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Who is Muhammad PBUH

He is Muhammad – peace be upon him - (1) son of Abdullah son of Abdul
Muttaleb son of Hashim Al Qurashi, and he descends from Ismael son of
Ibrahim – peace be upon them.

Prophet Muhammad – peace be upon him – has several names, and he has
mentioned some of them in his tradition: "I have five names; Muhammad,
Ahmad, the Eliminator as Allah the Almighty has eliminated infidelity by
me, the Resurrection Sign as the people will be resurrected after my
prophethood, and I am the Last Prophet" (2) whom no prophet comes

The American Anthropologist Ralf Linton said: "Muhammad – peace be

upon him - was born in Makkah on (April 20th, 571 A.D) from a well-
positioned family but his father died before his birth and his mother died
also when Muhammad – peace be upon him – was six years old .. In the
first years of his puberty, he was working as a shepherd.. When he
attained seventeen years old (3) he went to Syria with his uncle (4) for the
purpose of trading… when he attained twenty forth years of age, he
worked for a rich widow – Lady Khadijah, may Allah be pleased with her –
and has assumed travelling with her trading caravan on her behalf. After a
year – i.e. 595 A.D – he has married that widow – Khadijah may Allah be
pleased with her - who was forty years old and who has married twice
before. She has two sons and one daughter from her previous marriages.
After marriage, she has given birth to two sons but they died while they
were infants (5), and four daughters. During the period between 595-610
A.D. Muhammad – peace be upon him – became a well-respected
merchant in Makkah, and was known as the "honest" because of his faith,
honesty and wisdom" (6)


1) Guinness World Records confirmed that the name of "Muhammad" has

achieved the highest average among the names of people as more than 70
million worldwide are bearing the same name; therefore, it is the most
ever popular name. Moreover, The British Daily Telegraph Newspaper
mentioned that the name of Muhammad is the most popular name among
the births in England & Wales in 2006, more than the name of "George"!
(London – the Islamic News Agency: 8/1/2007).

2) Narrated by Al-Bukhari, Volume 2, Good Traits Book, Chapter: The

narrations about the names of the Prophet peace be upon him. it was
narrated also by Muslim in the Book of Virtues, Chapter: the names of the
Prophet peace be upon him – No. 2354.

3) The right is in the age of 12 years (Ibn Al Jawzi: Talqih Fohom Ahlul
Athar, page 7).

4) Abu Taleb.

5) They are: Al Qasim & Abdullah, and they died when being infants before
the prophethood of Muhammad peace be upon him.
6) Ralf Linton: Tree of Culture, 1/340.

Morals and Attributes of Muhammad (PBUH)

First: His Morals

After the death of his paternal uncle Abu Talib, Allah’s Prophet lived at the
house of his paternal grandfather, Abdul Muttalib who was the leader of
Makkah. There, Allah’s Prophet had the opportunity to acquire wisdom and
sound thinking as well as get acquainted with surrounding issues,
problems and disputes. He had first hand experience of different people,
the status of Arab tribes, communities and alliances. Besides, he actively
participated in all this: he was a member of Hilf Al Fudhool (lit. Alliance of
Virtue) that supported the wronged and resisted any aspect of oppression;
he was a just judge in many disputes among tribes and families. Allah’s
Prophet was the best among his community in terms of magnanimity,
morals, forbearance, truthfulness, impeachable disposition, chastity, and
fulfilment. In short, he was, as described by his wife Khadijah (may Allah
be pleased with her), a person who kept good relations with his kith and
kin, helped the poor and the destitute, served his guests generously and
assisted the deserving calamity-afflicted ones. (1)

1) Excellence in morals

Orientlist Arthur Gilman says: “Historians agreed that Muhammad – peace

and blessings be upon him- was distinguished among his tribe because of
his straight morals: truthfulness, honesty, generosity, good merits, and
modesty. He never drank alcohols and never attended a festival or
celebration dedicated to idols.” (2)

2) Not even a blemish

Karl Broklman says: “Muhammad’s life did not have even one blemish.
During his boyhood and adulthood, he was above suspicions in which his
companions immersed.” (3)

3) Noble-minded thinker

Thomas Carlyle indicates that: “It was noted that Muhammad – peace and
blessings be upon him- was a thoughtful youth; his companions used to
describe him as “the honest” (Al Ameen) – the man of truthfulness and
fulfilment. He was truthful in his actions, sayings, and thoughts. His
companions realized that he was so wise. I know also that he was long in
silence and did not speak without cause. Once he spoke, his words were
full of wisdom. During his life, he was a man of principle, determination,
insightful, and of consecutive sorrows. He was known of being generous,
pious, compassionate, Allah-fearing, virtuous, proud, hard working, and
straightforward. At the same time, he was affable, well disposed, ever
smiling, and cheerful. There was always a bright smile over his face, a
smile that tells about a pure heart. Muhammad – peace and blessings be
upon him- was intelligent and magnanimous, intuitively great and divinely
taught. He thus performed his greatest task in the middle of the barren
desert.” (4)
4) The most magnanimous

Belgian scholar Alfred Alfanz writes about the morals of Allah’s Prophet
Muhammad – peace and blessings be upon him: “Muhammad – peace and
blessings be upon him – grew up on morals. He was the best in
magnanimity, patience and honesty. He was the best to talk and the most
truthful. He was far away from obscenity so that he was known among his
people by the epithet “Al Ameen.” These credentials urged the wealthy
Khadijah bint Khuwaylid to ask him to be among the members of her
commercial journey to Syria with her servant Maisrah. He earned for her a
lot of money and Maisrah came back and told her about the miracles he
saw. She proposed to him through a relative. She was forty years old and
twice widowed. Allah’s Prophet gave her twenty Bakrah as her dowry. He
was twenty-five. He lived with her until she died.” (5)

5) People’s respect for him

Russian scholar Arlinov talked about the Prophet of mercy: “He was
famous of being good-tempered, well-disposed, modesty, and affability.
Muhammad spent forty years among people in peace and tranquillity. All
his relatives loved him dearly and all his acquaintances did respect him
because of his sound principles, unique morals, honour, and uprightness.”

6) Sayings of his contemporaries

The above was some of the opinions of fair western scholars regarding the
morals of Muhammad – peace and blessings be upon him. What about his
Companions and contemporaries who accompanied him?

Ali Ibn Abi Talib said:

“Allah’s Prophet would guard his tongue from that which did not concern
him. He would attract them (the people) and not repel them. He would
ennoble the noble of the people and charge them with their affairs. He was
wary of the people and guarded himself against them but without
depriving them a warm smile or fitting conduct. He would inquire after his
companions and would ask the people about their affairs. He would
encourage that which was good and strengthen it, and he would
discourage that which was evil and undermine it. He was balanced and
consistent. He would never be neglectful that they would not learn neglect
and grow indifferent. He had a provision for every occasion and he never
fell short of justice nor exceeded it. The closest people to him were the
most comprehensive in advice. The highest of them in stature with him
was the best among them in looking after the people and assisting them.”

“He was ever smiling, gentle in manners, soft in nature. He was not
severe, harsh-hearted, loud at marketplaces, abusive, or encomiast. He
would disregard that which he disliked, and no one ever despaired of him.
He never responded to disparagement or evil words. He forbade upon
himself three things: argument, arrogance, and that which did not concern
him. And he relieved the people of three: he would not degrade any
among them or abuse them; he would not search after their honour or
private matters, and he would not speak except in matters which he
hoped to be rewarded for. When he spoke his attendees would lower their
heads as if birds had alighted on them. Once he finished they would
speak. They would not vie with one another in his presence to speak, but
when one would talk in his presence, the rest would listen until he
finished. Speech in his presence was that of the first among them. He
would laugh with them, and wonder with them. He had patience with the
strangers when they were gruff in speech and requests.” (8)

“Allah’s Prophet’s silence was because of four reasons: forbearance,

caution, discretion, and contemplation. His discretion was related to deep
thinking, listening to people and his contemplation was in the eternal and
not the ephemeral. He had the utmost level of patience so that he could
not get angry easily. Caution for him was of four types: following good to
be followed, avoiding evil to be avoided, thinking deeply in the best things
for his Umma and doing the best for them to gather both life and afterlife.”

“He was ever smiling, well disposed, not vulgar or harsh. He was not
clamorous or obscene. He was not faultfinding or quarrelsome. He would
disregard that which he disliked, and no one ever despaired of him.” (10)

Second: His Attributes

1) Anas’ description of Allah’s Prophet – peace and blessings be

upon him

Anas bin Malik, Allah’s Prophet servant said: “The Prophet was neither
conspicuously tall, nor short; neither, very white, nor tawny. His hair was
neither much curled, nor very straight. Allah sent him (as an Apostle) at
the age of forty (and after that) he stayed for ten years in Mecca, and for
ten more years in Medina. Allah took him unto Him at the age of sixty, and
he scarcely had ten white hairs on his head and in his beard.” (11)

“The Prophet had big hands and feet, and I have not seen anybody like
him, neither before nor after him, and his palms were soft.” (12)

“The hair of the Prophet used to hang down up to his shoulders.” (13)

2) Ibn Abbas’ description of Allah’s Prophet – peace and blessings

be upon him

“The Prophet used to copy the people of the Scriptures in matters in which
there was no order from Allah. The people of the Scripture used to let their
hair hang down while the pagans used to part their hair. So the Prophet let
his hair hang down first, but later on he parted it.” (14)
3) Al Baraa’s description of Allah’s Prophet – peace and blessings
be upon him

Al Baraa said: “I did not see anybody in a red cloak looking more
handsome than the Prophet. He was not excessively tall or short and had
wide shoulders. His hair used to hang down to the earlobes. He was the
most handsome man I ever saw.” (15)

4) Jabir ibn Sumrah’s description of Allah’s Prophet – peace and

blessings be upon him

“I saw Allah’s Prophet in a red cloak in a moon-lit night. I kept looking at

him and at the moon; he was in my eyes more brilliant than the moon.”

“Allah’s Prophet had a big mouth, long eyes, and slender heel.” (17)

5) Ali ibn Abi Talib’s description of Allah’s Prophet – peace and

blessings be upon him

“The Prophet was neither too tall nor too short, his hands and feet were
slender, his head and bones were big, he had long hair line from his chest
to his navel, he moved as if descending a slope. I have never seen before
or after him anyone similar to him.” (18)

6) Abi At-Tofail’s description of Allah’s Prophet – peace and

blessings be upon him

“I saw the Prophet – peace and blessings be upon him- and I am the only
still living man who saw him.” When he was asked to describe him, he
said: “He was white skinned, handsome, and have an agile gait.” (19)

7) Abi Huraira’s description of Allah’s Prophet – peace and

blessings be upon him

Abu Hurairah described him as follows: “He was the smartest person. He
was of medium built, closer to being tall. His shoulders were wide and he
had smooth cheeks; his hair was pitch black, and he was black-eyed and
had long lashes. He used trod with his whole foot and he did not have a
sole. His shoulders were like a silver ingot. When he smiled his teeth
shone.” (20)

8) Um Mabad’s description of Allah’s Prophet – Peace and

blessings be upon him

Um Mabad Al-Khuzayah was the best one ever to describe the Allah’s
Prophet . She described him to her husband: “He is bright, he has a good
face, well-behaved, he is not defective with a large abdomen or a small
head, he is a handsome man, the pupils of his eyes are very black, the
hair of his eyelids is very long, there is Sahal in his voice (i.e. mild
hoarseness), his neck is brilliant, there is Kathatha in his beard (i.e. much
hair), he is black-eyed, his eyebrows are bent and very close to each
other, his hair is very black, he is dignified when he is silent and he is
splendid when he talks. He is most beautiful and graceful one from a
distance and the best one when he is near, he is fluent, his speech looks
like pearls, he has a medium height, he becomes the brightest and the
most supreme one when he is between two persons, he always has
companions who listen to him when he talks and obeys his orders when he
asks them to do something, his companions accompany and serve him, he
is not frowning, he does not talk in vain.” (21)


1-Sahih Al Bukhari no. 4572; Sahih Muslim no. 231.

2-Arthur Gilman: The Orient, P. 17.

3-In Muhammad Othman Othman’s Muhammad in Fair International

Literature, P.110.

4-Thomas Carlyle: The Heroes, PP 50-51.

5-In Muhammad Sharif Ash-Shaibani’s Muhammad in Fair Oriental

Studies, P. 17.

6-Arlinov: "Prophet Muhammad”, Russian culture Magazine, Vol. 7,

Issue 9.

7-Reported by Sheikh Asbhani’s father under Prophet’s Morals (16).

8-Reported by Sheikh Asbhani’s father under Prophet’s Morals (16).

9-Reported by Sheikh Asbhani’s father under Prophet’s Morals (16).

10-At-Tirmizi, Compendium of Muhammdan Attributes (24).

11-Sahih Al Bukhari no. 5449. At-Tirmizi’s first hadith in his

Muhammdan Attributes.

12-Sahih Al Bukhari no. 5456.

13-Sahih Al Bukhari no. 5453.

14-Sahih Al Bukhari no. 5462.

15-At-Tirmizi, Muhammdan Attributes (3). Sahih as per Al-Albani in

Compendium of Muhammdan Attributes (p. 14).

16-At-Tirmizi, Muhammdan Attributes (8). Sahih as per Al-Albani in

Compendium of Muhammdan Attributes (p. 26).

17-At-Tirmizi, Muhammdan Attributes (7). Sahih as per Al-Albani in

Compendium of Muhammdan Attributes (p. 26).

18-At-Tirmizi, Muhammdan Attributes (4). Sahih as per Al-Albani in

Compendium of Muhammdan Attributes (p. 15).
19-At-Tirmizi, Muhammdan Attributes (12). Sahih as per Al-Albani in
Compendium of Muhammdan Attributes (p. 27).

20-Hasan. Reported by Al Baihaqi (234). Hasan as per Al-Albani in

Correct and Weak Hadiths of the Small Compendium (8762).

21-Sahih. Reported by At-Tabarani in Al Mujam Al Kabir (3524), Al

Hakim in Al Mustadark (4243), Al Baihaqi in Prophethood Proofs,
and Ibn Amro As-Shaibani in Al Ahad wa Al Mathani (3083). Az-
Zahibi in The Brief dubbed it as Sahih.

Prophethood and Revelation

First: The Witness of the Scriptures

The Torah and the Gospels foretold the mission of Prophet Muhammad
(SAWS) both explicitly and implicitly.

In Numbers, Bilaam, the son of Boer, said: “there shall be a star that
appears from among the family of Ishmael and its support a family of the
Arabs; the Earth shall shake for its appearance.” Al Muhtadi Al Iskandrani
commented: “The only person who appeared from the family of Ishmael
was Muhammad (SAWS) and he was also the only person because of
whose appearance the Earth shaked. Really, he was the star of the family
of Ishmael and the person whose mission changed the face of the Earth.
With his birth, Satans were forbidden from eavesdropping the news of the
heavens; the sacred fire of Persia was extinguished; the Babel idols fell
down; and his followers demolished the unjust regimes.” (1)

The above text of the Numbers was later slanted in modern versions to be:
“there shall come a Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel,
and shall smite the corners of Moab, and destroy all the children of Sheth.”
(24:17) (2)

The Latin version of this text is as follows: “stella ex Iacob et consurget

virga de Israhel et percutiet duces Moab vastabitque omnes filios Seth.”

In the fifteenth chapter from his Gospel, John said that Isa (AS) said that:
“But when the Comforter (It is also called the ‘Paraclete’; in Greek it is
‘Parakliton’ and in Latin it is ‘Advocatus.’) is come, whom I will send unto
you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the
Father, he shall testify of me.” (15:26) John also said in the sixteenth
chapter: “Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go
away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I
depart, I will send him unto you. And when he is come, he will reprove the
world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment.” (16:7-8) (4)

In the Gospel of Barnabas, Isa (AS) said: “God shall take me up from the
earth, and shall change the appearance of the traitor so that every one
shall believe him to be me; nevertheless, when he dies an evil death, I
shall abide in that dishonour for a long time in the world. But when
Muhammad shall come, the sacred Messenger of God, that infamy shall be
taken away." (5)

Prominent Jewish and Christian scholars, such the rabbi Abdullah bin
Sallam and Warqa bin Nawfal, witnessed to the prophethood of Prophet
Muhammad (SAWS). They would be an argument against all Jews and
Christians until the Day of Judgment.

Second: The Witness of Western Scientists

Many of modern thinkers and scholars admitted the prophethood of

Prophet Muhammad (SAWS). Some examples are the following:

1) Washington Irving

The American writer Washington Irving (1783–1859) said: “Muhammad

(SAWS) was the last and greatest prophet Allah has sent to call people to
Allah’s worship.” (6)

2) Marcelle Boizar

Marcel Boizar proves the prophethood of Muhammad (SAWS) in a rational

and scientific way. He eloquently said: “Since Prophet Muhammad (SAWS)
settled in Madinah his life became an integral part of Islamic history. His
actions were transmitted to us in the minutest detail. As he was an
energetic organizer, he proved his ability to defend the embryonic Islamic
society and propagate his call. In spite of his power to fight and punish, he
used to forgive. However, he did not relent with the enemies of the
religion. It seems that the three merits of the Prophet (SAWS), that is,
devoutness, fighting, and forgiveness impacted the Islamic society during
its early emergence and embodied the spiritual atmosphere of Islam.

“History depicts Muhammad (SAWS) both as a great leader whose heart is

full of mercy as well as a man of state par excellence who was firm and
had a wise policy that dealt with all on equal footing and gave each his
right. Through his diplomacy and fairness he was able to grasp the
recognition for the emerging Islamic group through treaties at the time he
was starting to defeat his enemies in the battlefield. If we are to
remember the fragile power of any Arab leader on the psychological
domain at the time and the virtues he was supposed to have, we would
conclude that Muhammad (SAWS), who knew how to obtain the
satisfaction of the widest domain of people, was really above the human
level and that he must have been a real prophet of Allah.” (7)

3) Emile Dermenghem(8)

Emile Dermenghem used the event of the death of Ibrahim, the Prophet’s
(SAWS) son, to prove the prophethood of the Prophet (SAWS). He said:
“Muhammad (SAWS) had a son called Ibrahim from Mary the Coptic but
this boy died in infancy. The Prophet (SAWS) was really sad at heart. He
buried Ibrahim by his own hands and cried on him. On the day of Ibrahim’s
death, it happened that the sun eclipsed and Muslims said that it eclipsed
for the death of Ibrahim. The Prophet (SAWS) was lofty enough to say that
‘The sun and the moon do not eclipse because of the death or life (i.e.
birth) of someone but they are two signs amongst the signs of Allah.’”(
Sahih AL-Bukhari: Volume 2)Such a statement would not be of a lying
imposter. (9)

4) Leitner (10)

(Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner, or Gottlieb William Leitner.(14 October 1840 - 22

March 1899) was an Anglo-Hungarian orientalist.)

Leitner said: “As far as I know about Judaism and Christianity, I would say
that the instructions of Muhammad (SAWS) were not plagiarism of either.
Without doubt he received revelation from very close to Allah The Ever-
Mighty, The Ever-Knowing. I say that certainly from among the proofs of
his prophethood are self-sacrifice, honesty of objective, firm belief in the
heart, insight into the way to deal with sin and going astray and the use of
the best media to overcome them.” (11)

5) Luravicia Vaglreiy

The Italian writer Luravicia Vaghlreiy said: “Driven by blind envy, the
fiercest enemies of Islam tried to falsely accuse the Prophet of Allah
(SAWS) and they forgot that before he received revelation, Prophet
Muhammad (SAWS) was respected among his people for his honesty and
purity of life. It is strange that those accusers do not even try to ask
themselves how could Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) be able to threaten the
liars and the hypocrites of eternal hellfire as mentioned in some of the
ayahs of the Qur’an if he himself were a liar? How did he dare to
propagate his call in spite of the hostilities of his people if he – the man
with the simple intuition - had not had an internal power that continuously
urged him? How could he start a struggle that seemed totally hopeless?
How did he succeed to continue this struggle for more than ten years in
Makkah without a notable success and among uncountable sorrows if he
had not had deep belief in the veracity of his mission? How did this
number of noble and intelligent Muslims believe and support him and
embrace the new religion together with the slaves, freed men, and
destitute poor unless they touched his honesty? We do not need to say
more than this. Even among the westerners, it is almost unanimous that
the honesty of Muhammad (SAWS) was sure and deep.” (12)

6) Rum Landou

The British thinker Rum Landou revealed the mistake of those who
question the prophethood of Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) saying: “The
mission of Muhammad (SAWS) was a huge one. It was not the mission of a
liar driven by egotistic factors as some of early western writers dubbed
Muhammad the Arab. All this is rendered unreasonable if we think about
the honesty of Muhammad (SAWS) in delivering his mission, the belief of
his followers and the test of generations and centuries; we cannot then
accuse Muhammad of intentional deceit. History tells us that no religious
imposition would last. Islam has not only lasted for more than one
thousand and three hundred years (Now more than one thousand four
hundred years.) but it is also still gaining new followers. History does not
tell us about any fraudulent person whose message was able to create one
of the biggest empires and the noblest civilizations all over the world.” (13)


1-See: Muhammad bin Abdullah Al-Saheem: The Greatest Person in

the Scriptures. The chapter titled: Tidings of Old Testament of
Muhammad (SAWS). P. 21 ff.



5-The Gospel of Bernapas (112)

6- Irving, Washington. The Life of Muhammad. P. 72.

7-Marcelle Boizar. The Humanity of Islam, P.46.

8-A French orientalist who wrote: The Life of Muhammad (1929),

one of the best books that an orientalist ever written on Prophet
Muhammad (SAWS); and Muhammad and the Islamic Sunnah

9-The Life of Muhammad, P. 318.

10- Leitner, The Religion of Islam. PP 4-5.

11-An Italian scholar on Islamic history and Arabic language. She

wrote The Grammar of Arabic (1937); Islam (1946), and In Defense
of Islam (1959).

12-Vicia Laura, In Defense of Islam, PP. 37-8.

13-See Arnold Twainby’s Islam, Arabs , and the Future, PP.33-4.

A Brief Summary of the Biography of the Prophet

1. Initial signs of revelation to the Prophet (PBUH)

The initial signs of prophethood were dreams that came true, and that
continued for six months, until Allah (the Almighty) favoured Muhammad
(PBUH) by prophethood. Jibreel, the angel, (PBUH), came to Muhammad
(PBUH), during his solitude in Hira cave, reciting to him the first part of Al-
Alaq Surah:

1}Read: In the Name of your Lord Who created,

2}Created man from clots.

3}Read: And your Lord is The Most Honorable,

4}Who taught by the pen.

5}He taught man what he did not know.

The Belgian intellectual George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) said:

Muhammad (PBUH) declared his message publicly about 610 AC, when he
was forty years….just like his brother prophets, (Peace be upon them)
before him. [1]

2. The Christian scholar and writer Waraqah bin Nawfal Embraced


After hearing the first part of Al-Alaq Surah from the Prophet PBUH,
Waraqah said, ”By Allah! This is the Angel Jibreel (PBUH), who was sent to
Prophet Muses (PBUH). I wish I were young when your people would drive
you out of Makkah!" The Prophet (PBUH), wondered: "Are they going to
drive me out of Makkah?" Waraqah affirmed positively saying, "Never has
a man conveyed a Message similar to what you have been charged with,
except that his people waged enmity against him - if I am to witness this, I
will give you unequivocal support.” Waraqah then embraced Islam. It is a
notable record of history that the first man to embrace Islam is a Christian

3. The first people to embrace Islam

Allah (the Almighty) commanded his Messenger to convey his message

secretly for three years. He called his people to Islam. Early pioneers were
his friend and supporter Abu-Bakr, his wife Khadeejah, and his cousin Ali-
bin-Abee-Talib, and his servant Zaid-bin-Haritha (May Allah be pleased with
all of them).

Those were the core element of Islam, from which the faith of Islam broke
forth, and spread everywhere.

Ralf Linton said: "Then the 'revelation' conveyed to Muhammad (PBUH)

attracted a number of followers, and started spreading among

4. Inflicting harm on Muslims

When people started to join the faith of Allah, one after the other, and the
followers of Muhammad (PBUH) increased, idolaters started a phase of
enmity against them. So, Allah (the Almighty) protected his Messenger
(PBUH) by means of the back-up of his uncle Abu-Talib, who was respected
as a noble and a highborn man among his people. As regards new
Muslims, those who have a tribe sought protection with their tribes, but
most of the Prophet's followers were attacked severely by idolaters, who
did their utmost to extract them away from their new faith. Among them
was Bilal-bin Rabah an Ethiopian slave, Ammar-bin-Yasir and his mother
Somayah, and his household, who were severely tortured, in the cause of
Allah. Ammar-bin-Yasir died. Abu-Jahel passed by Somayah, under torture,
and killed her by stabbing her in her vulvae.

Prominent men of Quraish used to torture several women who became

Muslims [4]. Those women set best examples of persistence, patience,
and feeling proud of the faith of Islam. Among them was Zoneira, a Roman
female slave that as a result of converting to Islam, was tortured in the
cause of Allah, until she was hit in her eyes, and became blind. The girl
slave of Omar-bin Moammel (of Adey tribe) became a Muslim. Omar-bin-Al-
Khattab, still in his old days of idolatry, continued hitting her, until he was
tired. Among women who joined Islam and were tortured were Om-Obeiss,
and Al-Nahdiah, with her daughter.

5. Immigration to Abyssinia (now Ethiopia) and the embracing

Islam of the king of the Abyssinian Christians:

The scholar Ateen Denier spoke of the dilemma of Muslims at that time:

"Muhammad (PBUH) was filled with sorrow for the great suffering of weak
Muslims, who were unable to find protection. It was really true courage of
those in pains, and of the martyrs in the cause of Allah, that proved their
steadfast belief in Islam. Muhammad (PBUH), however, had the view that
such a miserable state should not continue. So, he advised the weak
Muslims, and those who should not necessarily stay in Makkah to
immigrate to Abyssinia, that was a Christians country ruled by king An-
Najashi (Negus), who was known for tolerance and justice." [6]

An-Najashi was a righteous Christian king, and nobody under his rule was
likely to be wronged. Muslim immigrants settled as guests for An-Najashi
at best conditions. When Quraish heard of that, they sent a delegation to
plot against Muslims, and persuade An-Najashi to expel Muslims out of his
land, but that delegation went back disappointed. An-Najashi converted to
Islam after listening to the explicit verses of "Mariam Surah" of thHoly
Quran receited by Jafar-bin-abee-Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) the
head of the Muslim immigrants. Muslims stayed under the protection of
King Negus, until they left to (Al Madina, the first city of Islam, at the
seventh year from Hijra.

6. The siege and the year of sadness

Inflicting harm on the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) (and his followers)

became stronger. He, his household, and companions were confined in a
mountain col (a col between two mountains in Makkah, (similar to a prison
in the air) called "Shi’b Abi-Talib". The Prophet (PBUH), with his
companions, was imprisoned there for three years. Hunger and fatigue
came to the point that the cries of the children of those under siege were
heard from behind the mountain. That siege started in the month of
Moharam, the tenth year after Prophethood, and ended when he was forty
nine. A few months later, his uncle Abu-Talib, who was his main protector,
died. Then, a short time later, his wife Khadeejah (May Allah be pleased
with her), also died. With that, the disbelievers dared to inflict more injury
on the Prophet (PBUH) and his companions.

In the month of Shawwal, the tenth year from Prophethood (End of May, or
early July 619 AC) the Prophet (PBUH) set out to the city of Ta’if, along with
(his adoptive son) Zaid-bin-Haritha (May Allah be pleased with him) where
he stayed some days, calling to Allah (the Almighty). The people of Ta’if
drove him out, and continued their attack by stoning him, until his legs
were bleeding. That was the hardest day in his life..

In the month of Thul-Ke’dah, the tenth year after Prophethood (End of

May, or early July 619 AC), the Prophet (PBUH) came back to resume
calling people to Islam in Makkh once more..

7. Calling the tribes to Islam, and meeting the people of Madienah

(called later "Al-Ansar" or the supporters)

The Prophet (PBUH) remained in Makkah calling people to the path of Allah
(the Almighty), introducing himself to them during the pilgrimage season,
asking them for shelter, in order to convey the message of Allah (the
Almighty), promising them paradise, not more than that. He did not get
any positive reply. When the people of Madiena saw the Prophet (PBUH),
and considered his position, about which they heard from the Jews of
Yathrib (the former name of Madiena before the Prophet‘s migration to it).
The people of Madiena said to each other: "Oh! Kinfolk, by Allah, you know
he is the same Prophet expected by the Jews. Let nobody else gain this
honour than us! "[7] The Jews were expecting a prophet, and they were
warning the people of Yathrib that the time for that prophet is very near.

8. Immigration to Yathrib or “ Al-Madina Al Munawarah”

After that the delegation of the people of Yathrib swore allegiance they
promised the Prophet a continuous protection and support in Yathrib until
he has conveyed the message of Islam. Then the Prophet ordered his
companions to immigrate to Yathrib.

The English researcher, John Bagot Glob, said:

"In not more than seven or eight weeks, almost all Muslims immigrated
from Makkah, except Muhammad (PBUH), his cousin Ali-bin-abi-Talib, his
adoptive son, Zaid-bin-Haritha, and his loyal friend Abu-Bakr-Al-Siddeek…
It is worth acknowledging that Muhammad (PBUH) showed incomparable
courage by staying in Makkah, without the protection of his uncle Abu-
Talib, the senior figure of Bani-Hashim tribe. Quraish recognized the
seriousness of that development, and were alarmed that Muslims started
to form a society with close ties in Yathrib, out of the control of Quraish,
and far from their reach, and were about to gain supporters, who might
shift to be hostile to Quraish. Senior figures of Quraish held a meeting in
Dar-Al-Nadwa (their parliament) discussing the situation concerning
Muhammad (PBUH). The view of some of them was that the reason for all
their trouble was Muhammad (PBUH), and it would be good for them to get
rid of him as soon as possible before he had the chance to join his
companions in Yathrib (Al-Madina Al-Monawarah)"[8]

Prominent men of Quraish –as Ralf Linton said- ,who hated the family of
Muhammad (PBUH) and saw in his teachings a threat to their interests,
tried to assassinate him, but that attempt failed. Muhammad (PBUH)
managed to immigrate, along with a small loyal group of his followers, to
Yathrib on the 16th of July 622 AC, which is an important date, we should
not forget, because it is the immigration (Hijra) year that Muslims use as
the starting point for recording their history, until now."[9]..

There, in Yathrib (Al-Madina Al-Munawarah), by the will of Allah (the

Almighty), the two main tribes Al-Awss and Al-Khazraj united around
Muhammad (PBUH) like loving brothers, after fierce wars against each
other, and continuous enmity that lasted for about 120 years, because of
a killed man. The fierce war was extinguished by Muhammad (PBUH), and
by the will of Allah (the Almighty), their hearts were unified into one
nation, and one state. The idolaters were more furious against Islam and
Muslims, especially after the great success attained by the message of
Islam, and the establishment of the Islamic state.

The Makkahan idolaters waged successive wars against the Messenger of

Allah (PBUH). But after a certain time, Allah, the Almighty, allowed
Muslims to fight in defence of their faith, their blood, and their new state,
that idolaters were attempting to terminate before it could develop.
Idolaters waged wars against Muslims such as Badr war (17 Ramadan, the
2nd year from Hijra/13 March, 624 AC), Uhod war (the month of Shawwal,
the 3rd year from Hijra/April, 624 AC), and Al-Ahzab war (the month of
Shawwal, the 5th year from Hijra/April, 627 AC).

The Prophet (PBUH) led 28 battles; fighting took place in 9 of them, and
the remaining battles ended without fighting. Those battles started with
Waddan (Al-Abwaa') battle (the month of Safar, the 2nd year from
Hijra/August, 623 AC), until Tabouk Battle (the month of Rajab, the 9th year
from Hegira/April, 630 AC).

The historian Louise Sedio [10] – commenting on these battles - said :

"Allah(the Almighty) pushed off their (the idolater’s) evil,,, and who could
be more worthy of having the protection of Allah(the Almighty) than the
Prophet (PBUH), who was taking upon himself the burden of spreading the
Message, and rightfully to reverse their (the idolatert's) harm against its
initiators. Allah (the Almighty) was still helping the Prophet (PBUH) until
life sang and clapped hands for him."[11].

After immigration of the Prophet (PBUH), some of the best Jewish scholars
of Yathrib (Al-Madinah) converted to Islam. They accepted what
Muhammad (PBUH) said as true, and they followed him after comparing
between his character, and what was mentioned in their book (The Torah)
about him. Among them was the Jewish pontiff: Abdullah-bin-Salam – May
Allah be pleased with him.
9. Victory, and spreading the Message:

After about 19 years of continuous suffering and torturing from the

idolaters, the Prophet (PBUH) managed to seize from Quraish a treaty
called Al-Hudaibiah peace treaty. That was in the month of Thul-Ke’dah,
the 6th year from Hijra (March 628 AC). With that peace treaty, the Prophet
(PBUH) had the time to call for Allah (the Almighty), and spread the
Message of Islam. He delegated a number of his companions with written
letters from him to the leaders and kings of the world, calling them for
Islam, using the best of words, with a style of lofty decency.

The Prophet (PBUH) was successful in spreading the message on a large

scale. The faith of Islam spread in the Arabian Peninsula very quickly,
facing and getting red of ignorance, with its backward traditions, and
corrupted beliefs.

The Prophet (PBUH) succeeded to capture Khaibar fortress that was the
centre for making up tricks and conspiracies against Muslims, in the
month of Moharam, the 7th year from Hegira (May 628 AC).

Then, capturing Makkah took place in the month of Ramadan, the 8th year
from Hijra (January 630 AC), in the aftermath of Quraish's breach of the
peace treaty. The Prophet (PBUH) declared a public amnesty for the
Makkahan people, without emergency or oppressive acts. The Prophet
(PBUH) said: "He who enters the house of Abi-Sufian will be safe! He who
enters the mosque will be safe! And he, who stays at home, closing his
door, will be safe!"[12]. And, he entrusted to the Muslim army leaders not
to fight except those who would fight them [13]..

After getting established, Islam spread in every direction, and on a large

scale. It seemed that an unseen power was working to get people
embracing the faith of Allah (the Almighty) one group after the other in
large multitudes." [14].

Idols were destroyed, and idolatry symbols fell down. Quarrelling tribes
united. The Arabian gave up the worship of created beings to the worship
of the Creator of everything. Discrimination between casts, sectarianism,
ignorant tribalism, were eliminated, and safety and peace prevailed.

The state of Islam became strong and venerable versus the Persian and
Roman powers..

When Sharhabil-bin-Amr-Al-Ghassani, (the Roman appointed ruler of Al-

Sham), killed the Prophet's ambassador, Al-Harith-bin-Omayr-Al-Azdi (May
Allah be pleased with him), who was sent by the Prophet (PBUH) with a
letter calling the ruler of Busra in “Al-Sham) to Islam, the Prophet (PBUH)
called up for general recruitment, and attacked the southern borders of
the Roman Empire. Mo'ta battle (the month of Jumada-Al-Awal, the 8th year
from Hijra, September, 629 AC), and Tabouk battle (the month of Rajab,
the 9th year from Hijra, October, 630 AC) filled the hearts of the Romans
with fear and anxiety of this growing new world power, the state of Islam..
10. The farewell pilgrim, and the passing away of the Prophet

After the success made by the Prophet (PBUH) in his call for Islam, and
after that the state of Islam became stronger, and peace and safety
prevailed in the Arabian Peninsula, and the will of Allah (the Almighty) to
show his Prophet (PBUH) the fruits of that call, for which he suffered
twenty three years, full of sincere efforts, serious work, and hardships, the
Prophet (PBUH) felt that his death was very close. So, he headed toward
Makkah during Hajj to meet the nation, so that they could learn from him
the general principles of Islam, and to make them witness that he had
fulfilled the entrusted duty, and faithfully conveyed the Message.

On the 9th day of the month of Thul-Hijjah (Arafah Day) in the 10th year
from Hijra (6th of March, 632 AC), the Prophet (PBUH) delivered a speech
with one hundred and forty four thousand listeners around him. His
comprehensive speech included the first ever declaration of human rights
in mankind history, urging brotherly love, equality, fairness, prohibition of
blood, and money, and women rights, calling for giving up the corrupted
ignorant traditions, blood retaliations, usurious dealings, and the ignorant
tribal instincts.

Shari’a (Islamic law), characterized by being the wisest and most graceful
system, was the best present to mankind throughout history. Referring to
that system, scholar "Shebrel" [15] –expressing his pride in Prophet
Muhammad (PBUH)- said:

"Humanity should feel proud that a person like Muhammad (PBUH)

belonged to it. In spite of his illiteracy, he could, several centuries ago,
bring about a law that we Europeans would be the happiest, if we could
reach its top two thousand years later" [16]

The Prophet (PBUH) went back to Al-Madinah, and soon after that he was
ill, and felt death to be very near.

The Prophet (PBUH) died o Monday the 12th of the month of Rabee-Al-Awal,
11th year from Hijra(6th June, 632 AC). His successor rulers were his loyal
friends and honourable supporters Abu-Bakr-As-Siddeek, then Omar-bin-Al-
Khattab, then Othman-bin-Affan, then Ali-bin-Abi-Talib, May Allah be
pleased with all of them.

These are very quick hints about the bibliography of the glorious
personality of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), and it’s not more than a tip of
an iceberg. It had to be reviewed in this way for later wider research, and
to be an introduction to go through the personal qualities of the Prophet
(PBUH), his merits, morals, and attributes implying his particularity of


[1] Goerge Sarton: Western Education .. P.s 29, 31, 30

[2] Authentic, narrated by Al Bukhari under section "How revelation to the Prophet
(PBUH) started", under number 3.

[3] Ralf Linton: Civilization Tree, 1/341.

[4] Review: Safey Al-Rahman-Al-Mobarak-fori: Al-Raheek-Al-Makhtoom, P. 71

[5] A French researcher who announced embracing Islam in 1927 AC, and named
himself Naser-Al-Deen. He used to attack severely orientalists researchers, that
showed enmity to Islam. Some of his works are "The Orient as Seen by the West",
"A Special Light of the Illumination of Islam", and "Muhammad, the Messenger of
Allah (PBUH)".

[6] Ateen Denier: "Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH)" P. 145.

[7] Iben-Sayed-An-Nas: Oyon Al Athar 1/205, Iben-Katheer: Al-Seerah Al-Nabaweya

2/176, Iben-Al-Qayem: Zad Al Ma-ad 3/38.

[8] John Bagot Glob: "The Great Arab Victories", P. 80-81.

[9] Ralf Linton: "Civilization Tree" 1/341.

[10] Louise Sedio (1808-1976) a French orientalist, borne and died in Paris. His
father (Jan Jack Amanuel Sedio, who died 1832, was an astronomer, and an
orientalist, graduated in the College of Henry IV, and was appointed as history
teacher at "Borbon" college in 1823. He is the author of "Histire des Arabes" in
French. Mobarak Basha supervised its translation into Arabic, and was called "The
Epitome of the General History of the Arabs". Among his books was "The Collector
of Principles, and Targets in Astronomy Devices".

[11] Louise Sedio: "The Epitome of the General History of the Arabs" P. 54.

[12] Iben-Sayed-An-Nas: Oyon Al Athar 2/188.

[13] Iben-Sayed-An-Nas: Oyon Al Athar 2/194.

[14] Mowlana Muhammad Ali: "Life and Bibliography of Muhammad (PBUH)"

[15] Dean of Law College, Vienna University. He said these words in the Law
Conference in 1927.

[16] Review: Abdullah Naseh Olwan: "Civilization Features in Islam and its
Influence in the Western Revival". P. 155.