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Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree Of

Bachelor of Technology In
Mechanical Engineering

Submitted by: Pardeep sindhu 2909432 Rohit Saharan 2909408 Deepak 2909418 Punit Rana 2909412

An anti-lock braking system (ABS, from German: Antiblockier system) is a safety system that allows the wheels on a motor vehicle to continue interacting tractively with the road surface as directed by driver steering inputs while braking, preventing the wheels from locking up (that is, ceasing rotation) and therefore avoiding skidding. An ABS generally offers improved vehicle control and decreases stopping distances on dry and slippery surfaces for many drivers; however, on loose surfaces like gravel or snow-covered pavement, an ABS can significantly increase braking distance, although still improving vehicle control. Since initial widespread use in production cars, anti-lock braking systems have evolved considerably. Recent versions not only prevent wheel lock under braking, but also electronically control the front-to-rear brake bias. This function, depending on its specific capabilities and implementation, is known as electronic brake force distribution (EBD), traction control system, emergency brake assist, or electronic stability control (ESC). Antilock brake systems(ABS) have been introduced on many passenger car and light truck make/models in recent years. Brake experts anticipated that the introduction of ABS on passenger vehicles would reduce the number and severity of accidents. A rotating road wheel allows the driver to maintain steering control under heavy braking, by preventing a locked wheel or skid, and allowing the wheel to continue to forward roll and create lateral control, as directed by driver steering inputs. Disadvantages of the system include increased braking distances under some limited circumstances (snow, gravel,soft surfaces), and the creation of a false sense of security among drivers who do not understand the operation, and limitations of ABS. Stopping a car in a hurry on a slippery road can be very challenging. Anti-lock braking systems (ABS) take a lot of the challenge out of this sometimes nerve-wracking event. In fact, on slippery surfaces, even professional drivers can't stop as quickly without ABS as an average driver can with ABS.

When the car brakes (normally), the momentum of the car must be reduced, so a backwards force needs to be transmitted to the car. This is achieved by the wheels exerting a forward force on the street which lies below the threshold of maximum static sliding friction. The wheels keep sticking to the road because of this friction Car.

Car manufacturers world wide are vying with each other to invent more reliable gadgets there by coming closer to the dream of the Advanced safety vehicle or Ultimate safety vehicle, on which research and development has been going on for the past several year. Most of the newer vehicle models offer ABS as either standard or optional equipment .Wheel lockup during braking causes skidding which in turn cause a loss of traction and vehicle control. This reduces the steering ability to change direction. So the car slides out of control. But the road wheel that is still rotating can be steered. That is what ABS is all about. With such a system, the driver can brake hard, take the evasive action and still be in control of the vehicle in any road condition at any speed and under any load. ABS does not reduce stopping distance, but compensates the changing traction or tyre loading by preventing wheel lockup.During panic braking when the wheels are about to lockup, sensors sense that the wheel has just begun turning slower than others on the vehicle. So they momentarily reduce braking force on the affected wheel. This prevents sliding of the wheels on the pavement.When the wheel resumes rolling, full braking force is again applied. ABS repeats the process until there is no longer any need for modulated braking. ABS acts faster than any driver could, pumping the brakes several times per second. Depending on the type of system, ABS adjusts the braking force at each wheel or set of wheels, whereas a drivers foot on the brake pedal operates all the brakes at once in normal braking. ABS is an abbreviation for Anti-lock Braking System. The system helps the driver maintain some steering ability and avoid skidding while braking. The typical ABS system includes wheel-speed sensors, a hydraulic control unit, and an electronic control unit. When you apply the brake pedal, the electronic control unit monitors and compares the signals from the wheel-speed sensors. If the electronic control unit senses rapid deceleration (impending lock-up) at a given wheel, the electronic control unit commands the hydraulic control unit to reduce hydraulic pressure to that wheel. This type of pressure limiting is similar to pumping the brake pedal, only much faster. Some pick-up trucks and cargo vans have rear-wheel only ABS to handle different braking needs under

different loading conditions. Since the ABS will not allow the tire to stop rotating, one can brake and steer at the same time. The braking and steering ability of the vehicle is limited by the amount of traction the tire can generate. An Anti-Lock braking system (ABS) is a safety system on motor vehicles which prevents the wheels from locking while braking. The Anti-lock Braking System is designed to maintain vehicle control, directional stability and optimum deceleration under severe braking conditions on most road surfaces It does so by monitoring the rotational speed of each wheel and controlling the brake line pressure to each wheel during braking. This prevents the wheels from locking up. A rotating road wheel allows the driver to maintain steering control under heavy braking. Automatic stability control + traction (ASC+T) are the technology that revolutionized the world of automobile handling and control. As c+ t assist the motorist to have a better control over the vehicle it was realized that there is a need for a better handling system to assist the driver in the dire situations, where he could steer through the obstacle even while braking at the limit which would not be possible with the conventional type of braking system. The antilock braking system (ABS) was brought into the market which met the requisites, the further advancements over the abs is the ASC+T which has control over the engine output for better control.ABS and ASC+T will be dealt separately ABS will be dealt with firstly as it becomes very necessary, first to understand ABS to get the concepts behind ASC+T. Like most materials, the rubber on a tyre has the greatest friction (traction) on pavement when it isnt sliding. When the tyre is rolling, the contact patch on the ground is stationary when a tyre is skidding, the contact patch is sliding. To achieve maximum braking (or acceleration or cornering) force, its necessary to keep the contact patch from sliding. Due to a number of force interactions when the tyre rubber ant the tread flexes, the maximum traction force occurs when there is 10-20% slippage. This turns out to be really useful. If there was no slippage at all before loss of traction, it would be almost impossible for the system to predict impending loss until after it actually occurred. (Learning a feel for this slippage is an extremely useful skill for the driver too, but thats another subject). By adjusting (reducing) the braking force at a wheel thats about to lock up, maximum traction can be maintained.


A typical ABS includes a central electronic control unit (ECU), four wheel speed sensors, and at least two hydraulic valves within the brake hydraulics. The ECU constantly monitors the rotational speed of each wheel; if it detects a wheel rotating significantly slower than the others, a condition indicative of impending wheel lock, it actuates the valves to reduce hydraulic pressure to the brake at the affected wheel, thus reducing the braking force on that wheel; the wheel then turns faster. Conversely, if the ECU detects a wheel turning significantly faster than the others, brake hydraulic pressure to the wheel is increased so the braking force is reapplied, slowing down the wheel. This process is repeated continuously and can be detected by the driver via brake pedal pulsation. Some anti-lock systems can apply or release braking pressure 15 times per second.the ECU is programmed to disregard differences in wheel rotative speed below a critical threshold, because when the car is turning, the two wheels towards the centre of the curve turn slower than the outer two. For this same reason, a differential is used in virtually all road going vehicles. If a fault develops in any part of the ABS, a warning light will usually be illuminated on the vehicle instrument panel, and the ABS will be disabled until the fault is rectified. The modern ABS applies individual brake pressure to all four wheels through a control system of hub-mounted sensors and a dedicated micro-controller. ABS is offered or comes standard on most road vehicles produced today

and is the foundation for ESC systems, which are rapidly increasing in popularity due to the vast reduction in price of vehicle electronics over the years. Modern electronic stability control (ESC or ESP) systems are an evolution of the ABS concept. Here, a minimum of two additional sensors are added to help the system work: these are a steering wheel angle sensor, and a gyroscopic sensor. The theory of operation is simple: when the gyroscopic sensor detects that the direction taken by the car does not coincide with what the steering wheel sensor reports, the ESC software will brake the necessary individual wheel(s) (up to three with the most sophisticated systems), so that the vehicle goes the way the driver intends. The steering wheel sensor also helps in the operation of Cornering Brake Control (CBC), since this will tell the ABS that wheels on the inside of the curve should brake more than wheels on the outside, and by how much. The ABS equipment may also be used to implement a traction control system (TCS) on acceleration of the vehicle. If, when accelerating, the tire loses traction, the ABS controller can detect the situation and take suitable action so that traction is regained. More sophisticated versions of this can also control throttle levels and brakes simultaneously. Upon the introduction of the Subaru Legacy in 1989, Subaru networked the four channel anti-lock brake function with the all wheel drive system so that if the car detected any wheel beginning to lock up, the variable assist all wheel drive system installed on vehicles with the automatic transmission would engage to ensure all wheels were actively gripping while the anti-lock system was attempting to stop the car. Anti lock braking system is made up of a central (ECU) Electronic Control Unit and four wheel speed sensors connected to each wheel of vehicle and two hydraulic valves located in the brake hydraulics. The electronic control unit monitors record the rotating speed of four wheels on a constant basis and when this system finds a vehicle wheel rotating speed slower than the other three, where a situation arises such as an impending wheel lock. There is a valve in the brake line of each brake controlled by the ABS. On some systems, the valve has three positions: I. In position one, the valve is open; pressure from the master cylinder is passed right through to the brake. II. In position two, the valve blocks the line, isolating that brake from the master cylinder. This prevents the pressure from rising further should the driver push thethe brake pedal harder. III. In position three, the valve releases some of the pressure from the brake. The ABS system causes the valves to constantly reduce hydraulic pressure to brakes of the significantly lowered speed wheel thereby causing reduction of braking force on the affected wheel. By this process, the lower speed wheel starts turning faster than other three wheels and when the electronic control unit finds that the wheel is turning faster than the other three, automatically brake hydraulic pressure to the affected wheel is increased by the ABS system so that braking force is reapplied and the wheel slows down. This complete process performed by the ABS system is repeated continuously throughout the drive on mostly uneven roads and can be easily detected by the driver of the car with the help of brake pedal pulsation.

The anti-lock braking system needs some way of knowing when a wheel is about to lock up. The speed sensors, which are located at each wheel, or in some cases in the differential, provide this information.

There is a valve in the brake line of each brake controlled by the ABS. On some systems, the valve has three positions: In position one, the valve is open; pressure from the master cylinder is passed right through to the brake. In position two, the valve blocks the line, isolating that brake from the master cylinder. This prevents the pressure from rising further should the driver push the brake pedal harder. In position three, the valve releases some of the pressure from the brake.

Since the valve is able to release pressure from the brakes, there has to be some way to put that pressure back. That is what the pump does; when a valve reduces the pressure in a line, the pump is there to get the pressure back up.

The controller is an ECU type unit in the car which receives information from eachindividual wheel speed sensor, in turn if a wheel loses traction the signal is sent to the controller, the controller will then limit the brakeforce (EBD) and activate the ABS modulator which actuates the braking valves on and off.


The ABS electronic control module (which may be referred to as an EBCM "Electronic Brake Control Module" or EBM "Electronic Brake Module") is a microprocessor that functions like the engine control computer. It uses input from its sensors to regulate hydraulic pressure during braking to prevent wheel lockup. The ABS module may be located in the trunk, passenger compartment or under the hood. It may be a separate module or integrated with other electronics such asthe body control or suspension computer. On the newer ABS systems (Delphi DBC-7, Teves Mark 20,etc.), it is mounted on the hydraulic modulator. The key inputs for the ABS control module come from the wheel speed sensors and a brake pedal switch. The switch signals the control module when the brakes are being applied, which causes it to go from a "standby" mode to an active mode. When ABS braking is needed, the control module kicks into action and orders the hydraulic unit to modulate brake pressure as needed. On systems that have a pump, it also energizes the pump and relay

Like any other electronic control module, the ABS module is vulnerable to damage caused by electrical overloads, impacts and extreme temperatures. The module can usually be replaced if defective, except on some of the newest systems where the module is part of the hydraulic modulator assembly.

The hydraulic modulator or actuator unit contains the ABS solenoid valves for each brake circuit.The exact number of valves per circuit depends on the ABS system and application. Some have a pair of on-off solenoid valves for each brake circuit while others use a single valve that can operate in more than one position. On Delco VI ABS systems, small electric motors are used in place of solenoids to drive pistons up and down to modulate brake pressure. On some systems, the individual ABS solenoids can be replaced if defective, but on most applications the modulator is considered a sealed assembly and must be replaced as a unit if defective. Hydraulic modulator has a hydraulic modulator block including a reservoir and a damper; and an electronic control block detachably attached to the surface of the hydraulic modulator block. The reservoir and the damper are overlapped with each other such that a surface of the hydraulic modulator block becomes entirely substantially flat. With this, the hydraulic modulator becomes simple in construction. The hydraulic modulator has a solenoid valve; an electronic control circuit board; and an electric wiring pattern prepared by pressing a metal plate having a first major surface formed with a first tin layer and a nickel layer and a second major surface formed with a second tin layer, into a three-dimensional shape such that the electric wiring pattern is formed with (1) a first terminal having a surface that is formed with the first or second tin layer electrically connected with the solenoid valve, (2) a connector terminal having first and second surfaces respectively formed with the first and second tin layers, and (3) a second terminal having a surface that is formed with the nickel layer electrically connected with the electronic control circuit board. Thus, each terminal has a secure electrical connection with another member


A high pressure electric pump is used in some ABS systems to generate power assist for normal braking as well as there application of brake pressure during ABS braking. In some systems, it is used only for the reapplication of pressure during ABS braking. The pump motor is energized via a relay that is switched on and off by the ABS control module. The fluid pressure that is generated by the pump is stored in the "accumulator." The accumulator on ABS systems where the hydraulic modulator is part of the master cylinder assembly consists of a pressure storage chamber filled with nitrogen gas. Should the pump fail (a warning light comes on when reserve pressure drops too low), there is usually enough reserve pressure in the accumulator for 10 to20 power-assisted stops. After that, there is no power assist. The brakes still work, but with increased effort. On ABS systems that have a conventional master cylinder and vacuum booster for power assist, a small accumulator or pair of accumulators may be used as temporary holding reservoirs for brake fluid during the holdrelease-reapply cycle.

There are mainly three types of ABS used in the car. 1. Four- channel, four-sensor 2. Three-channel, three-sensor 3. One-channel, one-sensor

This is the best scheme. There is a speed sensor on all four wheels and a separate valve for all four wheels. With this setup, the controller monitors each wheel individually to make sure it is achieving maximum braking force.

This scheme, commonly found on pickup trucks with four-wheel ABS, has a speed sensor and a valve for each of the front wheels, with one valve and one sensor for both rear wheels. The speed sensor for the rear wheels is located in the rear axle.

This system is commonly found on pickup trucks with rear-wheel ABS. It has one valve, which controls both rear wheels, and one speed sensor, located in the rear axle.


Finally, there is a great difference between ABS and Rear Anti-lock Brakes. ABS is on all four wheels. Rear Anti-lock Brakes, as the name suggests, are only on the rear wheels. This system is often used on pick-up trucks and vans, and is a less-expensive compromise. It is used because the weight load on the rear of a truck or van can vary so much. The brakes needed to handle a heavily loaded vehicle are too effective for when it is lightly loaded. Therefore, the rear brakes are much more susceptible to locking-up.


ADVANTAGES OF ABS Good accuracy of working. Safety system. Preventing the wheel from locking and slippery surface. ABS can apply to all kind of automobile and air craft. Easy in operation.

Three points should be obvious, but don't appear to when looking at the type of crashes some drivers have with ABS-equipped vehicles. Contrary to popular belief, ABS : does not allow you to drive faster does not allow you to brake later and does not allow you to corner faster

1. Statistics show that approximately 40 % of automobile accidents are due to skidding. 2. These problems commonly occur on vehicle with conventional brake system whichcan be avoided by adding devices called ABS 3. If there is an ABS failure, the system will revert to normal brake operation. Normally the ABS warning light will turn on and let the driver know there is a fault.


Automobile engineering by R.K GUPTA. Internet source.