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Subject Matter Jurisdiction USC 1331 federal courts will hear cases which have to do with the constitution

n or United States laws and treaties USC 1332 federal courts will hear cases in which there is diversity of citizenship (parties come from different states, must domiciled there with the intent to reside permanently) and there is more than $75,000 at issue, excluding costs and fees Article III section 2 says nothing of the $75,000 requirement, congress has the power to limit Article III section 2 Facial motion on the face of the claim, there is a lack of jurisdiction General jurisdiction courts of general jurisdiction can hear any sort of claim between any persons unless there is legal authority forbidding that they hear it Limited jurisdiction courts of limited jurisdiction can only hear specific kinds of claims as authorized by statute that set that court up to deal with a specific area of law; all federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction Original jurisdiction where a certain courts have power to hear a case before any other court does (i.e. district court before appellate court) Concurrent jurisdiction where multiple courts can hear a case, federal questions can be heard in state courts as federal courts as UDC 1331 does not forbid this Exclusive jurisdiction courts which adjudicate certain types of cases to the exclusion of all other courts, very narrow subject matter (ex. bankruptcy), even more specific in terms of the area of law they deal with than limited jurisdiction Personal Jurisdiction All claims must be brought in a state of federal court with power to render judgment against a particular defendant in order to be heard Venue Case can be brought in the state where either party resides, where the claim arose, or where the defendant is doing business Pleading

8(a) (1) short and plain statement (2) showing entitlement to relief sought (3) demand for judgment on that relief 8(b) if defendant is not sure whether an allegation in the complaint is true, he may deny it in his response 8(c) affirmative defense admits facts of complaint but avers that D has no legal responsibility for its actions due to some additional element, must be set forth in answer 8(d) all claims not denied are admitted 8(e) pleading in the alternative is accepted, even where claims seem contradictory (i.e. D never borrowed kettle; kettle was returned in perfect condition; kettle was broken when D borrowed it are all statements which can be made in the same pleading) 7 responses to any complaint: denial, subject matter jurisdiction (better done through a motion), 12(b)(6) failure to state a claim on which relief can be granted, 12(e) more definite statement, counter-claim (claim against opposing party), impleader