference between the normal or tolerable operation and the intolerable or unwanted condition. System faults for which the relays respond are generally short circuits between the phase conductors, or between the phases and grounds. During abnormal conditions, when excessive current develops, a circuit breaker opens to protect equipment and surroundings from possible damage due to excess current. These abnormal currents are usually the result of short circuits created by lightning, accidents, deterioration of equipment, or sustained overloads.

d. Contactor A contactor is an electrically controlled switch used for switching a power circuit, similar to a relay except with higher current ratings. Unlike a circuit breaker, a contractor is not intended to interrupt a short circuit current. Contactors typically have multiple contacts, and those contacts are usually (but not always) normally-open, so that power to the load is shut off when the coil is de-energized. Perhaps the most common industrial use for contactors is the control of electric motors. A contactor is a large relay, usually used to switch current to an electric motor or other high-power load. Large electric motors can be protected from over current damage through the use of overload heaters and overload contacts. If the series-connected heaters get too hot from excessive current, the normally-closed overload contact will open, de-energizing the contactor sending power to the motor. A contactor can be defined as follow: A device for repeatedly opening and closing electrical circuits. A relay-type device in a spa's electrical circuit which controls power to another device. A switch that can repeatedly cycle, making and breaking an electrical circuit. When sufficient current flows through a coil built into the contactor, the resulting magnetic

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 Field causes the contacts to be pulled in. An electro-mechanical device operated by an electric coil; it allows automatic or Remote operation to repeatedly establish or interrupt an electrical power circuit.

The difference between relay and contactor


Contactor is not a sensing device. On the other hand Relay is the device which senses the abnormality & gives command accordingly. Relay differentiate normal & abnormal condition which contactor cannot. The only difference is that relays are usually used for low voltage applications while contactors are used for higher voltage application. Contactors usually have Overload protection. e. Grounding wire A GW is a wire that is literally connected to the earth. This wire acts as a backup wire in case a neutral wire fails. Without a ground wire, the risk of electrical shock becomes a viable possibility. GWs are usually green or yellow in color in order to differentiate between neutral wires and hot wires. Each electrical circuit inside of a home has two types of wire: hot and neutral. In most instances, a ground wire is connected to a circuit breaker. When a neutral wire is no longer functional, the ground wire will trip the corresponding circuit breaker. When a circuit breaker has been activated, any electrical current is immediately stopped. If the neutral wire was somehow broken or interrupted, you would be electricity's shortest path back to the earth, so the ground wire is like an insurance policy to carry the current back so you don't get shocked in case the neutral wire fails.

Grounding system has three main purposes: 1. over voltage protection: Lightning, line surges or unintentional contact with higher voltage lines can cause dangerously high voltages to the electrical distribution system wires. Grounding provides Prepared by: Asmare Yenealem Page 14

Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 an alternative path around the electrical system of your home or workplace minimizes damage from such occurrences. 2. Voltage stabilization: There are many sources of electricity. Every transformer can be considered a separate source. If there were not a common reference point for all these voltage sources it would be extremely difficult to calculate their relationships to each other. The earth is the most conductive surface, and so it was adopted in the very beginnings of electrical distribution systems as a nearly universal standard for all electric systems.

3. Current path In order to facilitate the operation of over current devices .this purpose of grounding is the most important one to understand. Grounding system provides certain level of safety to humans and property in case of equipment damages. 6.3. TYPES OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION I have seen two types of Electrical Installation. These are residential electrical installation and industrial electrical installation. 6.3.1. RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Residential electrical installation is defined as the activity of wiring in the walls of your house that supplies electricity to the outlets and appliances. REI involves wiring of light control circuit, electric bell circuit, and electric socket. Safety is a key issue when doing residential electrical installation especially when a repair calls for messing around with live wires, outlets, ceiling fans installations or light fixtures. If you are working on any sort of wiring project, it is important to use the right wiring and connectors. For example, inside wiring that stays warm and dry will not be safe to use in external outlets where water can be a hazard. Poorly done wiring work can cause fires and electrical shocks. Normally, you Prepared by: Asmare Yenealem Page 15

Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 can ask at the shop when you buy your supplies to make sure that your wiring will be safe. REI works construction quality management involves many aspects, and from start to finish throughout the whole process of installation and construction. 6.3.1.1. Electrical light installation Electric lights are used both at night and to provide additional light during the daytime. These lights are normally powered by the electric power, but some run on local generators, and emergency generators serve as backups in hospitals and other locations where a loss of power could be catastrophic. Battery-powered lights, usually called "flashlights" or "torches", are used for portability and as backups when the main lights fail. Electrical light installation deals with wiring to control lamp. A lamp is a replaceable component such as an incandescent light bulb, which is designed to produce light from electricity. These components usually have a base of ceramic, metal, glass or plastic, which makes an electrical connection in the socket of a light fixture. This connection may be made with a screw-thread base, two metal pins, two metal caps or a bayonet cap. Symbol of incandescent lamp

6.3.1.1.1. Electric Lighting Controls Electric lighting controls are appropriate for a wide variety of spaces, from restrooms to large open offices, from conference rooms to classrooms. They can be incorporated with day lighting to provide flexibility, energy savings, and ecological benefits. Although lighting controls are still most commonly used in commercial buildings, they are also increasingly being used in residential applications. ELCs are used in lighting design projects to achieve a high quality energy efficient lighting system. When electric lighting controls are used properly, energy will be saved and the life of lamps and wires can be extended. Lighting controls will help reduce energy by: Reducing the amount of power used during the peak demand period by Prepared by: Asmare Yenealem Page 16

Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 automatically dimming lights or turning them off when they are not needed. Reducing the number of hours per year that the lights are on. Allowing occupants to use controls to lower light levels and save energy. The most common form of electric lighting control is the on/off "toggle" switch. Standard on/off switches and relays can be used to turn groups of lights on and off together. Creative design options can be developed with this simple tool, if the circuiting is properly designed. For example, some of the lamps in each fixture can b switched together, every other fixture can be switched as a group, or lighting near the windows can be turned off when daylight is plentiful.

6.3.1.1.1.1. Controlling light by switch A switch is a device that can connect and disconnect an electric circuit. It starts or stops current from passing through in order to turn electrical objects on and off. An ES is any device used to interrupt the flow of electrons in a circuit. Switches are essentially binary devices: they are either completely on ("closed") or completely off ("open"). Switch, electrical device having two states: on, or closed; and off, or open. Ideally a switch offers zero impedance to a current when it is closed, and it offers infinite impedance when open. Light switches are installed at convenient locations to control lighting and occasionally other circuits. By use of multiple-pole switches, control of a lamp can be obtained from two or more places, such as the ends of a corridor or stairwell. In electronics, a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical device with one or more sets of electrical contacts. Each set of contacts can be in one of two states: either 'closed' meaning

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 the contacts are touching and electricity can flow between them, or 'open', meaning the contacts are separated and non conducting. A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system, such as a computer keyboard button, or to control power flow in a circuit, such as a light switch. A light switch is a switch, most commonly used to operate electric lights, permanently connected equipment, or electrical outlets.
Depending on the arrangement of their contact points light control switches are classified as:-

1. One way switch 2. Two -way switch 3. Intermediate switch 4. Gang switch 5. Dimmer switch Such switches are used to operate the electric lamps at home. 1. ONE WAY SWITCH It is a simple on-off switch: The two terminals are either connected together or not connected to anything. An example is a light switch. A one way switch electrical circuit is the most basic form of switching circuit. It is centered on a single-pole single-throw (SPST) switch, which has two positions. One creates a break in a circuit while the other closes the circuit allowing current to flow freely. The other two basic components of the one way switch circuit are a power supply and a device to be operated with the switch. This type of circuit is used for almost any lighting circuit, and it is also the circuit used for a doorbell. The door bell is a special type of SPST switch known as a momentary switch. Designing and building a one way switching circuit is easy once you understand its basic construction. A single-pole switch controls only one outlet or built-in fixture from one location, say your bedside lamp or overhead fan. It will have two screws of the same color holding in place two black (hot) wires. There are numerous lighting circuits within the home, all designed to do a similar job, provide light as and when required. Depending on what is needed and where the main Prepared by: Asmare Yenealem Page 18

Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 components of the circuit are in relation to each other will help determine the method of connecting them all together. One way is to use the in-line method

Symbol of one way switch Instruction how to connect one way switch: 1 .Connect a wire from the positive terminal of the power source to one terminal on the switch. Since the switch is always either on or off, the terminal you use does not matter. 2. Run a wire from the second terminal of the switch to the positive terminal of the device the switch controls. In the case of a light bulb circuit, the wire would be connected to the positive terminal of the bulb socket. 3 .Connect a wire from the negative terminal of the device (light bulb socket) to the negative terminal of the power supply. 4 .Light bulb, the result of a switch in the "ON" position Operate the device by switching between the two positions on the switch. In the light bulb example, one position will send power to the bulb, illuminating it, and the other position will break the signal path, keeping the light OFF.

2 2 2 2

FIG 1 LAY OUT DIAGRAM OF ONE WAY SWITCH

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012

N P NN NN NN

FIG 2, WIRE DIAGRAM OF ONE WAY SWITCH

2. TWO WAY SWITCH It is the switch that has single pole double through (three terminals).The common terminal is connected to the phase line from the source. The outer terminals are connected to the outer of another two-way switch or an intermediate switch. The common terminal is either connected to one or the other outer terminal. It is used when the lamp is to be controlled from three positions. A two-way electrical switch can have multiple uses in a home environment. For example, you can use this device to install a dimmer slider that operates not just the light, but also a ceiling fan. Installing a two-way electrical switch is not a difficult job to do you. The following article will show you how to install a simple two-way electrical switch. An electrical control module to provide both remote and wall-operated switching for an electrical device such as a lamp. The control module includes a receptacle for the lamp plug, a remote on/off switch and a plug for insertion into the outlet connected to the wall on/off switch for the lamp. A power input is provided for the control module either from Prepared by: Asmare Yenealem Page 20

Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 the wall outlet receptacle or from a separate receptacle. There are first and second relays within the control module which are effective to provide for independent on/off switching of the lamp by either the remote switch or the wall switch. Symbol of two way switch

Instruction how to connect two way switches: 1. Connect the wire from the positive terminal of the power source to the common terminal of the two way switch. 2. Connect the wire from the outer terminals of the first two way switch to the outer terminals of the other switch. 3. Connect the wire from the common terminal of the second two way switch to the lamp. 4. Connect the neutral wire from the power source directly to the lamp.

2 2 2 3 33 3 3

FIG 3, LAY OUT DIAGRAM OF TWO WAY SWITCH

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012

N P

FIG 4, WIRE DIAGRAM OF TWO WAY SWITCH

3. INTERMEDIATE SWITCH It is the switch that has double pole double through (four terminals).The first two terminals are connected to the outer terminals of the first two-way switch while the other two terminals are connected either to the outer terminals of the second two-way switch or to another intermediate switch. It is used when lamp is to be controlled from four positions. An intermediate switch is used to provide an extra level of control over and above twoway switching (two switches controlling one light - usually in a hall/landing set up with one switch upstairs and one downstairs). An intermediate switch sits between the two "end" switches and gives an extra level of control for Two way Switching - Two intermediate switches between the end switches will give 4 way switching & there is no limit - if you wanted you could have 100 way switching with 98 intermediate switches. You can not arrange two way switching with just one regular switch and one intermediate switch. An intermediate switch is a switch of 4 terminals which is used to control devices from more than 2 locations. If you want to control a device (e.g. lamp) from one location you use a normal switch, The middle switch is the intermediate switch. Basically is works just like a 2-way except that the switch has 4 connections in the circuit. For more than two locations, two of the interconnecting wires must be passed through an intermediate switch, wired to swap them over. Any number of intermediate switches can be inserted, allowing for any number of locations. This requires two wires along the sequence of switches. Prepared by: Asmare Yenealem Page 22

Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 An intermediate light switch is a product that has 4 terminals, which allows customers to be able to control devices from more than 2 locations. Some nice easy example below to help you understand how the intermediate switch works compared with other light switches.

Controlling a Lamp from 1 location You will need a normal light switch (Switch will have 2 terminals behind it) Controlling a Lamp from 2 location You will need a 2 way Light Switch (Switch will have 3 terminals behind it) Controlling a Lamp from more Locations An intermediate Switch is required working together with a 2-way or intermediate switch A nice practical example to help put the use of an intermediate light switch into context A building that has 2 floors, will have a 3 Gang (3 switch) light switch on the ground floor operating the following light bulbs. Ground floor light Bulb First Floor Light Bulb Second Floor Light Bulb Now you will need to be able to control On or Off at the above locations. To achieve this you will need to use an intermediate light switch in between the two, 2-way light switches. Switches by the living room, bedroom and front doors, any one of which operates the same light. Symbol of intermediate switch

Instruction how to connect intermediate switch: 1. Connect the wire from the positive terminal of the power source to the common Page 23

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 terminal of the first two way switch. 2. Connect the wires from the outer terminals of the two way switch to the two terminals of the intermediate switch. 3. Connect the wires from the other two terminals of the intermediate switch to the outer terminals of the other switch. 4. Connect the wire from the common terminal of the two way switch to the lamp. 5. Connect the neutral wire from the power source directly to the lamp. 2

2 3

3 4

3 3

FIG 5 LAY OUT DIAGRAM OF INTERMEDIATE SWITCH

N P

FIG 6, WIRE DIAGRAM OF INTERMEDIATE SWITCH

4. DIMMER SWITCH Dimmers are devices used to vary the brightness of a light. By decreasing or increasing the RMS voltage and hence the power to the lamp it is possible to Prepared by: Asmare Yenealem Page 24

Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 vary the intensity of the light output. A light switch which can adjust the brightness of the switched lamp from dim to bright, as well as turning it on and off; A switch that changes the headlamps on a motor vehicle from low to high and from high to low beam; a high-beam switch; a bright switch that allows light levels to be controlled at various gradations from dim to bright. A device which gradually increases and decreases light intensity by regulating the amount of electrical power delivered to the lamp. An effective way to quickly change the mood of a room is by dimming or brightening the light. Brighter lighting is more suitable for normal room use and reading. An easy way to control your lighting is to install a dimmer switch. 5. GANG SWITCH A combination of two or more switches mounted on a common shaft to permit operation by a single control. Like a two-way switch, it is also a three terminal switch. It has single pole double through. Unlike two-way switch, both outer terminals can be connected to the common terminal at the same time. Since each outer terminal is connected to different lamp or lamps, it is used to control some lamps selectively, i.e. it is used to switch one or more lamps. A collection of switches connected to separate circuits and operating simultaneous. Symbol of gang switch

Instruction how to connect Gang switch: 1. Turn off the breaker that powers the feed line in the wall box. Always double check the line with a voltage tester to ensure that you've turned off the correct breaker. 2. Connect the wire from the positive terminal of the power source to the common terminal of the gang switch. 3. Connect the wire from the remaining two terminals of the gang switch to the lamps 4. Connect the neutral wire from the power source directly to the lamp or lamps. Prepared by: Asmare Yenealem Page 25

Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 5. Install the cover plate and turn the circuit back on. 6. Test your switch to make sure it works properly by turning each switch ON and OFF.

2 2 3

FIG, 7, LAY OUT DIAGRAM OF GANG SWITCH

N P

FIG 8, WIRE DIAGRAM OF GANG SWITCH

6.3.1.2. ELECTRICAL SOCKET Sockets are devices for removable connecting electrically operated devices to the power supply. It is a receptacle into which an electric device can be inserted. Electric socket is a Prepared by: Asmare Yenealem Page 26

Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 socket into which a light bulb can be inserted. When using a socket adapter, dont attach a long line of extension cords to the socket. This can easily overload the socket.

Symbol of electric socket Instruction to connect electric socket 1. Select the right socket for the job. Your socket set may include a dozen or more sockets: small cylinders with a square on one side and a hexagon on the other 2. Attach the socket by sliding the square hole in the socket onto the square knob on the lever. You should hear a click when it's fully in place. 3. Select direction. Directly opposite where you attached the socket, you will see a switch that sets the socket wrench for loosening or tightening.

2 2

FIG 9, Lay out diagram of electrical socket N P

FIG10, Wiring diagram of electrical socket 6.3.1.3. ELECTRICAL BELL An EB is a mechanical bell that functions by means of an electromagnet. When an electric current is applied, it produces a repetitive buzzing or clanging sound. EBs are

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 widely used in fire and burglar alarms, as school bells, doorbells, and alarms in industrial plants. A doorbell is a signaling device typically placed near a door. Most doorbells emit a ringing sound to alert the occupant of the building to a visitor's presence, when the visitor presses a button. When the switch is pushed 'on', current flows through the coil. The coil becomes an electromagnet, attracting the metal strip. This moves the clanger to hit the bell, but also breaks the circuit. The coil is no longer magnet, so the clangor moves back. The circuit is thus restored. The bell keeps ringing until the switch is released. The bell which is often in the shape of a cup or half-sphere, is struck by a spring loaded arm with a metal ball on the end called a clapper , actuated by an electromagnet . In its rest position the clapper is held away from the bell a short distance by its springy arm. When an electric current is passed through the winding of the electromagnet it creates a magnetic field that attracts the iron arm of the clapper, pulling it over to give the bell a tap. This opens a pair of electrical contacts attached to the clapper arm, interrupting the current to the electromagnet. The magnetic field of the electromagnet collapses, and the clapper springs away from the bell. This closes the contacts again, allowing the current to flow to the electromagnet again, so the magnet pulls the clapper over to strike the bell again. This cycle repeats rapidly, many times per second, resulting in a continuous ringing. The bell is worked by push button. Symbol of electric bell

6.3.1.3.1. BUSH BUTTON A push button is a modified structure of a switch, which is serviceable or operating when the finger is on the button. (push button) or simply button is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a process. Buttons are typically made out of hard material, usually plastic or metal. The surface is usually flat or shaped to accommodate the human finger or hand, so as to be easily depressed or pushed. Buttons are most often biased switches, though even many Un-biased buttons (due to their physical

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 nature) require a spring to return to their un-pushed state. Different people use different terms for the "pushing" of the button, such as press, depress, mash, and punch. The push button switch may come in a variety of configurations on how the circuit is activated and cut. This kind of switch is a dual position device that can be pressed and released. Some types of push button switches are equipped with a spring mechanism that enables the button to return to its original position when the circuit is turned on. The button can be pressed again to turn the circuit off. Push button switches are mechanical switches defined by the method used to activate the switch. The activation method is typically in the form of a plunger that is pushed down to open or close the switch. Prior to the toggle switch a popular design was the push-button switch, composed of a depressed button oriented below or beside a raised button. Pushing the raised button opens or closes the contacts while popping out the previously depressed button so the process can be reversed. A switch that makes or breaks the connection of two circuit conductors in a single branch circuit. This switch typically has four terminals. Push-button (also spelled push button) or simply button is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a process. Buttons are typically made out of hard material, usually plastic or metal. The surface is usually flat or shaped to accommodate the human finger or hand, so as to be easily depressed or pushed. Buttons are most often biased switches, though even many un-biased buttons (due to their physical nature) require a spring to return to their UNpushed state. In industrial and commercial applications, push buttons can be linked together by a mechanical linkage so that the act of pushing one button causes the other button to be released. Push buttons are often color-coded to associate them with their function so that the operator will not push the wrong button in error.

Symbol of bush button

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The layout and wiring diagram electric bell is shown as follow

2 2 22 FIG 11, Layout diagram FIG 12, Wiring diagram

N P

INDOOR LIGHTING DESINGN When we design lighting we should consider the personal preference of the family members. The quantity of light reaching a certain surface is usually the main consideration in designing a lighting system. The lumen method is used to determine the number of lamps that should be installed for a given area or room.

Typical design procedure


Determine the required Illuminance Select the type of Luminaire Prepared by: Asmare Yenealem Page 30

Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 Calculate the room index RI Calculate the effective reflectances, C, W, F Determine UF(F) from table Determine the LLF from lamp data and maintenance tables Calculate the number of luminaires Determine a practical layout Check the maximum SHR is not exceeded Calculate the actual Illuminance levels achieved.

ILLUMINATION The term illumination means to supply or brighten up with light or lighting. Lightning represent a key component of energy utilization, counting for a noteworthy portion of all energy used across the globe. Appropriate lighting can improve task performance where as there can be energy wastage and unfavorable health effects of lighting. Interior lighting is a kind of fixture or furnishing, and is a chief component of interior designing. Lighting fixtures come in varies styles and forms depending on their functions. Lighting Design Guide Designing a basic lighting scheme requires the consideration of many factors, not just the achievement of a desired lighting level. Basic objectives must first be established, such as:

What sort of tasks will be performed in the area? What 'mood' needs to be created? What type of lighting will create a comfortable environment? Lumen method calculation The method is a commonly used technique of lighting design, which is valid, if the light fittings are to be mounted overhead in a regular pattern.

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 The luminous flux output (lumens) of each lamp needs to be known as well as details of the luminaries and the room surface. This method uses the utilization factor tables created from photometric measurement of each luminaries. Firstly, the Room Index (K) of the space must be calculated, which is the relationship and measure of the proportions of the room:
K= LxW (L + W) x Hm

Where: L = length of room W = width of room Hm = height of luminaire above working plane The result is used in conjunction with room reflectance values to obtain a specific utilization factor for the surface illuminated from the tables. Example: This can then be used as part of the calculation to determine the average illuminance level, using the following formula: E = F x N x MF x UF A Where: E = average illuminance F = initial lamp lumens N = number of luminaires MF = maintenance factor UF = utilisation factor A = area The maintenance factor is a multiple of factors and is determined as follows MF = LLMF x LSF x LMF x RSMF Where:

LLMF = lamp lumen maintenance factor - the reduction in lumen output after specific burning hours LSF = lamp survival factor - the percentage of lamp failures after specific burning hours LMF = luminaire maintenance factor - the reduction in light output due to dirt deposited on or in the luminaire.

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The number of lamps is given by the formula:

number of lamps required. E = illuminance level required (lux) A = area at working plane height (m2) F = average luminous flux from each lamp (lm) UF= utilisation factor, an allowance for the light distribution of the luminaire and the room surfaces. MF= maintenance factor, an allowance for reduced light output because of deterioration and dirt. Example 1 A production area in a factory measures 60 metres x 24 metres. Find the number of lamps required if each lamp has a Lighting Design Lumen (LDL) output of 18,000 lumens. The illumination required for the factory area is 200 lux. Utilisation factor = 0.4 Lamp Maintenance Factor = 0.75
N

Where

Solution: N = N = N =

( 200 lux x 60m x 24m ) 53.33 54 lamps.

/ ( 18,000 lumens x 0.4 x 0.75 )

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Some of indoor electrical appliance, their position and diameter of wire they use:

Electric appliance Circuit breaker

Their position At the front entrance door At the place it can be clearly seen

Wire diameter Not specified

light switch

120 cm above the floor If the door opens to the left side the switch should be

1.5 mm square

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012


placed on the right side. socket 50 cm above the floor Near the corner or in the middle of the wall 2.5 mm square

lamps

Depends on different parameters such as: illumination, area, coefficient of utilization etc In kitchen On the corridor On the outer door of compound

1.5 mm square

stove Door bell Push button

2.5 mm square 1 mm square 1mm square

Table 1. The different types of electric circuit breaker used in residential electrical installations are shown in the following graph.

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N P P 16A 10A 5A

FIG 13

Where this symbol shows composite of circuit breaker.

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6.3.2. INDUSTRIAL INSTALLATION INTRODUCTION A device, system or piece of equipment installed for a particular industry. Industrial Installation Systems offers installation for all material handling storage systems. The industrial safety gates are common in big establishments such as government buildings and factories. Their main role is to help in controlling movements of people and objects. Many top manufacturers of these gates exist today. To discover the most appropriate barrier for your work place, you need to research. Many reviews exist online. They generally fit installation inside industrial units, warehouses, office premises, public institutions, government buildings and so on. You could request the builders to construct. These structures often help in better usage of available space by further subdividing it to allow establishment of other facilities. As a result, you have to be thorough when choosing the most suitable company to install your industrial safety gates. Even so, you have to think about your requirements comprehensively. For purposes of ensuring high safety standards in work areas such as office premises, industrial plants, warehouses, distribution stores and so on, installation of Industrial Safety Gates is inevitable. To discover more professional information visit Industrial Safety Gates. Some devices in industrial applications are Generator, Electric Motor.....etc. But we have seen only Motor. 6.3.2.1. MOTOR It is machine that creates motion: a machine that converts energy into motion and can be used as a power source, e.g. to drive another machine or to move a vehicle An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through interacting magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors to generate force, although a few use electrostatic forces. The reverse process, producing electrical energy from mechanical energy, is done by generators such as an alternator or a dynamo. Many types of electric motors can be run as generators, and vice versa. For example a starter/generator for a gas turbine, or traction motors used on vehicles, often perform both tasks. Prepared by: Asmare Yenealem Page 37

Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012

Symbol of motor.

6.3.2.1.1. MOTOR CONTROL A motor controller is a device or group of devices that serves to govern in some predetermined manner the performance of an electric motor. A MC might include a manual or automatic means for starting and stopping the motor, selecting forward or reverse rotation, selecting and regulating the speed, regulating or limiting the torque, and protecting against overloads and faults. Every electric motor has to have some sort of controller. The motor controller will have differing features and complexity depending on the task that the motor will be performing. The simplest case is a switch to connect a motor to a power source, such as in small appliances or power tools. The switch may be manually operated or may be a relay or contactor connected to some form of sensor to automatically start and stop the motor. The switch may have several positions to select different connections of the motor. This may allow reduced-voltage starting of the motor, reversing control or selection of multiple speeds. Overload and over current protection may be omitted in very small motor controllers, which rely on the supplying circuit to have over current protection. Small motors may have built-in over load devices to automatically open the circuit on overload. Larger motors have a protective overload relay or temperature sensing relay included in the controller and fuses or circuit breakers for over current protection. An automatic MC may also include limit switches or other devices to protect the driven machinery. The main motor controller devices are: 1- Start push button (S)

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 In electric when start push button is pressed it will start motor but as soon as release button it stop. A small motor can be started by simply plugging it into an electrical receptacle or by using a switch or circuit breaker. A larger motor requires a specialized switching unit called a motor starter or motor contactor. When energized, a direct on line (DOL) starter immediately connects the motor terminals directly to the power supply. A motor soft starter connects the motor to the power supply through a voltage reduction device and increases the applied voltage gradually or in steps. 2- Stop push button (O) It can "force" a start button to be released. This method of linkage is used in simple manual operations in which the machine or process have no electrical circuits for control. Commonly used colors are red for stopping the machine or process. Red push buttons can also have large heads (called mushroom heads) for easy operation and to facilitate the stopping of a machine. These push buttons are called emergency stop.

6.3.2.1.2 DIRECT ON LINE STARTING MOTOR In electrical engineering, a direct on line (DOL) or across the line starter starts electric motors by applying the full line voltage to the motor terminals. This is the simplest type of motor starter. A DOL motor starter also contain protection devices, and in some cases, condition monitoring. Smaller sizes of direct on-line starters are manually operated; larger sizes use an electromechanical cont-actor (relay) to switch the motor circuit.DOL has two circuit parts; A direct on line starter can be used if the high inrush current of the motor does not cause excessive voltage drop in the supply circuit. DOL is a widely-used starting method of electric motors. Since a DOL starter connects the motor terminals directly to the power supply, the motor is subjected to the full voltage of the power supply. Consequently, high starting current flows through the motor. This type of starting is suitable for small motors. The maximum size of a motor allowed on a direct on line starter may be limited by the supply utility for this reason. For example, a utility may require rural customers to use reduced-voltage starters for motors larger than 10 kW.

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 DOL starting is sometimes used to start small water pumps, compressors, fans and conveyor belts. In the case of an asynchronous motor, such as the 3-phase squirrel-cage motor, the motor will draw a high starting current until it has run up to full speed. This starting current is commonly around six times the full load current, but may be as high as 6 to 7 times the full load current. To reduce the inrush current, larger motors will have reduced-voltage starters or variable speed drives in order to minimize voltage drops to the power supply. DOL can be forward or reverse.

Instruction of connecting DOL motor 1. Connect one of the three phase lines from the source to the input terminal [1] of the Stop push button. 2. Connect the wire from the output terminal [2] of the stop push button to the input terminal [3] of the start push button. 3. Connect the wire from the output terminal [4] of the start push button to the coil (A1) on the contactor. 4. Shunt this start push button the auxiliary contactor. For this case, [3] of the start push button is connected to [13] of the auxiliary contactor and [4] of the start push button is connected to [14] of auxiliary contactor. 5. Connect the three phase lines from the source to the three input terminals [L1,L2,L3] of the contactor. 6. Connect the three input lines from the motor to the three output terminals [T1,T2,T3] of the contactor. 7. Connect the neutral line from the source to the coil [A2] on the contactor.

FIG 14, below shows the diagram of direct on line motor.

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L1 L2 L3 N

K1 1 O T1 T2 T3 1 2 3 S A1 A2 Power circuit 3OM 4

OLR

13 14

Control circuit

Where: S=start push button O=stop push button OLR=over load relay K=contactors coil A=coil terminals O =phase L=source terminal T=contactor terminals N =neutral

a. Control circuit

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 A type of circuit that uses control devices to determine when loads are energized or de-energized by controlling current flow. Control circuits usually carry lower voltages than power circuits b. Power circuit A type of circuit that carries power to electrical loads. Power circuits often carry high voltages and consist of incoming main power, a motor starter, and the motor. Operation principle of DOL motor Before pressing the start push button, the current through the three phase line could not pass to the motor. This is due to the fact that the contactor is normally open. After the start push button is pressed, the current from one of the three phase pass through the coil. This makes the coil to be energized. This energized coil attracts the armature of the contactor to close the normally opened contactor. After the contactor is closed, the three phase line current from the source passes to the motor. Then the motor starts to run. 6.3.2.1.2.1 .Forward and reverse connection of DOL motor Motor can run in either clockwise or counter clockwise direction. This can be achieved simply by changing any one two phase of the three phase line from the source. For this purpose we need two contactors. Such a starter contains two DOL circuits one for clockwise operation and the other for counter-clockwise operation, with mechanical and electrical interlocks to prevent simultaneous closure. For three phase motors, this is achieved by transposing any two phases. Single phase AC motors and direct-current motors require additional devices for reversing rotation. Forward DOL: - Forward travel is initiated by pressing push button according to the Speed required. Push button one switches on the feed motion via, Which maintains itself via its normally open contact? A motor control Circuit for forward rotation comprises a driving circuit.

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 Reverse DOL: diection Instruction to connect forward-reverse DOL motor 1.Connect one of the three input phase lines from the source to the input terminal of stop push button. 2. Connect the output wire from the stop push button to the input terminal of the first start push button. 3. Connect the input terminals of both start push button to each other. 4. Connect the output terminals of both start push button to each other. 5. Shunt the first start push button with the first auxiliary contactor. 6. Shunt the second start push button with the other auxiliary contactor. 7. Connect the output wire from the first start push button to the first coil (A1). 8. Connect the output wire from the other start push button to the second coil (A1). 9. Connect the three phase lines from the source to the three input terminals of one of the contactor. 10. Connect the reversed three phase lines from the source to the three input terminals of the other contactor. 11. Connect the three corresponding output terminals from both contactor to the three phase motor.12. Connect the neutral line from the source to both coils (A2). A reversing starter can connect the motor for rotation in either

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L1 L2 L3

K1

K2 OLR O 3 4 A1 A2 3 OM M 1 2 13 S A1 A2 3 4 14

Power circuit

Control circuit

FIG 15, Forward-reverse DOL motor connection.

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 Operation principles of forward-reverse DOL motor Since contactors are normally open the motor is not running before pressing any of the two start push button. Pressing the first contactor makes the first coil to be energized so that it attracts the first contactor. This makes the contactor to be closed so that the current through the three phase lines can pass to the motor. These three phase line currents make the motor to run forward. After pressing the stop push button, the coil de-energized and the armature of this contactor drops. This interrupts the three phase line currents so that the motor stop. Then pressing the second push button makes the second coil to be energized. This energized coil attracts the armature of the second contactor to close the path between the three phase lines from the source and the three input lines from the motor. Since two of the phase lines from the source are interchanged, the motor would run in the reverse direction. NB:-Since both start push buttons are directly connected to one of the three phases from the source, they can be used in any order. I.e. we can first start with the reverse start push button then with forward start push button. Or we can first start with forward start push button then with reverse start push button. NB:-The auxiliary contactor is used for self holding purpose of start push button. 6.3.2.1.2.2. Starting sequential DOL motors Two or more motors can be started one after another sequentially. In these cases, the running of the preceding motor is essential for the second motor to start. To achieve this start push button of the next motor should be connected to the wire from output of the preceding start push button. Sequence control of motor is required in the situation where it is necessary to start a particular motor first before the second motor can be started. This type of control is necessary where second machine before starting must have all the auxiliary equipment operating along the first motor. The sequential motor operation is necessary in industrial process.

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 Instruction to connect two sequential motor

1. Connect one of the three input phase lines from the source to the input terminal of Stop push button. 2. Connect the output wire from the stop push button to the input terminal of the first start push button. 3. Connect the output wire from the first start push button to the coil of first contactor (A1). 4. Shunt this start push button with the first contactor's auxiliary point [13,14]. 5. Connect the input of the second start push button to the output of the first start push button. 6. Connect the output wire from the second start push button to the coil of the second contactor (A1). 7. Shunt this start push button to the second contactor's auxiliary point [13,14]. 8. Connect the three input phase lines from the power source to the three input terminals of both contactors. 9. Connect the three output of each contactor to the three input terminals of each motor correspondingly. 10. Connect the neutral line from the power source to both coils (A2). NB: - A2 of any coil is directly connected to the neutral line from the source.

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012

L1

L2

L3

O K1 K2 S T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 3 4

1 2

A1 A2 A1 A2 3O M 3OM

3 4

Power circuit

Power circuit

Control circuit

Operation principle of two sequential DOL motor Since the contactor is normally open, the current from power source could not pass to any of the motor before pressing the first start push button. When the first start push button is pressed, current pass to the first coil. This makes the first coil to be energized. This energized coil attracts the armature of its contactor. This makes the contactor to be closed. As a result the three phase lines current passes from the source to the motor. Then the motor starts to run. Now when we press the second start push button, current pass to the second coil. This makes the coil to be energized. Then it attracts it's armature. Then current pass from the source to the second motor. Then the motor start to run.

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Report on College Internship hawassa university 2012 NB:-Unless the first start push button is pressed the current cannot pass to the second start push button.

7.

MAJOR PROBLEMS AND DESCRIPTIONS ENCOUNTERED


There are a lot of problems faced to do the practical internship. Some of problems

that I faced are: 1. From the administration of the department. The department couldn't give active and precious management, so that I could not start on time schedule. 2. Financial problems. The problems that highly affect our work is finance which is budgeted for the Internship covers only one third of the total cost of internship. 3. Discontinuity of the work. The client of the work is SBG provides the machinery and other selected material But the organization did not provide the required place with a required time. By these reason the work stopped after some weeks. These delaines causes the wastage of time and to gain less skill than we expect. 4. Availability of resource. We were working at the organization with the resource that not sufficient for the electrical installation. 5. Shortage of computer access is the other problem that faced us to write and gather information. 6. Shortage of reference is also the major problem to write the report.

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8.

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS GAINED DURING THE STAY

During our stay at the SELAM BUSINESS GROUP for the COPE course, we were assigned to work in the electrical installation and gained some knowledge and skills on the materials used, wiring system light controlling mechanism ,how to deal with motor and their basic operation. Additionally we have also acquired: Skills on the social interaction of workers in the organization. Knowledge to understand the rules and regulation under taken at a Work place. We have also seen some theoretical knowledges we have learned are applicable in different fields of works. How to solve the problem that faced at the industry. How to plan electrical installation. We know the practices that involved in installation process.

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9.

SUMMERY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary
We have been worked in SBG for two months practicing in Electrical engineering internship. During my stay in the industry I `have got the chance to observe, learn and engage in the practical activity of Electrical installation Electrical installation is an Assembly of associated electrical equipment to fulfill a specific purpose and having certain Co-ordinate characteristics. Electrical installation work requires specialized tools and equipment such as:-screwdriver, pliers, diagonal cutters, wire strippers, meters, continuity tester etc. And use materials such as conduit, Junction box, wire & cable and also use the devices like lamp, socket, electrical bell, switch etc Electrical installation is protected by the protective device such as:-contactor, fuse, circuit breaker, relay and grounding wire. Electrical installation can be broadly classified as residential and industrial installation. Residential electrical installation is the activity of wiring in the walls of your house that supplies electricity to the outlets and appliances. This installation includes wiring to control lamps from different position, connecting electric bell and electric socket. Industrial installation is the same as residential electrical installation except that it uses higher current and voltage consumption. This installation includes connecting DOL, FR, and sequential starter motor. Generally, the internship was so interesting and very crucial for technology students because the skill that we gained from the practical internship is very interesting. Prepared by: Asmare Yenealem Page 50

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Recommendation
I would like to give recommendation for both the department and host organization as follows: For the department The internship should be start immediately at given time schedule in order to manage students time properly.
The department also should have to arrange some other means for the students

to see the practical environments in addition to the COPE course. The department should have better interaction with the host organization so that they are willing to assist students. The number of students that sent to one organization should be reduced.
It is better if the students are sent to an organization that performs practical

activity related to their focus area. For the host organization The host organization should consider that this on job training familiars students with their requirement skill. It helps them to employ a good trained work force for best performance of the job. This could minimize the cost that they could pay for short day training of their worker. So they should give the necessary assistance for the students to familiarize with the real world work.

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References
I have used reference to write this report from: 1. http://www.google.com.et 2. Ray C.Mullin, 15th EDITION, ELECTIRICAL WIRING RESIDENTIAL

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