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Unit 2. a.

Four (4) sample of current models of instruction with activities Cooperative Learning Definition Cooperative learning is situated within the social constructivist paradigm. Students work on projects or problems in teams with both personal and team accountability for conceptual understanding. Elements of cooperative learning are found in many of the teaching models described in this web site, including anchored instruction, cognitive apprenticeships, problem-based learning, and often case-based learning. Design and Development Tips Multimedia programs can provide the incentive to "kick-off" a cooperative learning task. In structured settings such as K-12 classrooms, multimedia programs often present a scenario to an entire class (see Tom Snyderinteractive group software). Each student in a cooperative team is assigned a role and a different reading, then back together, teams share and compile their data to collectively develop a solution to the situation posed. Multimedia scenarios can be developed with authoring software. To include audio and video in a scenario, additional audio and video editing programs may prove beneficial to know. Gillan and Dubois (see reference) recommend the use of authoring programs for cooperative learning, engaging students in team research then constructionist design tasks (see constructionism model). Each student may research a small portion of a larger issue, then construct a resource with teammates to teach others about their topic. Design or project tasks may be facilitated with several software programs including authoring programs or web site editors. Web course tools such as Blackboard and WebCT may facilitate cooperation, as they allow students to communicate asynchronously with e-mail and bulletin board tools, or synchronously with chat rooms. Further, they provide digital drop boxes where project files may be exchanged during development or constructionist activities.

Activities: Strategies: Jigsaw task and materials divided into sections for Each group member. group members assigned specific topics convene with members of other groups assigned that same topic notes are shared and discussed students re-convene with original group to

Case-based teaching Definition Case-based teaching is a flexible model. If an instructor uses leading questions to direct students toward a moral or process he or she deems "correct," the model is not far removed from direct instruction. If the instructor, however, allows students to formulate their own opinions of a case by promoting group-coordinated research activities, debate, or simulated decision making, the model is more closely aligned with social constructivism. The key difference is the extent to which an instructor directly leads the student versus promoting activities through which students can lead themselves and develop valuable reasoning skill in the process. Design and Development Tips For creating cases... Cases can either be "presented" to the student with one common ending, or "explored" by the student with different outcomes resulting from student choices while engaged with the interactive case. "Presented" cases can take many forms from simple print-based stories, to web pages with graphics and imagery, to full-blown multimedia with audio and video. "Explored" cases are more difficult to develop and require knowledge of interactive branching techniques. Such cases can be created by multimedia authoring programs (e.g., Macromedia Director), or through emerging web technologies (e.g., Macromedia Flash and Coursebuilder). For using cases in the classroom... It may be helpful to utilize a communication tool in your classroom for students to discuss and debate cases. Whole-class and small group discussion boards like those found in online course tools can facilitate asychronous discussion of cases between class sessions. If teaching from a distance, cases can be debriefed synchronously with distance learning tools. Problem-based learning (PBL) Definition Problem-based learning (PBL) is situated approximately half-way between the social and radical constructivist paradigms. PBL utilizes student groups, but each group member is also responsible for independent research. Further, instructor scaffolding is considerably less direct in problem-based learning than in other constructivist models such as anchored instruction. Students are allowed to struggle and induct their own mental model of course concepts with only occasional "life-lines" from the instructor when concept processing falls off-track. Problem-based learning is most similar to case-based instruction, but in its purest form, PBL is more open-ended. Design and Development Tips Products are typically not recommended for designing problem-based learning materials. Students conduct independent research using the tools and resources of a particular professional domain. Medical students might utilize medical libraries and information systems, physicists might utilize laboratories, and geographers might utilize geographic information systems. Students do not typically access materials designed by an instructor to

"teach" some content item. They might access an instructor's database or collection of slides, visuals, documents, or other media relevant to the problem.

Unit 3 a. Structure of an organic organization with defined roles and functions

Unit 4. a. Model of personal supervision and curriculum development

Unit 5. a. Model of personal supervision of instruction program (2)

Bernards Discrimination Model: Today, one of the most commonly used and researched integrative models of supervision is the Discrimination Model, originally published by Janine Bernard in 1979. This model is comprised of three separate foci for supervision (i.e., intervention, conceptualization, and personalization) and three possible supervisor roles (i.e., teacher, counselor, and consultant) (Bernard & Goodyear, 2009). The supervisor could, in any given moment, respond from one of nine ways (three roles x three foci). For example, the supervisor may take on the role of teacher while focusing on a specific intervention used by the supervisee in the client session, or the role of counselor while focusing on the supervisees conceptualization of the work. Because the response is always specific to the supervisees needs, it changes within and across sessions. The supervisor first evaluates the supervisees ability within the focus area, and

then selects the appropriate role from which to respond. Bernard and Goodyear (2009) caution supervisors not to respond from the same focus or role out of personal preference, comfort, or habit, but instead to ensure the focus and role meet the most salient needs of the supervisee in that moment.

Systems Approach: In the systems approach to supervision, the heart of supervision is the relationship between supervisor and supervisee, which is mutually involving and aimed at bestowing power to both members (Holloway, 1995). Holloway describes seven dimensions of supervision, all connected by the central supervisory relationship. These dimensions are: the functions of supervision, the tasks of supervision, the client, the trainee, the supervisor, and the institution (Holloway). The function and tasks of supervision are at the foreground of interaction, while the latter four dimensions represent unique contextual factors that are, according to Holloway, covert influences in the supervisory process. Supervision in any particular instance is seen to be reflective of a unique combination of these seven dimensions.
b. Sample program on the conduct of supervision Unit 6 a. Strategic plan for supervision of instruction visit b. Staff development program