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MAINTENANCE FREE SECONDARY CELLS (VRLA) 1.

.0 INTRODUCTION Maintenance free, valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries ensure a reliable, effective and user friendly source of power. It is spill proof, leak proof and explosion resistant and there is no need to add water or to clean terminals. It has low self-discharge rate which eliminates the need for equalizing charges. The container is made of polypropylene. Each plate is individually wrapped by a highly absorbent, micro porous glass separate developed specially for VRLA batteries. The chemically inert glass ensures life long service. The absorbed electrolyte ensures that there is no spillage even in the unlikely event of puncture of the cell. Gas evolution under float conditions is negligible. The water loss throughout life due to gassing is roughly 0.1% of the total electrolyte present in the cell. This will in no way affect performance and also eliminate the need for specially ventilated battery room and acid resisting flooring. As the batteries can be installed in stacks, there will be considerable space saving also. Various capacities of Batteries are 120 AH, 200 AH, 400 AH, 600 AH, 1000 AH, 1500 AH, 2000 AH, 2500 AH, 3000 AH, 4000 AH and 5000 AH.

1.1 VRLA Technology A brief review of Chemical Reaction The electrode reactions in all lead acid batteries including VRLA battery are basically identical. As the battery is discharged, the lead dioxide positive active material and the spongy lead negative active material react with the sulphuric acid electrolyte to form lead sulphate and water. During charge, this process is reversed. The Columbic efficiency of the charging process is less than 100% on reaching final stage of charging or under over charge conditions, the charging energy is consumed for electrolytic decomposition of water and the positive plates generate oxygen gas and the negative plates generate hydrogen gas. Under typical charging conditions, oxygen at the positive plate occurs before hydrogen evolution at the negative. This feature is utilized in the design of VRLA batteries. In flooded cells, the oxygen gas evolved at the positive plate bubbles upwards through the electrolyte and is released through the vents. In MF-VRLA batteries the oxygen gas evolved, at the positive plate, instead of bubbling upwards is transported in the gas phase through the separator medium to the negative plate. The separator is a highly absorbent glass matrix type with very high porosity, designed to have pore volume in excess of the electrolyte volume (starved electrolyte design), due to which the oxygen gas finds an unimpeded path to the negative plate. Reaction reduces the oxygen gas with the spongy lead at the negative plate, turning a part of it into a partially discharged condition, thereby effectively suppressing the hydrogen gas evolution at the negative plate. This is what is known as the oxygen recombination principle. The part of negative plate, which was partially discharged, is then reverted to the original spongy lead by subsequent charging. Thus, a negative plate keeps equilibrium between the amount, which turns into spongy lead by charging and the amount of

spongy lead, which turns into lead sulphate by absorbing the oxygen gas generated at the positive plate. The oxygen recombination principle can be shown by the following reaction: 1. Reaction at positive plate: H2O = O2 + 2e (1) 2. Reaction at negative plate : Pb + 1/2O2 = PbO PbO+H2SO4 = PbSO4 + H2O PbSO4 + 2H+ + 2e = (4) Pb + H2SO4 To reaction (3) To reaction (2) 3. The total reaction at negative plate O2 +2H+ = H2O Thus, the recombination technology makes the battery virtually Maintenance Fee.

(2) (3) To reaction (1)

1.2 Technical Specification of 1000 AH Battery 1. Capacity of the : 1000 AH Battery @ 10 Hr. rate discharge to 1.75 ECV 2. Nominal Voltage : 2.0 V per cell of fully charged battery at 27oC 3. Open Circuit : 2.15 V Voltage (OCV) of fully charged battery at 27oC 4. Recommended Float Voltage Condition (i) Terminal Voltage : 2.25 V/Cell of Charger (ii) Float charging : Maximum current to be limited to current at 2.25 20% of the rated AH V/cell 5. Recommended : 2.30 V/Cell Boost charging condition for quick charging at 27oC 6. Internal resistance of : 0.257 milli ohms the cell 7. Life Expectancy of : 4000 Cycles at 20% Depth of the Battery Discharge or 20 years under Float condition 8. Containers: (i) Material (ii) Thickness : Polypropylene (Spl. Grade) of : 2.3 mm (Approx.)

wall Container and cover Separator Safety valve Positive plate Negative plate Terminal

Polypropylene Copolymer housed in a steel tray Spun glass microporous matrix Explosion proof, pressure-regulating and self-resealing type Patented MFX alloy Lead Calcium allow Integral lead terminal with solid copper core Less than 0.5% per week Current limited, constant potential o 2.25 VPC at 27 C with a max. current limit of 20% of rated capacity in amperes o 2.30 VPC at 27 C with a max. current limit of 20% of rated capacity in amperes Heavy-duty, lead plated copper connectors

Self discharge Charging Float charge

Boost charge

Connectors

Life expectancy

Float service at 27oC upto 20 years Cycle duty at 27oC 80% DOD 1200 Cycles Cycle duty at 27oC 20% DOD 4000 Cycles

Fig. Power Stack Cell Cut Section

1.3

Freshening Charge

General Batteries lose some charge during as well as during the period prior to installation. A battery should be installed and given a freshening charge after receipt as soon as possible. Battery positive (+) terminal should be connected to charge positive (+) terminal and battery negative (-) terminal to charger negative (-) terminal.

Constant Voltage Method Constant voltage is the only charging method recommended. Most modern chargers are of the constant voltage type. Determine the maximum voltage that may be applied to the system equipment. This voltage, divided by the number of cells connected in series, will establish the maximum volts per cell (VPC) that may be used. Table B lists recommended voltages and charge times for the freshening charge. Select the highest voltage the system allows but not exceeding 2.37 volts per cell to perform the freshening charge in the shortest time period. The charging current should be limited to a maximum of 20% of the rated capacity in Amps. Table B Cell Volts 2.25 2.30 Time 30 hrs 12 hrs

Note : Time periods listed in Table B are for temperatures from 15oC to 40oC. For temperatures below 15oC double the number of hours. Raise the voltage to the maximum value not exceeding 2.37 volts per cell permitted by the system equipment. When charging current has tapered and stabilized (no further reduction for three hours), charge for the hours shown in the above table or until the lowest cell voltage ceases to rise. Correct charge time for the temperature at the time of stabilization. To determine lowest cell, monitoring should be performed during the final 10% of the charge time.

1.4 Operation: General All POWER STACK batteries are rated to an end cell voltage of 1.75 VPC at all rates of discharge. 1.4.1 Floating Charge Method In this type of operation, the battery is connected in parallel with a constant voltage charger and the critical load circuits. The charger should be capable of maintaining the required constant voltage at battery terminals and also supply normal connected load where applicable. This sustains the battery in a fully charged condition and also makes it available to resume the emergency power requirements in the event of an AC power interruption or charger failure. 1.4.2 Float and Boost Voltages Given below are the float and boost voltage recommended for the POWER STACK battery system. The average Volts per cell (VPC) value of the series string should be set to the recommended voltage under Float and Boost conditions. RECOMMENDED FLOAT VOLTAGE 2.25 VPC AT 27oC RECOMMENDED BOOST VOLTAGE 2.30 VPC AT 27oC Modern constant voltage output charging equipment is recommended for the floating charger method of operation of batteries. This type of charger, properly adjusted to the recommended floats voltage and following recommended surveillance procedures, will assist in obtaining consistent serviceability and optimum life. The charging current for the battery should be limited to 20% of its nominal AH capacity. After the battery has been given its freshening charge (refer to section 4), the charger should be adjusted to provide the recommended float voltage at the battery terminals. Do not use float voltage lower or

higher than those recommended. This will result in reduced capacity and/or reduced battery life. Check and record battery terminal voltage monthly. See Section 8, RECORDS Item B. If normal battery float voltage is above or below the recommended value adjust charger to provide proper voltage as measured at the battery terminals. Voltmeter Calibration Panel and portable voltmeters used to indicate battery voltage should be accurate at the operating voltage value. The same holds true for portable meters used to read individual cell voltages. These meters should be checked against a standard every six months and calibrated when necessary. Recharge All batteries should be recharged as soon as possible following a discharge with constant voltage chargers. Determining State-of-Charge The approximate state of charge of the battery, to some extent can be determined by the amount of charging current going to the battery. While charging the current shown by the charger ammeter will start to decrease and will finally stabilize when the battery becomes fully charged, if the normal connected load is constant (no emergency load connected). The state when the current level remains constant, after it has started decreasing, for three consecutive hours would indicate full state of charge condition and the battery will be ready for normal use. If the normal connected load is variable (e.g. Telecom application) the state when the voltage across the battery terminals is stable for six consecutive hours would indicate full state of charge condition and the battery is ready for normal use.

Temperature of the Cell The temperature of the POWER STACK cells cannot be measured during operation. However, cell temperatures are normally within +5oC of the ambient. All performance characteristics are measured at ambient temperature and corrected to 27oC. 1.5- Equalizing Charge General Under normal operating conditions an equalizing charge is not required. An equalizing charge is a special charge given to a battery when non-uniformity in voltage has developed between cells. It is given to restore all cells to a fully charged condition. Use a charging voltage higher than the normal float voltage and for a specified number of hours, as determined by the voltage used. Non-uniformity of cells may result from low float voltage due to improper adjustment of the charger or a panel voltmeter, which reads an incorrect (higher) output voltage. Also, variations in cell temperatures greater than 3oC in the string at a given time due to environmental conditions or module arrangement can cause low cells. Equalizing Frequency An equalizing charge should be given when the following conditions exist. (A) The float voltage of the pilot cell (as per section 7) is atleast 0.05V blow the average float voltage per cell in the blank. (B) A recharge of battery is required in a minimum time period following an emergency discharge.

(C) Accurate periodic records (see section 8) of individual cell voltages show an increase in spread since the previous readings. Equalizing Charge Method Constant Voltage charging is the method for giving an equalizing charge. Determine the maximum voltage that may be applied to the system. This voltage, divided by the number of cells connected in series, will establish the maximum volts per cell that may be used to perform the equalizing charge in the shortest period of time. Refer to Table-C for voltage and recommended time periods. Cell Volts 2.25 2.30 Table-C Time 30 hrs 12 hrs

Note : Time periods listed in Table C are for ambient temperatures from 15oC to 40oC. For temperatures less than 15oC double the number of hours. Raise the voltage to the maximum value permitted by the system equipment or recommended equalizing charge voltage whichever is lower. When charging current has tapered and stabilized (no further reduction for three hours). Continue charging for the hours shown in Table C until the lowest cell voltage ceases to rise. Monitoring of cell voltages should be started during the final 10% of the applicable time period to determine lowest cell voltage in the battery system.

1.6 Pilot Cell A pilot cell is selected in the series string to reflect the general condition of all cells in the battery. The cell selected should be the lowest cell voltage in the series string following the initial charge. See section 4 FRESHENING CHARGE. Reading and recording pilot cell voltage monthly serves as an indicator of battery condition between scheduled overall individual cell readings. 1.7 Records A complete recorded history of the battery operation is most desirable and helpful in obtaining satisfactory performance. Good records will also show when corrective action may be required to eliminate possible charging, maintenance or environmental problems. The following surveillance data must be read and permanently recorded for review by supervisory personnel so that any necessary remedial action is taken. (A) Upon completion of the freshening charge and with the battery on float charge at the proper voltage for one week, read and record the following : (1) Individual cell voltage (2) Battery terminal voltage (3) Ambient temperature (B) Every 3 months, a complete set of readings as specified in paragraph A above must be recorded. (C) Whenever the battery is given an equalizing charge, an additional set of readings should be taken and recorded as specified in paragraph A above. The suggested frequency of record taking is the absolute minimum to protect warranty. For system protection and to suit local

conditions or requirements, more frequent readings may be desirable. 1.8 Temporary Non-use As installed battery that is expected to stand idle for over 6 months should be treated as follows. Give the battery an equalizing charge as per section 6. Following the equalizing charge, open connections at the battery terminals to remove charge and load from the battery .Every six months, temporarily connect battery to charger and give it an equalizing charge. To return the battery to normal service, re-connect the battery to the charger and load, give an equalizing charge and return the battery to float operation. 1.9 Unit Cleaning Periodically clean cell covers with a dry 55 mm paintbrush to remove accumulated dust. If any cell parts appear to be damp with electrolyte or show signs of corrosion, contact your local representative of the manufacturer. CAUTION Do not clean plastic parts with solvents, detergents, oils, mineral spirits or spray-type cleaners as these may cause crazing or cracking of the plastic materials.

1.10 Checking Connections Battery terminals and intercell connections should be corrosion free and tight for trouble free operation. Periodically these connections should be inspected.

If corrosion is present, disconnect the connector from the terminal. Gently clean the affected area using a brush or scouring pad. Apply a thin coating of petroleum jelly to the cleaned contact surfaces, reinstall connectors and retorque connections. ALL TERMINALS AND INTERCELL CONNECTIONS SHOULD BE RETORQUED ATLEAST ONCE EVERY YEAR. 1.11 Determination of State of Charge of VRLA Batteries Sealed Maintenance Free Valve Regulated Lead Acid Batteries represent the state of the art in Lead Acid technology. The maintenance-free feature of these batteries often raises a practical problem in the field. How can the battery bank be monitored? In conventional flooded batteries, the specific gravity of the electrolyte gives a fairly good indication of the state of charge of the battery. However, in a VRLA battery, it is not possible to measure the specific gravity of the electrolyte since it is completely absorbed in the spun glass micro porous separator. The terminal voltage of the battery is directly related to the concentration of the electrolyte. Therefore, if one were to measure the open circuit voltage of the battery, the state of charge can be determined. The Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) readings should be taken 24 hrs. after charging is discontinued. The OCV value is corelated to the state of charge of VRLA batteries as per the table enclosed. Sometimes, it may not possible to disconnect the batteries from service for 24 hrs. And then check the OCVs. Then the pattern of charging current delivered by a temperature compensated voltage regulated charger after a discharge provides the alternate method for determining the full state of charge. The temperature compensation factor is 3 mV per cell oC rise from ambient temperature of 27oC.

Under normal conditions the batteries are floated at around 2.25 volts per cell, i.e. in a DOT system 24 cells are floated at 53.5 volts. During charging as the cells approach full charge, the battery voltage rises to approach the charger output voltage, i.e. 53.5 volts and the charging current decreases to the float current value ofaround 50 mA/100 AH for VRLA batteries. So, when the charging current has stabilised at the float current for three consecutive hours or the voltage across the battery bank terminals is constant for six consecutive hours, then the battery bank can be considered as having reached full state of charge. If the charging voltage has been set at a value higher (but equal to or less than 2.30 VPC) than normal float voltage (so as to reduce charging time), it is normal practice to reduce the charging voltage to the float value of 2.25V after 12 hrs. Then the float current will soon stabilize and the above methods can be adopted for determining the state of charge. Table % State of Charge 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 0 Open Circuit Voltage 2.15 2.13 2.11 2.09 2.07 2.05 2.03 2.01 1.97 1.95

Operation and Maintenance of SMPS Power Plant


1.1 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF SMPS POWER PLANT: What is SMPS? SMPS means Switch Mode Power Supply. This is used for D.C-toD.C conversion. This works on the principle of switching regulation. The SMPS system is highly reliable, efficient, noiseless and compact because the switching is done at very high rate in the order of several KHz to MHz. Necessity The SMPS regulators are used in B.S.N.L at various locations like CDOT, E10BTransmission systems etc. 1.2 Principle of Switching Regulator:

] A pulse train drives the base of switching or pass transistor. When the voltage to the Base is high, the transistor saturates, when the voltage is low, the transistor turns off. Here the Transistor functions as a switch. When the transistor is ON, load current is drawn through the

Transistor and choke L. When the transistor is OFF the load current is maintained by the Energy stored in the choke L. The current flows through earth, Diode D, choke, load and Earth. Hence this diode is called Retrieval Diode. Duty cycle of the Transistor = On Time = D On Time + Off Time (One cycle time) The output voltage = Input voltage x D For example If I/P voltage is 200 volts and D=0.25 O/P voltage = 200 x 0.25 = 50V. Regulation is achieved by modifying the Duty cycle. Duty cycle depends on onetime of transistor, which in turn depends on the width of the pulse applied to the base of the Transistor, which is controlled by Pulse width modulation by regulator circuit. 1.2.1 Principle of Regulation:

The relaxation oscillator produces a square wave. The square wave is integrated to get a triangular wave, which drives the noninverting input of a triangular to pulse converter. The Pulse train out of this circuit then drives the Pass Transistor. The output is sampled by a Voltage divider and fed to a comparator. The feed back voltage is compared with a reference Voltage. The output of the comparator then drives the input of the triangular to pulse converter. If the output voltage tries to increase the comparator produces a higher output voltage, which raises the reference voltage of the triangular- to pulse converter. This makes the pulse that drives the base of the switching transistor narrower. That means duty cycle is reduced. Since the duty cycle is lower the output becomes less, which tries to cancel almost all the original increase in output voltage. Conversely, if the regulated output voltage tries to decrease, the output of the comparator decreases the reference voltage of the triangular -to pulse converter. This makes the pulse wider and the transistor conducts for larger time and more

voltage comes out of the L.C.filter. This cancels out the original decrease in output voltage.

For maximum efficiency the duty cycle should be less than 0.5. As long as the triangular voltage exceeds the reference voltage, the output is high. Since Vref is adjustable,we can vary the width of the output pulse and hence the duty cycle. Switching regulators are more efficient than conventional regulators as the power loss in the switching element is reduced to minimum as it conducts only for a fraction of a cycle. Now a days SMPS technology is extended to power plants also. Power plants upto 2000A capacity have been developed using SMPS principle. 1.3 Specification of SMPS Power Plant: 1) Input Voltage 320 V to 480 V Frequency 45 Hz TO 65 Hz 2) Output Voltage in Float Mode -54.0 0.5 V. adj range -48 V to -56V in charge mode : -55.2 V 0.5V 3) Input power factor >0.95 Lag with 25% to 100% load at nominal input. 1.4 50V 2000A POWER PLANT (Multi Rack Type):

Suitable for VRLA Batteries with 100A SMPS Rectifier Modules 1.4.1 Introduction: The power system is intended primarily to provide uninterrupted DC power Telecom equipments and current for charging the batteries in the presence of AC Mains. The system works from commercial AC mains which is rectified and regulated to 50V DC and is fed to the equipment (exchange). The system has provision to connect three sets of VRLA batteries and facility to charge them simultaneously to ensure that uninterrupted DC power supply is always available to the exchange. The power system 50V, 2000A has the following features: (a) Multi-rack configuration. (b) Facility to parallel a maximum of 21 nos. (or 22 nos.) of 100A (5600W) Rectifier modules operation from three phases, 400V, 50Hz AC input. (c) Termination for three sets of VRLA batteries and exchange. (d) System input : Three phase, 4-wire, 50 Hz supply. The power system as a single DC bus called auto float/charge bus. Depending upon the status of the batteries, the output DC voltage is maintained at 54.0 + 0.5 V under auto Float condition. During auto charge the maximum DC voltage reached across the bus is 55.2 Volts. The exchange battery and rectifier modules are connected in parallel. The system employ natural convection cooling and has AC input distribution, DC Output distribution, protection and alarm circuitry for rectifiers, battery and equipment.

1.4.2 Technical Specification For Module (1) Input Voltage: (a) 320V to 480V r m s three phase (Nominal Voltage 400V). (b) Frequency: 45 Hz. 65 Hz. (2) Output Voltage: Float mode: Nominal voltage: -54.0 + 0.5V, Adjustment range: -48.0 to 56.0 V Charge mode Voltage: -55.2 + 0.5 V (3) Rated current: 100 Amps. (4) Psophometric noise : Less than 4 mV without battery floated. Less than 2 mV with battery floated. (5) Input power factor: Greater than 0.95 lag with 25% to 100% load at nominal input. (6) Efficiency : Greater than 90% at full Load and nominal input. (7) Protection: (a) Short circuit protection. (b) Input over/under voltage protection. (c) Output over voltage protection. (d) Constant current features settable from 80 Amps. To 110 Amps. In auto float/charge mode. (8) Alarms and indicating lamps : (a) FR/BC on Auto Float/Charge: Green LED (b) Rectifier module over voltage: Red LED (c) DC output fail/Under voltage: Red LED (d) FR/BC Over Load (Voltage Drop): Amber/Yellow LED (e) Mains Available: Green LED For System (1) Input Voltage : (a) 3 Phase, 4 Wire, 50 Hz (Range 320V to 480V RMS)

(b) Frequency: 45 Hz. 65 Hz. (2) Output Voltage: Float mode Voltage: -54.0 + 0.5V Charge mode Voltage: -55.2 + 0.5V (3) Rated Current: Equipment: 1100 Amps. Batteries: 300 Amps. Each (4) Protection (a) Short circuit/Over load protection. (b) Input over/under voltage protection. (c) Battery/Equipment over voltage protection. (5) Alarms and indicating lamps: (a) Load Voltage High - Red LED (b) Load Voltage Low - Red LED (c) Fuse Fail - Red LED (d) FR/BC Fail - Red LED (FR/BC No Output MCB Trip) (e) Mains available - Green LED (f) Mains out of range - Red LED (g) Mains Fail - Red LED (h) System (Exchange) Overload - Red LED (i) FR/BC Float/Charge Mode - Green LED (j) Mains ON/Battery Discharge - Red LED 1.4.3 Functional description of power system: This Power System is of multi rack type and consists of the following: (a) Eight racks One main, one auxiliary and six extension racks. (b) AC Distribution module in each rack. (c) Rectifier modules (A maximum of three modules in extension rack and two each in main rack and auxiliary rack).

(d) DC distribution module in each rack. (e) Metering in each rack. (f) Power system controller in main rack. (a) Rack: The rack is made of mild steel profiles with hinged front door. The door accommodates display and alarm enunciator. The rack is convection cooled and has Ventilator slots in the front and sides. The rear panel is screw type and can be dismantled. The cabinet accommodates 19 subsystems. Air baffles are provided for better heat transfer. Depending upon the load requirement (Equipment and Batteries), additional modules can be added. The bottom and top also have ventilator features. The DC power termination and distribution is done at the top. The AC power termination and distribution is done at the bottom. (b) AC Distribution Panel: The AC input to the rack is terminated at the bottom of the rack on screw type Terminals. Individual AC circuit breakers are provided for each module. The line, neutral and Earthing cabinet are terminated on moulded plug which is fixed to the respective sockets on The rectifier module. To monitor AC input current, 3 nos. of single phase AC current Transformers are mounted on the panel of main rack. A small signal transformer is mounted On the PSC panel to provide AC input to power system controller card. (c) Rectifier module: The SMPS rectifier module 50V, 5600 watts works on 400V AC input and provides 50V DC for system. The input is through 9pin AC socket and the DC output is through terminals. The module

has front panel to indicate status and faults in the module. The control signal is taken through 8-pin telephone jack and is terminated on to the power system controller card. The rectifier modules are convection cooled and can be jacked in and out of the cabinet easily. The DC output from each module is terminated on the respective DC bus bar mounted on the DC distribution panel. (d) DC Distribution Panel : This panel is mounted at the top of the cabinet. The panel incorporates the following : (1) Input from individual rectifier modules terminated on cabinet. (2) DC shunts to monitor current in various paths. (3) Termination of battery 1, 2 and 3. (4) Termination of equipment positive and negative. (5) Fuses for battery 1, 2 and 3. (e) Metering: The front panel of main rack consists of two AC meters to monitor individual line to Line voltage and current. The selector switch selects the relevant phases. The DC meters Monitor both voltage and current of batteries and exchange. (f) Power system controller: The Power system controller card consists of an electronic circuit which monitors the State of each rectifier module and display their status. It also controls the operation of the Module so as to make it work in auto float or auto charge mode. The current signals are Monitored continuously to ensure equal sharing of current. In case of faults, the same is

Displayed and for faults like input voltage beyond limits, DC output over voltage, over load Etc. it shuts off the module. The various alarms as per following details are displayed on the Front panel with audible alarm. (1) Mains out of range: Red (2) Load voltage high (above 57V) : Red (3) Load Voltage low (below 42V) : Red (4) Mains fail: Red (5) System overload: Red (6) Mains available: Green (7) System over load: Red (8) Mains on battery discharge: Red (9) FR/BC in Float-charge mode: Green (5) System overload: Red (6) Mains available: Green (7) System over load: Red (8) Mains on battery discharge : Red (9) FR/BC in Float-charge mode: Green (10) FR/BC Fail: Red 1.4.4 Functional Description of Rectifier: The SMPS 50V-5600W rectifier is a state-of-the-art switch-mode power conversion equipment. The unit consists of two cascaded power converters performing power factor correction and DC/DC conversion. The power stages are synchronized and working with constant switching frequency of 100 kHz. The rectified AC mains voltage is processed first in the power factor corrector circuit, which is based on a boost topology. The boost converter has the inherent advantage of continuous input current waveform, which relaxes the input filter requirements. The performance of the basic boost cell is improved by a proprietary snubber circuit, which reduces the switching losses of the power semiconductors due to

non-zero switching times. Furthermore, the snubber circuit also decreases the electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated primarily during the turn-off process of the boost diode. The output of the boost converter is a stabilized 400V DC voltage. Further conversion of the stabilized high voltage output of the power factor corrector circuit is necessary to generate the isolated low voltage output and to provide the required protection functions for telecommunication application. These tasks are achieved in the DC/DC converter circuit, which is based on a full-bridge topology. The full-bridge circuit is operated by phase-shift pulse with modulation with current mode control. This control method provides zero voltage switching condition for all primary side power semiconductors effectively reducing switching losses and electromagnetic interference. An advanced solution reduces the stresses of the output rectifier diodes. Proper operation of the power converters is managed by individual controller circuits and supervised by the housekeeping electronics. Remote commanding and monitoring of the modules are possible through a power system controller housed in the system. 1.4.5 Functional Description of Power System Controller: Power system controller is designed to control the modes of operation of rectifiers, Acknowledge and displays the status of rectifiers and system and controls parameters of Rectifiers. The controller accepts signal from individual rectifiers through 8-pin telephone jack And controls the operation of each individual rectifiers. The mode of operation of rectifier modules depends on the coded signal M1 and M2 from the controller. Depending on the state of batteries, the ATM circuit either gives a signal for floats or charge. An encoder to obtain suitable coded signals encodes these signals M1 and M2.

Depending upon the mode of operation of Rectifier modules, they acknowledge coded Signals S1 and S2. These signals are decoded to display whether the modules are in auto Float /charge or fail condition. The total battery current can be suitably programmed to limit the current supplied from the modules through current programming pin in modules.

VARIOUS EARTHING SYSTEMS 1.1 Introduction: Earthing is a effective measure of protection from hazardous electric currents which may result either due to power induction, lightning or short circuits. The charges of electricity could be dissipated by connecting the charged body to the general mass of earth through an electrode. Earthing for sake of protection is used at practically every point of the supply network from generators to the electrical apparatus used by the consumer. Apart from protection from hazardous stray currents in electrical equipment in Telecommunication circuits and equipments, it is provided for the following purposes. 1.2 Purpose of Earthing: Apart from protection from hazardous stray currents in electrical equipment in Telecommunication circuits and equipments, earthing is provided for the following purposes: (a) Reduction of Crosstalk and Noise: One pole of the battery (+ve pole) is earthed in the telephone exchange so that cross talk between the various circuits due tot he speech currents of one circuit finding path through the other via common battery feed points of the transmission bridge and reduced NSN via earthed terminal of the battery. (b) Earth is used to afford convenience & reliability, in the operate path of the circuits involved in the switching apparatus of telecom circuits. (c) Used as return path for the conductors in some telegraph and voice circuits. (d) Protection of costly apparatus and persons against foreign voltages and leakage currents from power wirings to the metallic frame of the equipment.

(e) Protection of buildings and equipments from lightning strikes. (f) Earthing in power supply systems is used to effect reliability of power as it helps to provide stability of voltage conditions preventing excess fluctuations and providing a measure of protection against lightning.

Classes of Earthing Systems:


Earthing systems are provided to serve many different purposes. They may be divided into two major categories, viz. A.Service Earthing Systems e.g. (i) Switching equipment earth (ii) Transmission equipment earth (iii) Measuring equipment earth (iv) A.C. Power supply earth (v) Corrosion mitigation earth (vi) Miscellaneous telegraphs). B.Protective Earthing Systems e.g. (i) Power system earth to provide protection against excessive current; (ii) Lightning protective earth to provide protection against excessive voltage. 1.4 Requirements for Service Earthing /Systems: In general, service-earthing systems should have a low D.C. resistance to the general body of the earth, in order to ensure that the potential drop across the earth connection is low. If any current flows through the service earthing system, a potential difference will be developed across the earth connection. This can introduce interference in the form of electrical noise into any telecommunication circuit connected to that earthing system. The value of resistance which must be met by a service earthing will depend on the purpose for which the earth likely to be carried equipment earth (e.g.

by the earthing system, and the tolerable voltage drop across the earth connection. The value chosen by most administrations is usually not more than ten ohms, although in some isolated cases higher values are acceptable. 1.5 Requirements for Protective Earthing /Systems: The requirements to be satisfied by a protective earthing system are governed by the purpose for which the earth is being provided. Earths, which protect against excessive current (e.g. power supply protective earth) must have a low resistance in order to: (a) Carry the anticipated value of over current without overheating and burning out. (b) Enable sufficient current to flow to ground to ensure that any over current protective devices (e.g. fuses, circuit breakers, etc.) will operate to disconnect the current after a very short time. (c) Prevent hazardous potential differences to develop across the earth connection. (Excessive potential differences can cause breakdown of insulation, and danger to life and limb). The foregoing requirements can satisfied by heavy guage conductors of very low resistance connected to earthing system of very low resistance (typically less than one ohm). (d) Able to withstand indefinitely the corrosive action of soil. (e) Inert in relation to the system to be protected (i.e. must not be a source of galvanic corrosion currents). (f) The resistance of the earth connection must remain reasonably constant throughout the various seasons of the year. (g) Earths which protect against excessive voltage (e.g. earths connected to lightning protection systems) must possess a low surge impedance in order to enable the lightning surge currents to

be easily conveyed to the earth and thus diverted away from the equipment which is to be protected from the lightning. 1.6 Separate Earths Vs. Common Earth: Attempts to provide separate earthing system for different purposes at a common location have generally proved to be unsatisfactory for the following reasons: (a) In practice it is usually not possible to ensure that there is no electrical coupling between separate earthing systems in close proximity. This is because of casual and uncontrolled interconnections within the installation and also because of galvanic coupling in the ground. (b) There is a risk of fire and a risk of danger to human life, because a difference in potential between various earths might cause excessive current and/or excessive voltage; (c) Currents may flow through the structure or between various earthing systems and cause corrosion. On the other hand separate earths have in the past been thought desirable for certain categories of service earth. This has usually been done in an attempt to eliminate noise from the telecommunication circuits. Most authorities now consider that it is for better not to try to provide separate earthing systems, but to provide a common earthing system at an installation and to design and install it in such a way that it satisfies the requirements of the various earthing systems, which are required at that installation. If the ground resistivity near an installation is high, it may be necessary to provide part of the earth electrode installation at some distance away where the ground resistivity is better. In such cases an earth electrode system close to the building should be provided

for lighting protection and this should be interconnected with the remote electrode system. 1.7 The main advantages of a common earthing system are; (a) By carefully bonding the various earthing systems together the potential difference between one earth connection and another is negligible. Thus no excessive currents or voltages will be developed within the earthing system. (b) If, due to excessive voltage or current, the potential of the protective earth rises, then so will all other earths rise in potential, thus once againt preventing the development of potential differences within the earth environment of the installation. (This is the so-called Faraday Caged effect) 1.8 Design Principles for Earthing Systems: Earthing systems should be designed to achieve the following: (a) Adequate current carrying capability (DC or AC as appropriate). (b) Adequate mechanical strength to withstand the rigours of service without fracturing. (c) In the case of lightning protective earths adequate surge-current carrying ability. 1.8.1 Earthing System Designs: It is not appropriate to specify or to recommend the designs or dimensions of earthing systems, which are to be provided for

various purposes. It is appropriate, however, to draw attention to the principle embodied in good design and this has been done. There are many excellent test s and references available, which give sound designs for earthing systems for various purposes. The references quoted at the beginning of this section are found to be of considerable value. 1.8.2 Lightning Protection Earths:

It is to be noted that some further research should be undertaken into the designed of lightning protection earths. In the past many authors have recommended that the D.C. resistance of such an earth be of not more than some specified (low) value. The need for achieving a low D.C. resistance is now being questioned particularly in view of the difficulty and experience of achieving a low value in areas where the need for an effective lightning earth is greatest, viz. exposed area of high soil resistivity. It is the authors opinion that the achievement of a low value for the resistance of a lightning protection earth is of less importance than the achievement of a low value of surge impedance. Thus it is important that a lightning earth electrode system by: (a) As close as practicable to the plant or equipment to be protected; (b) Connected to that via lightning protectors of adequate current carrying capacity and an appropriate value of breakdown voltage; (c) Connected to the protectors via conductors having minimum surge impedance (i.e. no sharp bends or coils in the conductor); (d) Of such a configuration in the ground as will achieve minimum surge impedance (In this regard it is to be noted that, for trench electrodes, a system with four electrodes radiating in four directions at right angles from the connection point to the

earthing conductor has a much lower surge impedance than a single trench earth of the same total length). 1.8.3 Service Earths: Service earths which carry current (e.g. teleprinter earths which may carry 20-25 mA) must be capable of surviving the discharge of such current to ground for their designed working life. It is of interest to note that a direct current of 1 ampere flowing through a steel earth electrode will consume approximately 10 kg of steel per annum. Thus, if an earth electrode is to carry 25 mA for 20 years it must contain in excess of 5 Kg of steel. In order to ensure that the electrode is still in working order after this period, a factor of safety of two would mean that the earth electrode must contain at least 10 kg of steel. 1.8.4 Earths Electrode Materials: Since copper is a good electrical conductor, there is a great temptation to use copper as the material for earth electrodes, e.g. bare copper wire, copper plates; copper-clad steel rods, etc. However, due to the position of copper in the electro chemical series it rapidly causes corrosion of steel, zinc, lead, aluminum etc. Thus the use of copper as an earthing material requires very careful attention to the prevention of corrosion and it is usually better to choose some other metal e.g. galvanised steel, plain steel, stainless steel etc. 1.8.5 Telephone Exchanges: The main requirements of the earthing system at a telephone exchange are : (a) To provide a low resistance path to ground.

(b) To be able to discharge the maximum anticipated current, which the earth system is expected to carry, both under working conditions and under fault conditions. 1.9Standards for resistance of earths electrode systems: The resistance of earth electrode system should be a slow as possible and in any case should not exceed 2 ohms at any time of the year. In cases where due to local conditions, the resistance of earth electrode system exceeds 2 ohms two or more similar earth electrode system should be installed and spaced as far away as possible from each other but not less than 375 cm from athe first electrode system.. The resistance of earth electrode system for electronic exchanges should be less than 0.5 .

1.10 Earth Electrodes: Three types of earth electrodes are commonly used for earthing system. (1) Rod electrodes. (2) Plate electrodes. (3) Strip electrodes. (4) Ring electrodes. 1.10.1 Spike earths: The present arrangement of earth electrode system consists of twenty numbers of 25.0 mm or 38.0 mm dia. G1 pipes, each of 275 cm or 375 cm length. Each pipe is used a earth spike and is so

driven into the ground that its top remains at some depth below the ground surface. The spacing between any two spikes should not be less than 375 cm or ordinarily. In no case, it should be less than 250 cm. A typical layout is shown in Figure.4. The positions of the spikes should be marked out on the site and a trench no wider than necessary should be excavated. The trench should be 70 to 100 cms deep. The spike should b driven vertically into the trench until the top of the driving head is 50 cms above the bottom of the excavation. Spikes can be driven in quite eastry with a sledgehammer for round electrodes. A new arrangement has been developed consisting of a sliding hammer placed on the electrode so that the work may be carried out a t a level convenient to the workman without a ladder or auxiliary platform. The blows are delivered to the rod at a point near to the ground. The driving head or a suitable bolt is supplied with each earth spike and this must be used to prevent the top of the spike being damaged during the driving operation, when the spike has been driven fully into the ground. It will probably be found that the driving head will be tight fit on the spike and in these circumstances it may be felt in position.

Ingress of moisture at the joint, while laying the G1 strips for ring earth, it should not be bent sharply at right angles, but should be laid in smooth curve of not less than one-meter radius. In case of new building ring earth should act as the equipotent bonding and all earthing equipments are to be extended from the ring earth. Where it is difficult to lay ring earth such as private/rented building due to space constraints, the plate/spike
50mm earth

may be used. The construction practice of plate/spoke earth is


50m m 50m m

a follows
50m m 20m m

1M

1M

1M

1M

= 13mm

HOLE HOLE

(A) GI STRIP (50X3mm)


GI NUTS AND BOLTS A B

= 10mm

LEAD STRIP (90mm X 50mm X 1mm thick)) A,B- GI STRIPS NOTE: JOINT SHOULD BE MADE WATER PROOF.

(B) RING EARTH JOINT FIGURE =2

(NOT TO SCALE)

1.10.2 Plate Earth: The arrangement of construction of plate earthing is shown in figure 3. FIGURE =3 PLATE EARTH (LAYOUT AND INTERCONNECTIONS)

2M

TO

ER W TO

TH AR E

PIPE FOR WATERING THE EARTH 2M


IP TR S GI

) mm X3 (50 P RI ST GI

) mm X3 (50

GI STRIP (50X3mm)

TO POWER ROOM EARTH DISTRIBUTION PLATS a b d

3M c GI . PLATES (4NOS) DISTRIBUTION 600 X 600 X 6.5mm (1,2,3 &4)

GI INTERCONNECTION STRIPS (4NOS) DIMENSION, (50X 3mm (a,b,c & d)

1.10.3 Lead strip electrode system


375 CM 375 375 CM 375 CM This consists of lead CM strip 51 mm wide and 6 gms/sq cm 375 CM buried at a depth of 60 to 90 cms. The strip should preferably laid

in one continuous lengths of 2450 cms otherwise two lengths of 1225 cms should be laid at least 250 cm apart and overlapped by at
20 EARTH least 152 mm, the two electrodes being paralleled at the MDF earth SPIKES 375 CM 375 CM

bar. The earth lead protected by a lead pipe should be connected to the lead strip for at least 152 mm by a plumber wiped joint. TO EARTH
COLLECTIOR

(375CM X 375CM)

SPIKE EARTH FIGURE =1

2450 cm length Soldered Joint

51 cm width

Lead Strip

To MDF

Lead Strip Electrode System Stranded Soft Copper Wire in Lead Pipe

FIGURE =4

All exposed portion of the tinned copper wire and adjacent lead surfaces should be liberally coated with black paint suitable for ironwork. 1.11 INSTALLATION: In all transmission and switching systems a combined ring earth should be provided. The installation procedure is described below: Laying of Ring Earth around New Telecom Departmental Building : (1) The ring earth around the Telecom building and tower is shown in Figure 1.

TOWER

BUILDIN G

GI STRIP TRENCH FOREARTH

NOTE:-IN ROCK SOIL, MIN. DEPTH IS 600mm

Fig. 1 A trench, 30 cms wide and normally 150 cms. Deep is dug. The depth should not be less than 60 cms, in any case. A.G. 1 (Galvanized iron) strip of 50 x 3 mm is laid in the trench. The trench should be minimum one meter away from the building in the case of black cotton soil; the trench should be sufficiently deep to avoid cracking of soil in summer. In case or rocky or hard murram soil, the depth may be 6o to 90 cms. In case of rocky, hard murram and black cotton soil, the trench should not be filled by the excavated material and instead foreign good earth, i.e. yellow soil or ask, which are line and cohesive in nature should be

used. While filling the trench the earth may be rammed in layers, so as to give cohesiveness and compactness to the soil. (2) The G.I. strips are to be connected with each other as shown in Figure 2. The joints are to be properly wrapped and sealed by waterproof taps to avoid any : 1.12 Conditions determining the type of earth electrodes system to be used.: Spike earth electrode system is generally used for all new auto exchange installations where adequate space is available and on sub soil suitable for driving the pipes to the prescribe depth. (a) The lead strip electrode system is used when adequate is available but rock is encountered at a depth less than 375 cm below ground level. (b) Earth plate electrode system is used when layout of exchange site is such that adequate space is not available.

1.13 Location of earth electrode: The following points require careful attention before choosing the site for the earth electrodes:(a) The electrodes must be located in undisturbed soil i.e. not in made up so or loose soil. (b) If new buildings or extensions to existing building are to be erected on the site, the area to be covered by these must be avoided. (c) The electrodes should not be buried in a position where damage is likely to result from heavy vehicle traffic nearby. (d) The electrodes should be placed at least 185 cm. from the probable position of under ground metal pipes. (e) The position of electrodes should be such as to give the shortest direct run to the cable chamber of MDF where cable chamber does not exist. (f) Exchange earth electrode system should be far away from similar earth in the area like A.C. earth etc. in no case, separation between their should be less than 375 cm.

1.14 MEASUREMENT OF EARTH RESISTANCE AND ITS LIMIT: For the purpose of measurement of earth resistance small interconnecting strip should be provided in the ring earth in a small manhole chamber, so that ring earth can be broken from loop. In case of ring earth, earth resistance is not a major significant item where all equipment is earthed to a common ring. For testing of earth resistance value of command earth (by commoning of no. of individual earth) the testing of individual earth is to be done by disconnecting it from Equipment bonding. The earth resistance should be less than or equal to 0.5 ohm for individual earth connected to Equipment bonding. In only exceptional cases earth resistance is allowed up to 1.0 ohm. For measurement of earth resistance please refer to Ei N0. G 0002, issue 1, date 15.09.1966. 1.15 MATERIAL USED IN EARTHING: (i) G.I. strips of size 50 x 3 mm are laid in a ring trench and

connected to lower legs earth bar in power room and engine room etc. All joints inside the earth should be of 1 to 3 mm thick in between for ensuring proper surface contact. That is: -

(a GI strip to.... GI By GI nuts and bolts ) strip with lead strip 1 to 3 mm thick in between (b GI strip to.... Copper Connected by brass nuts ) strip or lug, and and bolts covered to make it moisture proof. (c Copper to ........... With insulation tape & ) Copper strip of lugs should be water tight outside the building. ......... 19 x 6 copper strip is used.

(d Connections )

inside the building

1.16 IMPORTANT POINTS FOR CONSIDERATION IN EARTHING: (1) Chemical treatment of earth using salts etc. are not

recommended as the chemical treatment does not last long and needs to be checked periodically. (2) A separate GI strip 50-x3 mm is used to connect the lightning spike to ring earth to ensure proper connectivity of lightning spike with the ring earth. (3) Earth conductor should not be encircled with metal clamps while taking it along the wall. This is essential to

eliminate the high inductive reactance that will impede the flow of surge current along the conductor in case of lightening. (4) (5) Earthing conductors should not pass through any metallic There should be no sharp bends along the entire length of conduit or pipe, as this will increase surge impedance. earth conductors. Bending should be done with a radius of one meter. (6) In digital systems, equipments contain active devices such as FET, MOS and CMOS which are static-sensitive components and can be permanently damaged if . If comes in contact with human body possessing electrostatic potential. As such antistatic floor tiles or mats should be installed and connected to earth. If antistatic flooring is not provided a antistatic wrist-strap which is properly earthed should be used while working on such equipments. (7) All the joint of the similar metals should be waterproof