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r r Guru Gaurgau Jayata

Prabandha Pacakam

Five Essential Essays

Refuting Common Misconceptions In our Vaiava Community Today
The r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya & Sannysa Pacartrika & Bhgavata Guru-parampar The Gauya Sampradya is in the Line of Madhavcrya Bbj Vea & Siddha-praal The Eligibility to Hear Rsa-ll Kath
Electronic Edition December 2003

Vndvana, Uttar Pradesh, India

Tridaisvm rmad Bhaktivednta Nryaa Mahrja

r Gauya Vednta Samiti

OTHER TITLES BY RLA NRYAA MAHRJA: The Nectar of Govinda-ll Going Beyond Vaikuha Bhakti-rasyana r ikaka Veu-gt r Prabandhval r Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu-bindu r Mana-ik Bhakti-tattva-viveka Pinnacle of Devotion r Upademta Arcana-dpik The Essence of All Advice r Gauya Gti-guccha Dmodara-ll-madhur rmad Bhagavad-gt rmad Bhakti Prajna Keava Gosvm His Life and Teachings Five Essential Essays r Harinma Mah-mantra Secret Truths of the Bhgavata My ik-guru and Priya-bandhu Jaiva-dharma r Vraja-maala Parikram The Origin of Ratha-ytr r Bhajana-rahasya r Brahma-sahit Rays of the Harmonist (periodical) For further information, please visit www.purebhakti.com

Preface to the Electronic Edition Introduction Chapter One: The r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya & Sannysa Chapter Two: Pacartrika & Bhgavata Guru-Parampar Chapter Three: The Gauya Sampradya is in the Line of Madhavcrya Chapter Four: Bbj Vea & Siddha-Praal Chapter Five: The Eligibility to Hear Rsa-ll Kath Addenda: The Appearance Day Of Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura Prabhupada Boycott The Sahajiya-Bbjs 4 11 14 50 59 79 86

98 105

Preface to the Electronic Edition

The first print edition of Sri Prabandha Pacakam was presented to the devotee community in the year 1999, through the efforts of Prema Rasa prabhu, Madhurika Dasi and rpd BV Araya Mahrja. Our deepest thanks to Srila Gurudeva for presenting this tattva siddhnta, which is the cure for the disease of ignorance. There are many mistaken ideas circulating in the devotee community, which are especially prevalent on the internet. Innocent devotees who do not have the ability to refute apsiddhnta are falling prey to the purveyors of bogus conceptions and are leaving the path of bhakti. This electronic edition of Sri Prabandha Pacakam Five Essential Essays has been prepared for distribution on the internet for the benefit of those devotees. Included in this edition are two lectures by Srila Gurudeva which glorify and follow the example of rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat Gosvm Prabhupda who boldly re-established the true conceptions of rman Mahprabhu and the gosvmis, and began the preaching mission which is today bringing this pure bhakti tattva siddhnta to every country in the world. An excerpt from the lecture entitled Boycott The Sahajiy Bbjs: About ten years ago I went on Vraja Maala Parikram with Pujyapda Janardana Mahrja. We went to Rdh-Kunda, and there we challenged the bbjs. We had a discussion for three hours, but no one came. I have also challenged those bbjs in my book, Five Essential Essays, but no one responded. After reading that book they wanted to take us to court, and I challenged them, "Yes, we will see you in court." But they never came. Their lawyers had advised them not to go to court, as they would have lost everything. rla Bhaktivednta Nryaa Mahrja

Aspiring for the service of r Guru and Vaiavas Kishore Krishna Dasa Brahmacari Sri Gour Govinda Gauya Math Birmingham, UK

r Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat Gosvm Prabhupda Tirobhva Tithi Samvat 2060, Nryan, Ka-cturth 12th December 2003

r rmad Bhaktivednta Nryaa Mahrja

r rmad A.C. Bhaktivednta Swami Prabhupda

r rmad Bhakti Prajna Keava Gosvm

r rmad Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat Prabhupda

r rmad Gaura-kiora dsa Bbj Mahrja

r rla Saccidnanda Bhaktivinoda hkura



r cnandana Gaura-hari descended upon the surface of this world adorned with the sentiments and bodily lustre of r Rdh and mercifully bestowed in charity a type of Ka-prema which had not been given at any time before in this kalpa. By also instigating the appearance in this world of His eternal pastime associates such as r Svarp Dmodara, Rya Rmnanda and the Six Gosvms headed by r Rpa and Raghuntha, He distributed that very aspect of transcendental love for Ka. By encouraging devotees from all sectors of society such as hkura Haridsa, rvasa Paita, Murri Gupta, Paramnanda Pur and Brahmnanda Bhrat to engage in the activities of preaching uddhabhakti, He made a success of the siddhanta: "kib vipra, kib nys udra kene naya." Although r Svarp Dmodara was a brahmacr wearing saffron cloth and was considered to be under the authority of the Dvrak Pha in the akara sampradya at the time of his residence in Vras, he later became rman Mahprabhu's chief assistant. r Haridsa hkura appeared in a family of yavanas (mohammedans) and was not initiated into any particular sampradya, yet r Caitanya Mahprabhu conferred upon him the title "Nmcrya". Being extremely magnanimous, He accepted into His fold devotees who had appeared in different castes and creeds and in various countries of Bhrat Vara. In this way uddha-bhakti was preached throughout the entire world in a matter of days. However nowadays, as in the field of politics, we find that envy, hatred, bickering, insubordination or reluctance in the matter of accepting the guidance of senior authorities and other anomalies, have also entered the arena of dharma. In former times everyone used to deeply revere the axiom mahjano yena gata sa panth and honour the principle of nugatya, (accepting the guidance of one's respectable superiors). Due to the deteriorating influence of time, some narrow-minded modernists want to cut away at the holy thread of nugatya in the ancient parampar-system and destroy friendship between the pure sampradyas. They consider themselves important by inventing an imaginary process of bhajana and then establishing it as authentic. These people who are creating factions within the sampradya cannot understand that by their ignoble endeavours, contrary to serving the mano 'bhia or innermost hearts desire of


Kali-yuga pvana vtr r Caitanya Mahprabhu, they are digging up the roots of the r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya. Those who accept r Caitanya Mahprabhu's philosophy of acintya-bhedbheda-tattva and engage in sdhana-bhajana under His guidance, who are cultivating devotional service according to the conceptions of r Nitynanda Prabhu, r Advaita crya, r Svarpa Dmodara, Rya Rmnanda and the Six Goswms, those who accept the "Hare Ka" mah-mantra and the method of bhajana prescribed by them, are all included within the family of r Caitanya Mahprabhu. There may be many branches among them such as the branches of r Nitynanda, Advaita, Narottama and Symnanda, however they are all included in this Gauraparivra, the family of r Caitanya Mahprabhu. Among them some may be householders, some renunciates, others sannyss some may wear saffron cloth and others white cloth. However, if they subscribe to the aforementioned conceptions, how can they be excluded from the family of r Caitanya Mahprabhu? The principal instruction of r Caitanya Mahprabhu is: td api suncena taror api sahiun amnin mnadena krtanya sad hari "Thinking oneself to be even lower and more worthless than insignificant grass which has been trampled by everyone's feet, being more tolerant than a tree, being prideless and offering respect to all others according to their respective positions, one should continuously chant the holy name of r Hari." In the light of this verse, where is there any place for enmity and ill-feeling among the members of the pure r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya? What to speak of the other Vaiava Sampradyas of today, even in the akara sampradya we see a unity and anugatya, or adherence to t he principles of predecessors, which is lacking everywhere in our Gauya Sampradya. Therefore, with folded hands, it is our earnest prayer that, after deeply and seriously studying this Prabandha Pacakam, the camaraderie within the pure sampradaya may be protected and preserved. In this book there are five essays. 1) The r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya and Sannysa. 2) Pacartrika and Bhgavata Guru-parampar. 3) The Gauya Sampradya is in the Line of Madhavcrya. 4) Bbj Vea and Siddha-praal. 5) The Eligibility to Hear Rsa-ll Kath. I wrote the first of the essays fourteen years ago and it was published in r Bhgavata Patrik in the Hindi language


(year 4, issues 2 to 4). The second, third, and fourth essays have been selected from my composition entitled "crya Kesar r rmad Bhakti Prajna Keava Gosvm His Life and Teachings." The fifth essay was written as an introduction to my commentary on the Veu-gta if rmad Bhgavatam entitled "nanda Varddhin". In the course of writing these essays, it was inevitable that the names of persons, past and present, who have encouraged various unfavorable opinions, would be mentioned therein. Nevertheless, it was not my intention to make anyone look insignificant or minimize anyone out of malice. If reading these essays causes pain in anyone's heart then I beg for forgiveness. Praying for a slight trace of the mercy of r r Hari, Guru and Vaiavas. r Bhaktivednta Nryaa Mahrja r Gopla Bhaa Gosvm Tirobhva Tithi Samvat 2056, ravaa, Ka pacami 2nd August 1999


Chapter One The r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya & Sannysa

Nowadays, as in the field of politics, we find that envy, hatred, bickering, insubordination or reluctance in the matter of accepting the guidance of senior authorities and other anomalies, have also entered the arena of dharma. In former times everyone used to deeply revere the axiom mahjano yena gata sa panth and honour the principle of nugatya, (accepting the guidance of one's respectable superiors). Due to the deteriorating influence of time, some narrowminded modernists want to cut away at the holy thread of nugatya in the ancient parampar-system and destroy friendship between the pure sampradyas. They consider themselves important by inventing an imaginary process of bhajana and then establishing it as authentic. These people who are creating factions within the sampradya cannot understand that by their ignoble endeavours, contrary to serving the mano 'bhia or innermost hearts desire of Kali-yuga pvana vatr r Caitanya Mahprabhu, they are digging up the roots of the r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya. Recently r ymall Hakm of rdhma Vndvana edited a commemorative publication entitled Mahprabhu r Gaurga. Beautiful articles, full of excellent siddhnta, by some of Vndvana's most respectable scholars, gosvms and vaiava cryas were included in this publication. However, some essays by the editor and a few new authors were actually contrary to stra and based on a futile malice meant to ruin camaraderie within the pure sampradyas. In these essays they have tried hard to advertise their own erudition in the matter of establishing the pure, unfettered truth of the sampradyika conception, simply to procure a following among those who might accept them as cryas. Their completely misguided and groundless viewpoint is nothing but an ill-motivated attempt to conceal the sun. Therefore these articles are a disturbance to vaiavas of the unalloyed r Gauya tradition. The publication in question contains a number of incoherent remarks such as, In Kali-yuga, acceptance of the renounced order of sannysa is invalid and against the vedic injunctions. It is forbidden for Gauya Vaiavas to wear gairika (saffron) cloth. The sannysa of r akarcrya, r Rmnujcrya, r Madhvcrya and others is not vedic. Those who observe varramadharma cannot enter the Gauya Vaiava bhajana-pral unless they renounce their social position. The r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya has no connection


with the r Madhva Sampradya. There is a difference between the conceptions of r Jva Gosvm and r Baladeva Vidybhaa. On receiving the mercy of rman Mahprabhu, Praknanda Sarasvat became famous by the name of r Prabodhnanda Sarasvat. After reading these mistaken viewpoints, the worshipful vaiavas encouraged this poor and insignificant person to present the opposing arguments. Carrying the order of those worshipful vaiavas upon my head, I am beginning this holy task. First of all, holding within my heart a particle of dust from the lotus feet of the protector of the r Brahma Mdhva Gauya Sampradya, who is situated in the tenth generation of the spiritual hierarchy from r Caitanya Mahprabhu, my Paramrdhyatama Gurudeva, crya Kesar Nitya-ll Pravia O Visnupda Aottaraata r rmad Bhakti Prajna Keava Gosvm Mahrja, I am presenting this essay entitled, The r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya and Sannysa. The varrama social order is the backbone of Indian sanskti or santana dharma and its heart is bhagavata-prema. The relationship between the varrama-system and bhagavata-prema is the same as the relationship between the body and the tm. Although the tm is of primary importance, the body is not to be entirely neglected in the conditioned stage. Similarly varrama-dharma is not to be completely neglected while in the conditioned stage of life. However it is not correct to propose that varrama-dharma is the ultimate word in dharma. On becoming situated in tm-dharma, that is bhagavata-sev, the aim and object of varrama is fulfilled. Only in that stage is it possible to be completely indifferent to varrama-dharma and remain absorbed in unalloyed bhagavatabhajana. Wherever there is no varrama-system we also see a lack of tmdharma or pure bhagavata-bhakti. At the most we see a semblance or perverted reflection of bhakti. Therefore respect for daiva-varrama is evident in all the sampradyas of dharma in India. The practitioner of bhakti can remain in whichever rama is favourable for his sdhana- bhajana or, when he is qualified, he can completely renounce varrama. It should be especially noted that the regulations of varrama have no control over those who are beyond anarthanivtti and in whom bhva has made its appearance. As long as such a stage is not attained, it is desirable for r Gauya Vaiavas in the line of rman Mahprabhu to externally accept varrama while remaining detached and keeping the false ego of identifying oneself with it far away. However, the astonishing and novel conception of r Hakmj does not turn out to be genuine on the testing stone of this siddhnta.


The main arguments presented by ryukta Hakmj in opposition to r Gauya Vaiavas accepting sannysa and saffron cloth are as follows: Objection 1) In the Vedas sannysa is described as the fourth rama. One can enter this rama only after passing through the other three ramas, namely brahmacarya, ghastha and vnaprastha. There is no mention of any other type of sannysa in the Veda stra. Buddhadeva, who was opposed to the Vedas, initiated a new method of sannysa. The covered Buddhist, rpd akarcrya then imitated him by accepting sannysa at the age of only eight years old without having first entered the other three ramas. Thus his sannysa was not vedic. More recently some cryas initiated this same system of sannysa in their own sampradyas. Actually this sannysa is not prescribed by the Vedas. Objection 2) It is forbidden to accept sannysa in Kali-yuga: avamedham gavlambham sannysam palapaitkam devarea sutotpatti kalau paca vivarjayet Five practices are forbidden in Kali-yuga: horse sacrifices, cow sacrifices, accepting sannysa, offering oblations of flesh to one's forefathers and conceiving a child in the womb of one's elder brother's wife. (r Brahmavaivarta Pura, Kajanmakhanda 185.180) Objection 3) The custom of sannysa is not in current in the sampradya founded by rman Mahprabhu. From among the Gauya Vaiavas who have taken shelter at the lotus feet of Mahprabhu such as r Rpa and Santana, no one has ever accepted sannysa. Until the very end of their lives they kept the same names by which they were known before renouncing their homes. Objection 4) After delivering r Srvabhauma Bhattcrya, rman Mahprabhu, alluding to Himself through the words of r Srvabhauma, expounded the conclusion that sannysa is unnecessary, detrimental and above all opposed to bhakti-dharma. (r Caitanya-bhagavata 3.3.30) Objection 5) rman Mahprabhuj never instructed anyone to accept sannysa. Rather He has given the instruction to renounce the system of varrama: eta saba chi ra varrama dharma, akicana ha laya kaika araa: Without hesitation, one should take exclusive shelter of r Ka with full confidence, giving up all bad association and even neglecting the regulative principles of varrama-dharma. (r Caitanya-caritmta 2.22.93)


Objection 6) r Santana Gosvm has stated that it is forbidden for r Gauya Vaiavas to wear saffron cloth: rakta vastra vaiavera parite n yuyya. (r Caitanya-caritmta 3.13.61) Objection 7) The acceptance of sannysa has not been mentioned anywhere among the sixty-four agas of bhakti. Objection 8) In his commentary on rmad-Bhgavatam (11.18.22), r Vivantha Cakravart hkura has established the fact that devotees are not members of the rama system by the phrase: bhaktasynramitvaca. Being ignorant of the pure principles of the sampradya and even offering a palmfull of water for the passing away of common courtesy in spiritual matters, the honourable r Hakmj is pointlessly creating frivolous controversy and factions in the Gauya Sampradya by imitating the apasiddhntic conceptions of authors who, though expert in mundane knowledge and dry logic, are completely bereft of genuine realisation and are thus not even slightly fearful of committing severe vaiava-apardha. As if this were not sufficient, he does not hesitate to present thoroughly false and perverse explanations of scriptures such as r Caitanyacaritmta by hiding the facts mentioned therein. Neither does he hesitate to refer to cryas of the pure bhakti-sampradyas such as r Rmnujcrya and r Madhvcrya as muktivds (salvationists) and non-vedic sannyss. Furthermore, he is not even afraid to proclaim that r Mdhavendra Pur and others are advaita-vd-sannyss. Now we will systematically expose the insubstantiality of the aforementioned statements which are all offensive and contrary to stra. Refutation 1) Upon seeing the ideas of r Hakmj it appears that he has derived his understanding of the Vedas from the statements written in the supplement to r Caitanya-caritmta published by ryukta Rdh-govindantha. If he had personally read the vedas, upaniads, smti, puras and other stras then he would never have written such assertions which have no basis in scripture. It may be that his lack of knowledge of the Sanskrit language poses an obstacle to his personally reading the ruti, smti and so on. If so, then it is absolutely improper to write anything without having personally studied those stras. He should have understood that by writing against the scriptural conclusion, he would become a laughing stock among the community of learned scholars who know stra. Sannysa is a vedic custom which is applicable at all times. To illustrate this we are presenting several examples from ruti, smti and pura on the subject of sannysa. The verdict of ruti is as follows:


(a) sa hovca yjavalkya/ brahmacaryam sampta gh bhavet/ gh bhtv van bhavet/ van bhtv pravrajet/ yadi vetarath brahmacarydeva pravrajed ghd v vand v/ atha punaravrat v vrat v sntako va'sntako v utsanngniranagniko v yadahareva virajet tadahareva pravrajet. Variations of this mantra, with only one or two words different, can be found in (i) Jvlopaniad (4.1), (ii) Yjavalkyopaniad (sakhy 1) and (iii) Paramhmsa Parivrjakopaniad (sakhy 2). The meaning is: The saintly king Janaka Mahrja inquired from the great sage Yjavalkya, O Bhagavn! Please explain to me the qualifications and regulations governing the acceptance of sannysa. Yjavalkya replied, First of all, strictly observing the vow of brahmacarya, one should study the Vedas in the home of one's guru. Then, after appropriately observing the occupational duties of the ghastha-rama, one should accept vnaprastha. Finally, after vnaprastha one should accept sannysa. Before entering the ghastha-rama, if` one develops a powerful sense of detachment from material life while still in the stage of brahmacarya, then one should accept sannysa directly from the brahmacarya-rama. Otherwise, as soon as one's vairgya is very strong, it is quite appropriate to accept sannysa from the stages of ghastha or vnaprastha. In other words, the principle is that one may accept sannysa from the position of any rama upon developing genuine detachment. Whether one's study of the six limbs of the Vedas is complete or not; having completed one's study of the Vedas, whether one has taken bath as prescribed by the Vedas or not; having ignited the sacrificial fire, whether one has duly dismissed the presiding deity of the sacrificial fire or not; whether one is married or a widower; in any condition of life, one can accept sannysa when intense vairgya manifests in one's character. A further explanation of sannysa is also clearly found in Jvlopaniad from the ukla section of Yjurveda: (iv) atha parivr vivaravs muo'parigraha uciradroh bhaikno brahmabhyya bhavatti/ yadytura synmanas vc v sannyaset (15) Those who accept parivrajy (sannysa) should wear cloth which has been coloured saffron by geru (red stone). They should have their hair shaved and completely renounce the association of their wives, sons and other relatives. Immediately after that they should purify themselves externally and internally by fully executing sdhana. Giving up all sense of hostility towards others, they


should perform the upsana of brahma in a pure and solitary place. Distressed persons should accept sannysa only by words and mind. Now the question may arise, Is the custom of sannysa genuine or is it a concoction? In answer to this it is stated: (v) ea panth brahman hnuvitastenaivaiti sannys brahma vidityevamevaia bhagavnniti vai yjavalkya (16) The origin of the custom of sannysa is Lord Brahm, the grandfather of all the worlds. The sannyss who take shelter of this path of renunciation attain the saccid-nanda brahma and become competent to know everything. Thus the path of sannysa is not imaginary; it is real. Having heard this instruction from Yjavalkya, Atri accepted it by addressing him, O Bhagavn Yjavalkya! vi) tridaam kamaalu akyam jalapavitram patram ikh yajnopavtaca ityetat sarva bhusvhetyapsu parityajytmnamanvicchet (18) After this, on attaining the stage of paramahasa, the signs of sannysa such as the tridaa, kamaalu, ikh, vasan, waterpot, kanth, kaupn, lower cloth and uttarya are also discarded. Now kindly examine the statements of smti: (vii) virakta sarvakmeu parivrjyam sabhrayet ekk vicarennityam tyaktv sarvaparigraham (Viu Smti 4.2) ekada bhavedvpi trida vpi v bhavet (Viu Smti 4.10) tridaam kuika caiva bhikdhram tathaiva ca (Viu Smti 4.12) stram tathaiva ghynnityameva bahdaka atkt kyasya ligamritya tihata (Viu Smti 4.18) One who is detached from all types of worldly desires should accept sannysa. After accepting sannysa, he should travel alone and he should maintain his life by whatever is available in the way of alms without even begging. He should


carry ekadaa (single staff) or tridaa (triple staff). The bahdaka tridasannys should carry a bowl for alms and a kamaalu. He should wear a sacred thread and light-coloured saffron cloth. Furthermore he should always meditate on Bhagavn within his heart. It has also been stated in Hrtasmti: (viii) tridaam vaiavam samyak santatam samaparvakam veitam kagoblarajjumaccaturagulam saucrthamsanrtham ca munibhi samudhtam kaupncchdanam vsa kanth tanivrim pduke cpi ghytkurynnnthasya sagraham etni tasya ligni yate proktni sarvad (Hrtasmti 6.6,7,8) One should carry a tridaa made from bamboo rods which all have the same number of knots. The rods should be bound together by a strip of cloth measuring four fingers in width and a rope of hairs from a black cow. For the sake of purity and posture one should accept kaupn given by munis. To banish the effects of coldness one should accept a ragged cloth and wooden sandals. One should not collect any other items. These are said to be the signs of a sannys in all periods of time (four yugas). It has been stated in the Mahnirva Tantra that even in Kali-yuga the members of all four varas and also common people outside the social castes have the right to accept sannysa: (ix) avadhtramo devi kalau sannysa ucyate vidhin yena karttavyastam sarvam u smpratam brahmajne samutpanne virate sarva karmai adhytmavidy nipua sannysramamrayet brhma katriyo vaiya dra smnya eva ca kulvadhta samskre pacnmadhikrit viprnamitareca varnm prabale kalau ubhayatrrame devi! sarvemadhikrit (Mahnivra Tantra 8th ullsa)


O Devi! In Kali-yuga the avadhta-rama is called sannysa. Now hear from me about the regulations governing this rama. One who is expert in the transcendental science of bhagavat-tattva, who is detached from all kinds of fruitive activities and in whom brahma-jna has awakened, should accept the renounced order of life, sannysa. Five categories of people, namely brhmaas, katriyas, vaiyas, sdras and common people from outside the social orders, can be qualified in the matter of undergoing this sannysa-saskara. Moreover, even when the influence of Kali is powerful, vipras and also members of the other social orders have the right to accept sannysa. In Manusmti it is stated: (x) vgdao'tha manodaa kyadaastathaiva ca yasyaite nihit buddhau tridati sa ucyate (Manusmti 12.20) One who inflicts discipline (daa) on his words, body and mind is called a trida-sannys. In the immaculate pura, rmad-Bhgavatam, r Ka tells Udhava about the origin of the four ramas: (xi) ghramo jaghanato brahmacarya hdo mama vakasthaldvane vsa sannysa irasi sthita The ghastha-rama has come from my thighs, the brahmacarya-rama from my heart and the vnaprastha-rama from my chest. However, sannysa is situated upon my head. (rmad-Bhgavatam 11.17.14) Futhermore: (xii) etm samsthya partmnih madhysitm prva tamairmaharibhi aham tariymi durantapram tamo mukundghrinievayaiva The Avant Bhiku said, Great is and munis of yore have taken shelter of this sannysa-rama in the form of partm-niha (steadfast devotion to Bhagavn). Having taken shelter of this same rama, I will also easily cross over the insurmountable ocean of ignorance by rendering service to the lotus feet of r Mukunda.


(rmad-Bhgavatam 11.23.57) In Skanda Pura: (xiii) ikh yajopavt syt trida sakamaalu sa pavitraca ky gyatrca japet sad A trida-sannys should keep a ikh, wear a sacred thread and carry a kamaalu. He should dress in saffron cloth and remaining ever pure, he should always chant the gyatr-mantra. In Padma Pura: (xiv) ekavs dvivs v ikh yajopavtavn kamaalukaro vidvnstridao yti tatparam A learned trida-sannys should wear an outer cloth and uttarya, keep a ikh, a sacred thread and kamaalu. Having done so he should remain absorbed in bhagavat-bhva (transcendental emotion). (Svargakhaa di. chapter 31) (xv) In Samskra Dpik, the supplement to r Hari Bhakti Vilsa, written by r Gopla Bhaa Gosvm, the tridaa-sannysa saskra and the regulations in regard to wearing dor-kaupn and saffron cloth are clearly documented. An ancient manuscript of this text is preserved in the royal library in Jaipur. This scripture has been published by rla Bhaktivinoda hkura and it is also mentioned in the r Gauya Vaiava Abhidhna. In ancient times, the custom of accepting tridaa-sannysa was current among most vedic sannyss. A rare few also used to accept ekadaa. The rules governing the acceptance of tridaa-sannysa are mentioned everywhere throughout ruti, smti, pura and gama stra, whereas the regulations in regard to ekadaa-sannysa are few and far between. In the stage of bahdakasannysa, along with the three daas signifying the discipline of speech, mind and body, another prdeamtra daa representing jva, the soul, is attached in one place. Thus the tridaa is a composite of four daas. The custom of tridaa-sannysa is current in the sampradyas of r Rmnuja and r Viusvm. The custom of ekadaasannysa current in the sampradya of r akarcrya is also vedic sannysa. There is no system of accepting sannysa among the Buddhists since they are opposed to the Vedas. They become mendicants without any purificatory rites such as receiving a daa and so on. Thus


Hakmj's opinion that rpd akarcrya imitated the sannysa of the Buddhists is completely untrue and speculative. And straying even further from the truth is the idea that the system of sannysa in the sampradyas of crya r Rmnuja and r Viusvm came into use by copying the sannysa-rites of the r akarcrya sampradya. We have already shown that upon attaining the qualification of intense detachment, the custom of accepting sannysa from the position of any rama or vara, at any time, regardless of one's age, is proper in all respects according to the vedic scriptures. Thus crya akara's acceptance of sannysa directly from the brahmacarya-rama at the age of eight is fully sanctioned by the vedas. The vaiava-crya r Madhva accepted ekadaa-sannysa while maintaining his vaiava method of worship and the same pure siddhnta (i.e. five types of distinction; distinction between the jva and vara even in the state of liberation; the jva is a servant of Hari and so on.) This is not an imitation of akara's sannysa because crya akara is not the original founder of the custom of ekadaa-sannysa. A long time before akara, in the vedic age, ekadaa and tridaa were used. According to the Yjavalkyopaniad, r Brahmj is the original founder of the sannysa-rama and in ancient times great is such as Savartaka, rui, vetaketu, Durvs, bhu, Nidgha, Datttreya, uka, Vmadeva and Hrta achieved the paramahasa stage immediately after accepting sannysa. In later times accounts can be found of 700 tridai-sannyss in the r Viusvm Sampradya. They were all pure vaiavas devoted to the service of Bhagavn. According to the Sanskrit literature entitled r Vallabha-Digvijaya, r Vallabhcrya became famous by the name of Prnanda Yati after accepting tridaa-sannysa in his old age from r Mdhavendra Yati at Hanumn Gh in K. It is a well-known fact that r Vallabhcrya performed worship in pure vtsalya-rasa. According to r Caitanya-caritmta he accepted the mantra for the worship of Yugala-kiora from r Gaura-akti Gaddhara Paita in Jaganntha Pur and from vtsalya-rasa he was inspired to progress to the worship of Kiora-Gopla. vallabhatera-bhaa haya vtsalya-upsana bla-gopla-mantre tenho karena sevana

(). prdeamtra. A measurement equal to the distance between the tip of the thumb and the tip of the index finger.


r Vallabha Bhaa was accustomed to worshipping Ka as a child. Therefore he had been initiated into the Bla-Gopla-mantra and was thus serving Him accordingly. paitera sane tra mana phiri gela kiora-gopla-upsanya mana dila In the association of Gaddhara Paita his mind was converted and he dedicated his heart to the worship of Kiora-Gopla. (r Caitanya-caritmta Antya 7.148,149) Thus the accusation made by r Hakmj that only kevala-muktivds (impersonalists) accept sannysa and that all the other cryas have imitated the sannysa of the akara sampradya is also thoroughly groundless and untrue. In regard to the sannysa of r Viusvm and r Vallabhcrya we have shown that they were pure vaiava sannyss dedicated to bhakti. Now we shall deliberate upon the sannysa of r Rmnuja and r Madhvcrya. At first, r Hakmj considered the sannysa of these two cryas to be non-vedic. Then again, he was obliged to concede that their sannysa was vedic. However, he accepted that their sannysa was ordained by the varrama-system by considering them to be muktivds. Mukti is achieved by observing nikmavarrama-dharma, the execution of one's prescribed duties while renouncing the fruits of action. Thus sannysa is considered appropriate in the sdhana for achieving mukti. However, objecting to sannysa in the Gauya Sampradya, r Hakmj professes that since the objective of the Gauya Vaiava Sampradya is to attain prema-sev in Vraja there is no scope for the custom of sannysa in the Gauya Vaiava Sampradya. This assertion of r Hakmj is also offensive and born of ignorance. Only those personalities who are completely unaware of the authentic literatures of r Rmnuja and r Madhvcrya can utter such fictitious statements. According to the authoritative texts of the r Sampradya such as r Bhya, Vedrtha-sagraha, Prapannmta and Gadyatraya, the jva is constitutionally the servant of Bhagavn. On the basis of this established truth, the jva can never attain oneness with brahma. The highest mukti is servitude to Bhagavn in Vaikuha. r Madhvcrya is also of the opinion that the jva is the eternal attendant of r Hari and that mukti means to attain the service of the lotus feet of Viu.


() (a) rmadhvamate hari paratama satam jagattattvato bhado jvaga hareranucar ncoccabhvam gat (from the literature of r Jayatrtha and r Trivikramcrya), (b) 'mokam viavaghrilbham' (Prameyaratnval)] Therefore mukti in the form of bhagavat-sev as propounded by these two sampradyas is entirely different from the nirviea-mukti of r akarcrya which implies the oneness of the jva with brahma. If Hakmj were to see the verse of rmad-Bhgavatam wherein it is stated, 'kaivalyaika prayojanam,' would he also consider that the rmadBhgavatam is a text for muktivds and that it is opposed to the r Gauya conception? It is not proper to flare up immediately on seeing the words mukti and kaivalya. Rather, one should understand the confidential meaning of these words. Employing extensive scriptural evidence and irrefutable arguments, commentators such as rla Jva Gosvm have to interpreted the word kevala to mean viuddha-prema. In his Prti Sandarbha, rla Jva Gosvm has defined that the actual purport of the word mukti is prema-sev. Therefore the aforementioned two sampradyas are not philosophically opposed to the r Gauya Sampradya. All the vaiava sampradyas agree unanimously that viu-tattva is the object of our worship, that the relationship between the jva and brahma is that of the servant and the served, that bhakti is the sdhana and bhagavat-sev (prema) is the objective (prayojana). Svayam Bhagavn r Ka and Paravyomapati rman Nryaa are not different from each other in tattva (philosophical principles). The distinction between the sampradyas has arisen only due to some specialities in regard to the relationship between the worshiper and the object of worship. Thus the same custom of sannysa which is practised in the sampradyas of r Rmnuja, r Madhva and r Viusvm is in accordance with stra and also fit to be accepted by the followers of r Madhva who comprise the r Gauya Sampradya. The singular aim and objective of sannyss such as r Mdhavendra Pur, r Viu Pur, r vara Pur, r Raga Pur and r Paramnanda Pur was only ka-prema. r Hakmj or anyone else cannot deny this fact. They had all entered the path of bhakti first and then later accepted the dress of nikicana-sannysa because it was favourable for aikntika-bhakti, the cultivation of exclusive devotion. Thus, following in the footsteps of these prominent liberated personalities of the r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya in accordance with the axiom mahjano yena gata sa panth, the custom of sannysa is also thoroughly appropriate in this sampradya. Objection 2) In Kali-yuga sannysa is forbidden for all sampradyas: avamedham gavlambham sannysam palapaitkam


devarea sutotpattim kalau paca vivarjayet Five practices are forbidden in Kali-yuga: horse sacrifices, cow sacrifices, accepting sannysa, offering oblations of flesh to ones forefathers and conceiving a child in the womb of one's elder brother's wife. (r Brahmavaivarta Pura, Kajanmakhaa 185.180) Refutation 2) Herein the point worthy of our consideration is that the instructions of the vedas, upaniads, puras and smtis are applicable at all times (srvaklika). Sannysa is forbidden on the strength of only one verse from Brahma Vaivarta Pura, whereas all the aforementioned authentic scriptures unanimously endorse sannysa and saffron cloth for qualified persons in every yuga. Thus it can be properly understood that this prohibition is valid under some special circumstances, not all circumstances, or that it refers to a particular type of sannysa, because elsewhere in that very same Brahma Vaivarta Pura the decree to accept sannysa and wear saffron cloth has been given: daam kamaalum raktavastram mtraca dhrayet nityam pravs naikatra sa sannysti krttita (Brahma Vaivartta Pura 2.36.9) In r Caitanya-caritmta r Caitanya Mahprabhu cited as evidence the verse beginning with avamedham from Brahma Vaivarta Pura to Caa Kz in opposition to cow killing, not in connection with sannysa. In Padma Pura three types of sannysa have been mentioned: jna-sannysa, veda (vidvat or bhakti)-sannysa and karma-sannysa. jnasannysna kecidvedasannysno'pare karmasannysinastvanye trividh parikrttita (Padma Pura di 31.) Of these three, only karma-sannysa is forbidden in Kali-yuga. Those who have no tm-jna or whose goal is not bhagavat-bhakti, yet they accept sannysa because their senses have grown weak and they are incapable of enjoying the happiness derived from the sense objects, sound, touch, form, taste and smell, are called karma-sannyss. A devotee of Bhagavn is not a karm, thus the question of karma-sannysa does not arise. The objective of jna-sannysa is syujya-mukti. It is stated in rmad-Bhgavatam (10.2.32): ruhya kcchrena param padam tata patantyadho'ndta yumadaghraya


Those who rise up to the transcendental platform by the execution of severe austerities fall down because they have neglected to serve Your lotus feet. Thus devotees also do not accept jna-sannysa for fear of falling down. Bhagavat-bhaktas only accept veda-sannysa which is also known as vidvatsannysa. Even their acceptance of vidvat-sannysa is only indicative of partmanih, dedication to the lotus feet of Bhagavn. After accepting sannysa, r Caitanya Mahprabhu, absorbed in ecstatic emotions, repeatedly recited this verse from rmad-Bhgavatam: etm samsthya partmanih madhysitm prva tamairmaharibhi aham tariymi durantapram tamo mukundghrinievanaiva (rmad-Bhgavatam 11.23.57) Having recited this verse, r Caitanya Mahprabhu said: partmanih-mtra vea dhraa mukunda sevya haya sasra traa The purpose of accepting sannysa is to dedicate oneself to the service of Mukunda. By serving Mukunda one can actually be liberated from the bondage of material existence. sei vea kaila, ebe vndvane giy knievana kari nibhte basiy After accepting the sannysa order, r Caitanya Mahprabhu decided to go to Vndvan and engage Himself wholly and solely in the service of Mukunda in a solitary place. (r Caitanya-caritmta Madhya 3.8, 9) The regulations in regard to narottama-sannysa (vidvat-sannysa) have also been given in rmad-Bhgavatam: ya svaktparato veha jtanirveda tmavn hdi ktv hari geht pravrajet sa narottama


Those self-realised persons who, either by themselves or by the instructions of others, become detached from material existence, having understood that it is simply full of suffering, and who accept sannysa, holding r Hari within their hearts, are called narottama. (rmad-Bhgavatam 1.13.27) Thus, after considering this matter and reconciling all its aspects, one arrives at the conclusion that even in Kali-yuga the acceptance of vidvat-sannysa or narottama-sannysa (not karma-sannysa) is consistent with stra in the case of one in whom detachment from miserable worldly life has appeared and who has completely renounced all material attachments for the sake of unalloyed service to Bhagavn r Mukunda. If it is not despicable for a devotee to engage in bhajana while remaining in the ghastha-rama, then how can it be despicable for one to perform bhajana while remaining in the superior rama of sannysa? Wherever one may be, one must do bhajana. Thus it is incumbent upon the individual to remain in whichever rama is favourable for his bhajana. One should reject any unfavourable elements and, giving up all attachment or identification with one's external position within varrama, engage in singlepointed hari-bhajana. This is the conclusion of stra. r Caitanya Mahprabhu has said: kib vipra kib nys dra kene naya yei ka tattva vett sei guru haya Whether one is a brhmaa, a sannys or a dra, regardless of one's position, one who knows ka-tattva is a guru. (r Caitanya-caritmta Madhya 8.128) This statement of rman Mahprabhu supports the fact that those in the sannysa-rama are also authorised according to the Gauya conception of bhajana and that sannysa can be accepted in this age of Kali. A sannys who knows ka-tattva is honoured as an crya and guru. Thus sannysa is neither contemptible nor forbidden. Objection 3) In the Gauya Vaiava Sampradya founded by rman Mahprabhu there is no custom of sannysa. Refutation 3) In this connection, those who know sampradya-tattva assert that svayam Bhagavn Vrajendranandana r Ka has appeared in Kali-yuga in the form of r Caitanya Mahprabhu. Just as vatras such as r Rmacandra and also r Kacandra Himself have not inaugurated any sampradya, similarly, to consider rman Mahprabhu as the founder of a sampradya is incorrect and 28

opposed to stra. The activity of establishing a sampradya is not the duty of Bhagavn. He accomplishes this task through His servants, namely r Brahmj, r Lakmj, r Rudra and r Sanat Kumra. If rman Mahprabhu is accepted as the founder of a sampradya then a question mark will be applied to His scripturally proven status as the origin of all incarnations (bhagavad-vatr) because there is no available evidence to prove that a sampradya has ever been inaugurated by any vatra of Bhagavn. Thus r Caitanya Mahprabhu, who is Svaya Bhagavn, has not formed or initiated a new sampradya. Rather, acting in compliance with His nara-ll (human-like pastimes), He protected the vaiava-guru-parampar by accepting dk into the r Brahma-Madhva Sampradya. In doing so He also made this sampradya the most excellent of all in regard to its goal (sdhya) and method of attainment (sdhana) by bestowing the supremely sweet and incomparable system of worship of the topmost and superlatively sweet feature of the worshipable principle (upsya-tattva). At this point it will not be irrelevant to reveal the fact that ryukta Sundarnanda Vidyvinoda, r Rdh-govindanth and r Hakmj want to change the body of the ancient sampradya by establishing r Caitanya Mahprabhu as the founder of His sampradya and in doing so they have no fixed siddhnta. These personalities, like the politicians of the modern era, are also expert at changing their conclusions. Whatever siddhnta they accept today, tomorrow they say the opposite. The opinions of those who repeatedly change their viewpoints are never reliable. r Sundrananda Vidyvinoda has established his own fame by his fluctuating siddhnta and by abandoning his gurudeva. r Rdhgovindanth has written in the first three editions of his publication of r Caitanya Caritmta that the r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya is in the line of the r Madhva Sampradya. Then in the fourth edition, withdrawing his previous conclusion, he has accepted groundless, speculative and defective arguments to establish that the r Gauya Sampradya is an independent sampradya. The honourable r Rdhgovindanth was not a pure vaiava initiated into any vaiava sampradya. How can those who are bereft of a connection with a pure guruparampar come to know the confidential and mysterious smpradyika siddhntas? Imitating his sik-gurus, r Hakmj has also defined one type of conclusion in regard to rman Mahprabhu's sampradya, sannysa vea and so on in the commentary of the first edition of his r Caitanya Caritmta, then in the second edition he has defined exactly the opposite conclusion. Wherever there is a lack of bhajana-sdhana, wherever there is no factual realization of tattva and wherever there is a lack of firm faith in r Guru and the guru-parampar, in that place there can never be steadiness in the unwavering siddhnta.


() See the first edition of r Caitanya-caritmta published by r Hakmj. In his Caitanya Caraacumbin commentary, Madhya-ll, Chapter 9, verse 249, Hakmj has also written that r Caitanya Mahprabhu is not a sampradycrya a conclusion to which he is now opposed.

By accepting the opinions of such people, the only gain will be anartha and vaiava-pardha, not paramrtha (prema). By analyzing the history of the sampradyas it can be clearly seen that until this very day the duty of founding a sampradya has been accomplished exclusively by either the akti or the servants of Viu. Although r Bhagavn has been called the original founder of santana-dharma in the statements of stra such as: dharman tu skd bhagavat pranita (rmad-Bhgavatam 6.3.19) and dharmojaganntht saknnryat (Mahbhrata, ntiparva 348,54), nevertheless, by scriptural evidence such as: akart caiva kart ca krya kraam eva ca (Mahbhrata, ntiparva 348,60) it is proven that sarva kraa-kraa r Bhagavn, the cause of all causes, does not directly intervene in the task of establishing a sampradya. He causes this to be accomplished through the agency of personalities who are invested with His potency. If it were not so then instead of being called the Brahma-Sampradya, r-Sampradya, Catusana-Sampradya and Rudra-Sampradya, the sampradyas would be celebrated by names such as the r VsudevaSampradya, Nryaa-Sampradya and Sakarana-Sampradya. The manifestations of r viu-tattva are the worshipful deities of the sat or sttvatasampradyas. From among Them, r Ka or r Ka Caitanya Mahprabhu are the viu paratattva. By accepting r Ka or r Ka Caitanya Mahprabhu as only sampradya-founding gurus, then it is inevitable that They will be considered equal to or rivals with Brahm, Lakmj, Catusana, r Rmnuja, r Madhva and so on. To consider Them as such is contrary to siddhnta. Therefore, in the literature of the Gosvms headed by r Rupa and Santana, and in the literature of the succeeding Gauya Vaiava cryas such as r Kadsa Kavirja Gosvm, r Vivantha Cakravart hakura, r Baladeva Vidybhaa and rla Bhaktivinoda hkura, it is not written anywhere that the r Gauya vaiavas are the Caitanya Sampradya. Thus r Caitanya Mahprabhu can never be called the founder of a sampradya. Before accepting sannysa, r Mdhavendra Pur had accepted dk from r Lakmpati Trtha of the Madhva Sampradya. Later, upon the awakening of intense vairgya and an ardent longing to perform bhajana in vraja-bhva, he accepted sannysa from a sannys bearing the title Pur. r Nitynanda Prabhu (who, according to the opinion of some, is a disciple of r Lakmpati Trtha), r vara Pur, r Raga Pur, r Paramnanda Pur, r Brahmnanda Pur, r Viu Pur, r Keava Pur, r Knanda Pur and r Sukhnanda


Pur were all sannysa disciples of r Mdhavendra Pur. He also had many disciples in the ghastha rama such as r Advaita crya, r Puarka Vidynidhi, the Snoiy Vipra from Mathur and Raghupati Updhyya of Maithila. r Keava Bhrat, the sannysa-vea guru of rman Mahprabhu, had also accepted dk from r Mdhavendra Pur during his household life. Later, to engage exclusively in ka-bhajana, he accepted nikicana-sannysa vea from a sannys bearing the title Bhrat. r Keava Bhrat has been described as a disciple of r Mdhavendra Pur in Prema Vilsa, vilsa 23. r Svarpa Dmodara was also a sannys wearing saffron cloth. Among all the prem-bhaktas, he was the highest bhgavata devotee from the very beginning of his life. Later he accepted sannysa only for the sake of perfection in unalloyed ka-bhajana. Out of all of these examples, not even one of them had entered the path of bhakti after accepting sannysa in the advaitavd line of kara. They were all already situated in the bhakti-mrga. r Hakmj and r Rdhgovindanth say that they had entered the path of bhakti after accepting advaitavd-sannysa and that they did not give up their previous sannysa names and sannysa cloth simply to show respect to their previous cryas. However the actual facts and history are quite the opposite. Is it that r vara Pur and these other prominent personalities, prior to entering bhakti-mrga, had taken advaitasannysa from the advaitavd Mdhavendra Pur? And were they advaitavds? Have Hakmj and those greatly realized persons who share his opinion presented any sound evidence to prove this? Will they be able to show some evidence in the future? Were r Caitanya Mahprabhu, r Nitynanda Prabhu and r Svarpa Dmodara first advaitavd sannyss who later entered bhaktimrga? Never. Any discerning person can never accept this. After rman Mahprabhu, His ll-parikaras (eternal pastime associates) such as the six Gosvms, r Lokanth and Bhgarbha, and later r Kadsa Kavirja, r Narottama hkura and r Vivantha Cakravart hkura were naturally nikicana paramahasa vaiavas. There was no need for them to wear sannysave or saffron cloth. Secondly, rman Mahprabhu had performed the ll of wearing sannysa-ve and saffron cloth. Thus considering themselves to be worthless, lowly and unqualified, these mahtms did not wear sannysa-ve and saffron cloth in order to show honour and respect to the ve of rman Mahprabhu and also to maintain their own identities as servants under the shelter of His lotus feet. On the other hand, in order to express veneration for the nikicana paramahasa-ve of the associates of rman Mahprabhu and, under their guidance, to preach His message throughout the entire world, many akicana vaiavas on the path of rgnuga-bhajana, holding the paramahasa-ve


upon their heads, have accepted a position below their worshipable superiors by wearing the ve and saffron cloth of the sannysa rama which is included within the system of varrama dharma. These two customs, each having their own place, are both exquisitely beautiful and also completely in accordance with siddhnta. Today uddha hari-bhakti has been, is being and will continue to be, preached and spread throughout the world by these mahpurua, great perfected saints, who wear this second type of nikicana sannysa-ve. The names of some of these mahpurua sannyss of the Gauya Sampradya are as follows: 1) r Prabodhnanda Sarasvat: r Prabodhnanda Sarasvat was the guru and paternal uncle of r Gopla Bhaa Gosvm. He was a recipient of the mercy of rman Mahprabhu. In addition to being a greatly learned scholar and a natural poet, he was also fully absorbed in bhajana. 2) r Vivarpa Prabhu: r Vivarpa was the elder brother of rman Mahprabhu. After accepting sannysa his name was r akarraya. He never had any connection with advaitavda. He was a devotee from the very beginning of his life. 3) r Rdhiknth Gosvm: r Rdhiknth Gosvm was a greatly learned scholar and tattva-vid vaiavacrya who appeared amongst the Gauya vaiavas of the r Advaita-vaa. He was a sannys residing in Vrndvana and he used to wear saffron cloth and carry a tridaa. He has quoted numerous statements of scriptural evidence on the subject of sannysa, eligibility for sannysa, its necessity and regulations in his text entitled Yati Darpaa. 4) r Gauragovindnanda: r Gauragovindnanda was a disciple of r Paramnanda Pur. His academic prowess was unrivaled during his time. He was immersed in single-pointed bhajana and his life's breath was r Gaurasundara. His sannysa name was Parivrjakcrya r Gaura-Govindnanda (Pur) Bhgavata Svm. A vyavasthpatra (certified document) written by him in Sanskrit verses to show that the r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya is in the line of r Madhva is especially famous. 5) r Gaura-gopla Gosvm: r Gaura-gopla Gosvm was a resident of r Dhma Navadvpa and a celebrated scholar of the Advaita-vaa. He also accepted tridaa-sannysa. His sannysa name was r Guru-Gauravnanda Mahrja.


6) r Srvabhauma Madhusdana Gosvm: The renowned and supremely erudite r Srvabhauma Madhsudana Gosvm, one of the famous Gosvms of r Rdh-ramaa in r Vndvana Dhma, also accepted sannysa and saffron cloth. 7) r Blaka Gosvm: r Blaka Gosvm was one of the Gosvms of r Rdh-ramaa in Vndvana. He accepted tridaa and vea from r Ka Caitanya Gosvm. 9) r Atula Ka Gosvm: r Atula Ka Gosvm, whose life and soul is r Gaurasundara, is an eminent scholar and exceedingly famous rmad-Bhgavatam commentator among the Gosvms of r Rdh-ramaa in rdhma Vndvana. He has accepted sannysa-vea from r Vidymnya Trtha, the leader of the vaiava community at the headquarters of the r Madhvcrya Sampradya in Uup. Nevertheless, he has maintained the same tilaka, mantra, bhajana-pranl and devotion to rman Mahprabhu of his Gauya parampara as he had done prior to his accepting sannysa. His sannysa name is r Caitanya Kraya Trtha Mahrja. He is currently preaching the message of r Gaurasundara throughout India. 10) Jagadguru rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat: r Vimal Prasda Sarasvat hkura preached throughout the entire world that harinma and uddha-bhakti which fulfills the innermost heart's desire of rman Mahprabhu. He is also the founder of the r Gauya Mahas in every state and country. After accepting sannysa, he was celebrated by the name of Paramahasa Parivrjakcrya r rmad Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat Prabhupda. Out of humility, he used to introduce himself as r Vrabhnav Dayita Dsa. Hundreds of immensely talented and learned sannysa disciples and granddisciples of rla Sarasvat hkura, being absorbed in bhajana and dedicated to the service of r Guru and Gaurga, have preached and spread the message of r Gaura throughout India and all countries, large and small, throughout the entire world. This powerful propagation is also going on today. Among them, names such as Paramrdhya Parivrjakcrya rmad Bhakti Prajna Keava Gosvm Mahrja, rmad Bhakti Hdaya Vana Mhraja, rmad Bhakti Sraga Gosvm Mahrja, rmad Bhakti Dayita Mdhava Gosvm Mahrja. rmad Bhakti Vilsa Trtha Mahrja, rmad Bhakti Bhdeva Sraut Mahrja, rmad Bhaktivednta Swm Mahrja (the famous preacher of the message of rman Mahprabhu throughout the Western countries) and Parivrjakcrya r rmad Bhakti Rakaka rdhara Gosvm Mahrja are especially worthy of a 33

mention. By the great endeavours and service of these mahpurusas, many journals and authentic scriptures such as rmad-Bhgavatam, Gt and r Caitanya-caritmta are being published in Indian languages such as Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Oiy, sm, Gujart, Tamil and Telugu and also in the languages of major nations such as English, French, Spanish, Chinese, Russian and Japanese. This invaluable literature is now available in about 40 or 50 prominent languages of the world, including the various languages of major continents such as South America and Africa. Vast temples of r r GauraNitynanda, r Rdh-Ka, r St-Rma and r Jagannthadeva have been constructed and are being constructed everywhere. Abandoning all sectarianism in regard to caste and creed, thousands of faithful ladies and gentlemen with karatla and mdaga are loudly chanting Hari bol! Hari bol! and finding exhilaration in sakrtana. Are Hakmj and his ika-guruvarga not committing mah-vaiava apardha by claiming that these brilliant, supremely learned, parama nikicana tridai sannyss and brahmacris attired in saffron cloth, whose entire lives are dedicated to r Gaurasundara, are acting independently according to their own desire and that they not following in the footsteps of the Gauya Vaiavcrya Gosvms? Then why in his own smrik (commemorative publication) has he shown the names and pictures of these very mahvaiava cryas and described them in writing as r Brahma-Mdhva Gauya Vaiava cryas or rman Mdhva-Gauevarcryas? Thus the validity of sannysa and saffron cloth in the r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya, both before and after the time of r Caitanya Mahprabhu, has been established herein. Objection 3b: Until the very end of their lives r Gauya vaiavas such as r Rpa and Santana kept the same names by which they were known before renouncing their homes. Refutation 3b: As far as the matter of keeping their previous names and vea until the end of their lives is concerned, this idea of Hakmj is also completely misguided. r Nitynanda Prabhu's previous name was Kuvera. Nitynanda is his sannysa name. r Advaita crya's previous name was Kamalka or Kamalknta. r Santana Gosvm's previous name was Amara. The name given to him by Gauevara Hussein hh was Skara Mallik and the name given by rman Mahprabhu was r Santana. rla Rpa Gosvm's previous name was Santoa. The name given to him by Hussein hh was Dabr Khsa and the name given by rman Mahprabhu was r Rpa. When r Vivantha Cakravart hkura accepted vea his name became 'r Hari Vallabha Dsa'. 34

According to 'Saskra Dpik', written by r Gopala Bhaa Gosvm, the rule of accepting a name indicating servitude to Bhagavn is included in the rites for taking shelter of tridaa sannysa-vea. Even the custom of vea employed at a later time is one type of sannysa, because there is no need of vidhi (regulations) to govern the behaviour of nikicana paramahasas. There is no question of them being controlled by the goad of scriptural injunctions. It is also customary to accept a name indicating servitude to Bhagavn at the time of taking shelter of this vea. For example, r Kadsa Bbj Mahrja (previously Vaaka) and rla Gaura Kiora Dsa Bbj Mahrja (previously Vadsa) to name but a few. There is evidence of thousands of Gauya Vaiavas changing their previous names. Thus this opinion of Hakmj is also simply childish ranting. Refutation 3c) Among those who had taken shelter of the lotus feet of rman Mahprabhu, not all were nikicana paramahasa gosvms and not all were indifferent to the varrama system. There were mahpuruas in all categories; brahmacrs such as r Nakula Brahmacr and r Pradyumna Brahmacr, ghastha devotees such as r Advaita crya, rvsa Paita, r ivnanda Sena and Srvabhauma Bhacrya, sannyss such as r Paramnanda Pur, r Raga Pur and Brahmnanda Bhrat, and prominent nikicana mahbhgavatas such as r Rpa and Santana. However, there was not even a trace of attachment or identification with varrama or vea in any of them. Their acceptance of varrama or vea was wholly and solely to provide a favourable situation for their bhajana. Therefore the idea that those who have accepted sannysa vea have no eligibility for Gauya Vaiava rgnug bhajana is contrary to Gauya siddhnta. Objection 4) After delivering r Srvabhauma Bhacrya, rman Mahprabhu, alluding to Himself through the words of r Srvabhauma, expounded the conclusion that sannysa is unnecessary, detrimental and above all opposed to bhakti-dharma. (r Caitanya Bhgavata 3.3.30) Refutation 4) In r Caitanya-bhgavata there is a description of a conversation about sannysa between r Srvabhauma Bhacrya and rman Mahprabhu which takes place prior to the deliverance of r Srvabhaumaj. r Hakmj has deliberately hidden this incident from the readers. This incident is mentioned in r Caitanya Bhgavata as follows:


n jniy srvabhauma varera marma kahite lgil ye jvera yata dharma param subuddhi tum haiy pane tabe tumi sannysa karil ki krae bujha dekhi vicriy ki che sannyse prathame baddha haya ahakra-pe daa dhari mahjna haya panre khreo bal joa ista nhi kare yra padadhli laite vedera vihita hena jana namaskare, tabu nahe bhta (r Caitanya Bhgavata, di 3/18-22) Being quite ignorant of bhakti and bhakti-tattva, r Srvabhauma Bhacrya considered rman Mahprabhu, who is directly Vrajendranandana Ka, adorned with the sentiment and complexion of r Rdh, to be an ordinary karite sannys of tender years. With this idea in mind, he began to behave as if he were imparting instructions to an ignorant jva. He said to rman Mahprabhu, You are the recipient of Ka's great mercy. You also seem to be highly intelligent. So why have you accepted sannysa? Just consider for a moment, what is the value of sannysa? As soon as he carries a daa, the jva thinks of himself as a great jn and becomes bound up in the ropes of false ego. He can never politely join his palms and speak to anyone with great humility. The Vedas decree that one should accept the foot dust of one's gurujana (superiors). Yet the sannys is not even afraid of committing apardha on seeing such gurujana offering their obeisances to him. In rmad-Bhgavatam we find the injunction to offer prama to all living entities: visjya smayamnn svn dsa vr ca daihikm praamed daa-vad bhmv -va-cla-go-kharam (rmad-Bhgavatam 11.29.16) manasaitni bhtni praamed bahu-mnayan varo jva-kalay pravio bhagavn iti 36

(rmad-Bhgavatam 3.29.34) r Srvabhauma Bhacrya continued: Bhagavn is also present within the hearts of the jvas in the form of the antarym, paramtma. Understanding this, one should offer sga daavat prama to all jvas, including dogs, dog-eaters, cows and asses. However, a sannys rejects his sacred thread and ikh, gives up bhagavat-bhajana, calls himself Nryaa and accepts obeisances even from personalities who are worthy of worship. rman Mahprabhu very humbly replied, Do not consider Me to be a sannys. I have abandoned My home and given up My ikh and sacred thread only for the sake of dedicating Myself exclusively to ka-bhajana. Understanding Me to be afflicted by separation from Ka, mercifully bless me so that I may meet My beloved Ka. On another occasion rman Mahprabhuji spoke as follows: prabhu kahe, sdhu e bhikura vacana mukunda-sevana vrata kaila nirdhraa partma-nih-mtra vea-dhraa mukunda-sevya haya sasra-traa se vea kaila, ebe vndvana giy ka-nievana kari nibhte vasiy The statement of the tridai bhikuka is true and beneficial because he has made a determined vow to engage in the service of the lotus feet of r Mukunda. The purport of sannysa-vea is that by being fixed in the service of r Ka, who is the supreme soul and the cause of all causes, one can give up all material misidentification. When such nih arises, one can attain the service of Bhagavn r Mukunda and very easily cross over the ocean of birth and death. Having accepted sannysa, now I will go to Vndvana and, while remaining in a solitary place, far from the tumult of the mundane world, I will serve the lotus feet of r Ka. (r Caitanya-caritmta Madhya 3.7, 8, 9)


After accepting sannysa, although rman Mahprabhuj set off for Vndvana, He ended up in r Jaganntha Pur. It was there that He met with r Srvabhauma. At that time Srvabhaumaj gave Him the aforementioned instructions defining the defects of sannysa. However, after hearing rman Mahprabhu's explanation of the tmrmaca verse and after having darana of His a-bhuja form, r Srvabhauma 's illusion was dispelled. Then he began to honour all of rman Mahprabhu's ghastha and sannys associates. In all the scriptures such as r Caitanya-caritmta, r Caitanya Bhgavata and r Caitanya Candrmta, one will find a mood of veneration towards the sannysa rama. r Srvabhauma has stated: sahaje pjya tumi are ta' sannysa ataeva ha tomra mi nija-dsa You are naturally respectable and in addition to this you are also a sannys. Therefore I have become your servant. (r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya 6.56) As far as the matter of accepting pramas and considering oneself to be Nryaa is concerned, such behaviour is totally opposed to vaiava-sannysa. In Yjavalkyopaniad the injunction has been given that all sannyss should offer sga prama to all living entities from outcaste dog-eaters to cows, asses, birds and beasts varo jva kalay pravio bhagavniti praamed daavad bhamvva cla gokharam (Yjavalkyopaniad, mantra 4) In Saskara Dpik, written by r Gopla Bhaa Gosvm, it is clearly explained that the sannysa-mantra is the mantra for attaining gop-bhva. In this type of sannysa the ikh and sacred thread are not discarded. Sannysa-vea is only accepted externally for the purpose of engaging in one-pointed bhajana to the lotus feet of r Rdh-Govinda. While internally following the moods of the gops of Vraja, one externally remains in the nugatya (guidance) of the associates of r Gaurasundara. Therefore this sannysa is never opposed to rgnug-bhajana. Another point worthy of our consideration is that if we accept all the bbjs who have received vea to be genuine parama-bhgavata vaiavas,


completely devoid of false ego and the propensity to criticize others, as suggested by their dress, then it would never be possible for them to have hatred and jealousy toward those who have accepted sannysa and saffron cloth and who are engaged in the bhajana of r Guru-Gaurga-Rdh-Govinda exclusively in the nugatya of the Gauya Gosvms. If anyone accepts vea, yet, proudly thinking himself to be in the paramahasa stage, sees other practitioners of unalloyed bhajana with contempt and considers them to be out of line, then how can he be considered a paramahasa or rgnuga-vaiava? Anarthas do not go away simply by putting on bbj-vea. Alternatively, it is certainly meritorious for unqualified sdhakas to remain in the system of varrama and engage in bhajana, while simultaneously giving up pride and attachment to both vara and rama . When one is qualified, one will automatically become indifferent to the regulations of varrama and enter into rgnuga-bhajana. Otherwise, if unqualified persons imitate the fully impartial paramahasa vaiavas then the opposite result is unavoidable. Objection 5) rman Mahprabhuj never instructed anyone to accept sannysa. Rather He has given the instruction to renounce the system of varrama: eta saba chi ra varrama dharma, akicana ha laya kaika araa: Without hesitation, one should take exclusive shelter of r Ka with full confidence, giving up all bad association and even neglecting the regulative principles of varrama-dharma. (r Caitanya-caritmta 2.22.93) Refutation 5) In this verse r Caitanya Mahprabhu is giving instructions on abhidheya-tattva, how to attain the ultimate objective, ka-prema, which are meant for a highly detached nikicana vaiava like r Santana Gosvm. To illustrate and confirm this fact, r Caitanya Mahprabhu has then given the example of Haridasareha Uddhavaj: vija janera haya yadi ka-gua-jna anya tyaji bhaje, tte uddhava-prama Whenever an experienced person develops real knowledge of ri Ka and His transcendental qualities, he naturally gives up all other engagements to perform bhajana. ri Uddhava is evidence of this. (r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya-ll 22.97) Thus such an instruction is not for ignorant or unqualified persons who are seized by anarthas such as a hankering for wealth, women and prestige. One


should understand that this instruction is for learned persons who have realized the tattva of ri Ka's name, form, qualities and pastimes. This fact is clarified by the use of the word yadi (if) in this verse (Madhya-ll 22.97). Therefore it is not the duty of experienced persons to catch one word and just stop there. Rather, it is necessary first of all to consider when, to whom and in what circumstance has a particular regulation or prohibition been spoken. r Caitanya Mahprabhu has given different types of instructions in various circumstances as illustrated by the following examples: a) Instructions to the young Raghuntha Dsa (Gosvm): sthira hai ghare jo n hao btla krame-krame pya loka bhava-sindhu kla Be patient and return to your home. Don't be a crazy fellow. By and by you will be able to cross the ocean of material existence. (r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya-ll 16.237) markaa vairgya n kara loka dekh yathyogya viaya bhuja ansakta hai Do not be renounced like a monkey just to show off to the common people. For the time being, enjoy the material world in an appropriate way, but do not be attached to it. (r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya-ll 16.238) antare nih kara bhye loka vyavahra acirte ka tomya karibena uddhra You should cultivate nih, (resolute dedication to Ka) within your heart, but externally you may behave like an ordinary man. Thus Ka will soon become very pleased and deliver you from the clutches of my. (r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya-ll 16. 239) (b) Instructions to r Raghuntha Bhaa: vddha mt-pitra j karaha sevana vaiava-psa bhgavat kara adhyayana When you return to your home, you should serve your elderly father and mother, who are devotees. Furthermore, you should study rmad Bhgavatam under the guidance of a realized vaiava. (r Caitanya-caritmta, Antya-ll 13.113) 40

(c) Instructions to r ivnanda Sena: ghaha hayena iho chie sacaya sacaya n kaile kuumba bharaa nhi haya Being a householder, Vsudeva Datta needs to save money. However, because he is not doing so, it is very difficult for him to maintain his family. (r Caitanya-caritamta, Madhya-ll 15.95) (d) After accepting sannysa, r Caitanya Mahprabhu instructed the residents of Nadiy in ntipura: ghare jiy kara sad ka sakrtana ka nma, ka kath, ka rdhana Return to your homes. Perform ka sakrtana, chant the names of Ka, discuss Ka's pastimes and worship Ka. (r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya-ll 3.190) ghare giy kara sabe ka sakrtana punarapi m sage haibe milana On returning to your homes, you should all perform ka sakrtana. I assure you that we will meet again. (r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya-ll 3.207) (e) To r Rya Rmnanda: kib vipra, kib nys, udra kene naya je ka tattva-vett se guru haya Whether one is a brhmaa, a sannysi or a udra, one who knows ka-tattva is a guru. (r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya-ll 8.128) (g) Before appearing in this world, r Caitanya Mahprabhu made the following vow: pani karimu bhaktibhva agkre pani cari bhakti ikhimu sabre 41

I shall accept the mood of a devotee and I shall teach bhakti by practising it Myself. (r Caitanya-caritmta, di-ll 3.20) pane n kaile dharma ikhna na jya ei ta siddhnta gt-bhgavate gya Unless one personally practises bhakti, he cannot teach it to others. This conclusion is indeed confirmed throughout the Gt and Bhgavatam. (r Caitanya-caritmta, di-ll 3.29) Furthermore: e mata bhaktabhva kari agkra pani cari bhakti karila pracra In this way, assuming the sentiment of a devotee, He preached bhakti while practising it Himself. (r Caitanya-caritmta, di-ll 4.41) By analyzing these varied instructions of r Caitanya Mahprabhu, we can clearly see that brahmacrs, ghaha-bhaktas, those who have accepted vea and paramahasas who are indifferent to varrama, are all eligible to perform ka-bhajana. Those who are absorbed in ka-bhajana are all worthy of the utmost respect. If a ghaha-vaiava is worthy of veneration, then how can a sannysi-vaiava, who has renounced everything to be exclusively dedicated in aikantika-bhajana, be considered despicable, unprincipled and fit to be neglected? If sdhakas in the ghasthrama, sannysrama or those who have accepted vea, are desirous of ka-prema, they should engage in bhajana while remaining in whichever rama they find to be favourable for the practice of their sdhana to attain that prema. Whatever is unfavourable should be rejected. r Caitanya Mahprabhu explained the reason for His accepting sannysa to r Advaita crya Prabhu in the following way: bin sarva tygan bhajanam na hyasupate riti tygo 'smbhi kta iha kimadvaitakathay yam dao bhyn prabalataraso mnasapao ritivham daagrahaamaviedakaravam (Caitanyacandrodaya Naka 5.22) 42

Without renouncing everything it is not possible to engage in the bhajana of the Lord of one's heart. Therefore I have renounced everything. I am not a renunciant like the advaitavds or nirviea-jnis who hanker for liberation. I have adopted the practice of carrying the sannysa-daa especially to give punishment (daa) to the excessively restless animal of my mind. Can anyone find anything objectionable in such sannysa? Some say rman Mahprabhu's sannysa-ll is only in connection with His own transcendental form and is thus applicable only to Him. However His sannysall is also for the benefit and instruction of the jvas: pan cari bhakti sikhimu sabre I will teach bhakti by practising it Myself. (r Caitanya-caritmta, Antya-ll 3.20) In the verse nham vipro (r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya-ll 13.80) rman Mahprabhu has given instructions regarding the pure svarpa of the jva. The purport is that the bhakti-sdhaka should not keep himself bound in any gross or subtle mundane designations. Rather he should understand himself to be a purely transcendental servant of Ka. Is it that the self-conception of being a sannys inevitably arises in those who accept sannysa whereas there is no possibility of mundane misidentification for ghastas and those who have accepted vea? This seems to be the opinion of Hakmj. Actually sannysa is the arrangement to give up all attachment and self-identification with the system of varrama even while remaining within it. Thus it is highly desirable to relinquish identification with externals and engage in ka-bhajana with a fixed determination to serve His lotus feet. Objection 6) r Santana Gosvm has said that it is forbidden for Gauya Vaiavas to wear saffron cloth: raktavastra vaiavera parite n juyya This red cloth is unfit for a vaiava to wear. (r Caitanya-caritmta, Antya ll 13.61) Refutation 6)


Now the actual context of this statement is being presented before the readers so that the subject may be clarified. r Jagadnanda Paitaj, an associate of r Gaurasundara, was staying in the bhajana-kut of r Santana Gosvm with the intention of having darana of Gokula. One day r Santana Gosvm returned from performing madhukar bhik (begging alms door to door) wearing a red cloth tied around his head. When Paitaj saw this cloth, at first he was very pleased, thinking that it was a remnant of rman Mahprabhu. But later when he realized that this cloth was from an advaitavd sannys, he became furious. Nevertheless r Santana Gosvm very humbly replied, I was wearing this cloth only because I had the desire to see your exclusive dedication to r Caitanya Mahprabhu. Your gaura-nih is glorious. Now I have no need of this. I will throw it away. raktavastra vaiavera parite n yuyya This red cloth is unfit for a vaiava to wear. Here Paitaj's anger was not caused by the sight of saffron cloth. It was caused by r Santana Gosvm's wearing the cloth of an advaitavd sannys as evidenced by the following statement: rtula vastra dekhi, paita premvia hail On seeing the red cloth, Jagadnanda Paita was overwhelmed with ecstatic love. (r Caitanya-caritmta, Antya 13.52) If he was irritated only by reddish cloth then he would also become angry on seeing the cloth of r Caitanya Mahprabhu, r Nitynanda Prabhu, r Svarpa Dmodara, r Paramnanda Pur and others. However, there is no account of such a situation to be found anywhere else. r Santana Gosvm had worn red cloth only to show the proper etiquette in regard to Mahprabhu's vea and to pacify Paitaj. Rakta (red) cloth is forbidden for vaiavas. If it was the intention of r Santana Gosvm to exclusively prohibit the wearing of saffron cloth, then he would have also forbidden sannysa in his own commentary on r Bhad Bhgavatmta. r Santana Gosvm has presented the point of view of r Gauya Vaiavas on the subject of sannysa by citing and explaining verse 3.5.39 of rmad-Bhgavatam in his own commentary on verse 2.7.14 of r Bhad Bhgavatmta:


'ayamartha:-yatayo 'pi yasya padravindasya mlam talam keta rayo yem tathbht eva santa mahadapi sasra dukhamajas anysenaiva bahirtkipantti yadv, ye rbhagaccararavindrayste yataya eva nocyante, kintu paramabhakt eva, sarvaparitygena taccararavindrayat, kevalam ghdiparityganihrthameva sannysa-grahat, veamtrea yatisdyam tem. ye tu tmnameva rbhagavantam rnryaam manvn tmavytiriktadam rutam sarvameva manmaykalpitam mayyevdhyastamitydi myvadnusredvaita bodhamtraparsta evdvaitaparavednta-siddhntamate yatayo 'bhidhyate ta eva hi sacchabdavcebhyo bhaktebhyo bhinn akapp viayargavsitnta kara aj api paitamnino daityapraktaya tn pratyevemni vacanni ryante The demigods said, O Lord! We pray to your lotus feet. They are like an umbrella for repelling all the sufferings of the jvas who have surrendered unto them. On taking shelter of these lotus feet the sannyss easily cast far away the endless miseries of material existence. The conditioned souls of the world taste the threefold miseries and they are incapable of acquiring proper knowledge because they have not taken shelter of Your lotus feet. Bhagavn! We will also take shelter in the shade of those lotus feet and obtain knowledge. r Santana Gosvm comments further: Sannyss take shelter of the lotus feet of r Bhagavn and easily cast off the unlimited miseries of this cycle of birth and death. However those who have taken shelter of the lotus feet of Bhagavn are never called sannyss. Although they externally wear sannysa-vea they are called bhaktas. So here the word 'yati' (sannys) is used to indicate those bhaktas because they have renounced everything to take shelter at the lotus feet of r Bhagavn. In other words they accept sannysa by giving up hearth, home and everything only for the purpose of accomplishing steadfastness in their dedication to the service of Bhagavn (partmanih). They only appear to be sannyss by their outward dress, but actually they are bhaktas. However those who consider themselves to be r Bhagavn Nryaa are absorbed in monistic conceptions in accordance with the myvd point of view. They entertain ideas such as, All substances are situated within me. Although they are seeing, hearing and moving, they have no soul because they are simply imagined by my my. Those who maintain such conceptions are called yati by the adherents of advaitavda vednta-siddhnta. Furthermore, they 45

are different from those who are referred to by the word sat in the aforementioned verse. They are also possessed of a deep attachment for unabated, sinful sense gratification, yet they consider themselves to be greatly learned scholars. Therefore this statement is referring to such yatis who are possessed of a demonic nature. This conclusion of r Santana Gosvm has also been established in r Caitanya-caritmta and r Caitanya Candrodaya. It is also r Caitanya Mahprabhus internal mood. Thus r Santana Gosvm is not an opponent but rather an advocate of saffron cloth. r Hakmj was unable to distinguish between gairika-vastra (saffron cloth) and rakta-vastra (red cloth). Gairika-vastra signifies anurga for Ka whereas rakta-vastra is a symbol of envy. This should not be worn by vaiavas. Objection 7) Sannysa is not mentioned anywhere among the sixty-four limbs of sdhanabhakti. Refutation 7) This argument is extremely ridiculous. Although sannysa is not mentioned anywhere among the sixty-four limbs of sdhana-bhakti, neither is there the slightest mention of entering the ghastha rama, accepting vea or wearing white cloth among the limbs of sdhana-bhakti. So will Hakmj consider that these activities are also forbidden for Gauya Vaiavas? What to speak of r Hakmjs own activities such as running a printing press and a book shop. Since these activities are also not mentioned within the sixty-four limbs of sdhanabhakti then r Hakmj himself, by his own definition, must also be unprincipled and outside of the nugatya of the Gauya Vaiavas. What mountainous intelligence! Ghastha, sannysa or even vea are not limbs of bhakti. They are the outer appearance of sdhana-bhakti which can be accepted if they are favourable or rejected if they are unfavourable. Thus, although sannysa is not mentioned within the sixty-four limbs of sdhana-bhakti, it cannot be considered forbidden. Rgnug is also not mentioned within the limbs of vaidhi, so should it be forbidden? This objection is simply irrelevant and dry logic. Objection 8) At the beginning of the 18th chapter of the eleventh canto of rmad-Bhgavatam rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura, in stating the essence of the chapter, has explained that there is no necessity of any rama for bhaktas by the phrase bhaktasynrayamitvaca.


Refutation 8) Whatever has been elaborately described by rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura in his commentary on the verse 11.18.28 of rmad-Bhgavatam is now being presented before the readers. jnaniho virakto v madbhakto vnapekaka salignramstyaktv caredavidhigocara Commentary by rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura: paripakvajnino nikmasvabhaktasya ca varramaninayamambhvamha,jnaniha paripakva-jnavn anapekaka pratihparyantpekrahita atra sarvath nairapekamajtapremno bhaktasya na sammavedata utpannapremaiva bhakta salignramstyajet anutpannaprem tu nirligramadharmstyajedityartho labhyate; svadharmatygastu tvat karmi kurvteti vkyt bhaktnmrambhata evvagamyate tayo uddhntakaraatvdeva ppe pravttyabhvt durcratva nakyam; tenvidhigocara Bhaktas who are completely devoid of material desires renounce rama dharma along with its concommitant external signs and behave as paramahasas who are not subject to the regulations of the Vedas. Prem-bhaktas are completely impartial and desireless in regard to the material world. As long as prema has not awakened, one cannot be completely impartial. Therefore, as long as prema has not manifested in the heart of the sdhaka-bhakta, he must engage in hari-bhajana without renouncing the system of saliga rama-dharma, that is rama-dharma which is characterized by the appropriate external paraphernalia. He should renounce nirliga rama-dharma or that rama-dharma which is not characterized by the external symbols of recognition. In other words, disregarding the nirliga-rama-dharma which is not characterized by the appropriate paraphernalia such as the tridaa and saffron cloth, one must engage in bhajana. Although the appropriate activities of varrama are not necessary for the impartial bhaktas, as long as devotees are not completely indifferent to material life, i.e. as long as they have not attained prema, they will remain absorbed in bhajana-sdhana while wearing the symbols which are appropriate for their arama such as the tridaa and saffron cloth. Prem bhaktas, who are completely free from all material expectations, also dress appropriately according to the arama system for the benefit of the common people. Sdhaka-bhaktas will also continue to wear the appropriate attire with a


mood of detachment. Otherwise, inauspiciousness will ensue due to transgressing the orders of stra and the mahjanas. By their critical analysis of the tridaa and saffron cloth the sahajiy group who are simply dependent on material reasoning, reveal their own ignorance on the subject of stra and invite vaiava apardha for no reason. If saffron cloth is so impure or forbidden for vaiavas then why is it that since the time of the Rmyaa and Mahbhrata, great, eminent is and maharis who have the power to see past, present and future and also in Kali-yuga highly devoted vaiavcryas who were endowed with divine brilliance and a far-reaching vision of all stra, such as r Rmnujcrya and r Madhvcrya, all wore saffron cloth? In r Gopla camp (prvacamp 3.64) it is stated that r Paurams dev also wears saffron cloth. rla Rpa Gosvm has also written in his Vidagdha Mdhava Naka that r Paurams dev wears saffron (kya) cloth. vahant kymbaramurasi sndpanimune (r Vidagdha Mdhava 1.18) And also, paurams bhagavat sarvasiddhi vidhyan kyavasan gaur kakedaryat (r Rdh-Ka-gaoddeadpik, loka 66) Quoting a verse from Harivaa, rla Jva Gosvm has written that all the princesses who were imprisoned by Naraksura had fasted and put on saffron cloth as part of a vrata to attain the lotus feet of r Ka. sarv kyavsinya sarvca niyatendriy vratopavsatattvaj kkantya ka-daranam (r Gopla Campu, Uttar Vibhga 18.50 - quoted from Harivaa) In r Caitanya Bhgavata there is a description of the sannysa vea of r Nitynanda Prabhu and Nmcrya Haridsa hkura j ire kari' nitynanda - haridsa tatakae calilena pathe si hsa dohna sannysivea - yna yra ghare thevyathe si' bhik - nimantraa kare 48

Taking the order of rman Mahprabhu upon their heads, rman Nitynanda Prabhu and rla Haridsa hkura immediately set out, laughing together in a joyful mood. Wherever they went to beg alms in the form of the holy names of ri Ka, householders would extend invitations to them because they were both wearing sannysa-vea. (r Caitanya Bhgavata Madhya 13.15, 19) In r Caitanya-caritmta rman Mahprabhu personally explained the glories of sannysa while giving consolation to His parents. uni; ac-mirera dukh haila mana tabe prabhu mt-pitra kaila vsana bhla haila, - vivarpa sannysa karila pit-kula, mat-kula, - du uddhrila When acmt and Jaganntha Mira heard of the departure of their elder son, Vivarpa, they were very unhappy. To console them Mahprabhu said, My dear mother and father, it is very good that Vivarpa has accepted sannysa. By doing so he has delivered the dynasties of both his father and mother.(r Caitanya-caritmta, di 15.13, 14) In the 19th vilsa of the scripture Prema-vilsa, there is a description of the sannysa of r Mdhava crya, the author of the text entitled r Ka Magala: sannysa kariy tiha rahi vndvana vrajera madhura bhve karaye bhajana mdhava crya r mdhav sakh hana r rpera kpya tra haila uddpana After accepting sannysa, r Mdhava crya lived in Vndvana and performed bhajana in the parakya bhva of Vraja. r Mdhava crya was inspired by the mercy of r Rpa. In Vraja-lla he is r Mdhav Sakh. (PremaVilsa, 19th vilsa)From this incident described in Prema-Vilsa we can see that the gosvm-varga headed by rla Rpa Gosvm were not against sannysa in any way. We also see from this that the custom of sannysa is also practised among r Gauya Vaiavas. Furthermore, it is also established by this example that a sannys is eligible to engage in bhajana following in the wake of the vraja-gopis. Thus it is not forbidden and it is not outside of the nugatya of the 49

Gauya Gosvms for r Gauya Vaiavas, who are practising devotees, dedicated to bhajana and who have renounced their homes, to accept tridaa sannysa and saffron cloth. However, it is illegal and contrary to stra for unqualified persons to imitate the vea of a nikicana-paramahasa.

In the middle rmad Bhakti Praja Keava Mahrja, to the left rmad Bhaktivednta Muni Mahrja (r Santana Prabhu), and to the right rmad Bhaktivednta Svm Mahrja (r Abhaya Cararavinda Prabhu)


Chapter Two Pacartrika & Bhgavata Guru-parampar

Nowadays, people are concocting newer and newer doubts about r guruparampar in the Gauya Vaiava Sampradya. Some people believe that r Baladeva Vidybhaa was initiated in the Madhva Sampradya and that he was not actually a Gauya Vaiava. They assert that, although he had the association of Gauya Vaiavas, the influence of the Madhva Sampradya was so strong that in his own writings he stubbornly included r Caitanya Mahprabhu and His Gauya Vaiava Sampradya as part of the Madhva Sampradya. They claim that there is no reasonable justification for this, and that r Baladeva Vidybhaa can therefore not be accepted as an crya of the Gauya Vaiava Sampradya. Another group of ignorant people say that Jagadguru r Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat Prabhupdaj created a completely new concept which he called the bhgavata-parampar. According to them, he has explained in this supposedly new doctrine of bhgavata-parampar that rla Bhaktivinoda hkura is a disciple of Vaiava Sarvabhauma rla Jaganntha dasa Bbj Mahrja, and that r Gaura Kiora Dsa Bbj Mahrja is a disciple of rla Bhaktivinoda hkura. Some sahajiy Vaiavas also present the doubt that r Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvats guru-parampar cannot be considered bona fide because he accepted the renounced order (sannysa) from himself. Paramrdhya rla Gurudeva has shattered all these accusations with powerful logic and solid scriptural evidence, and this article presents his analysis of the subject. The disciples and grand-disciples of r Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat Prabhupda are currently preaching r Caitanya Mahprabhus suddha-ka-bhakti and r harinma through-out the world. Because they have preached extensively all over the world, the streets and avenues in every prominent cityand even in every town and villageare resounding with the sound of the holy name, and young men and women are very enthusiastically applying themselves to the cultivation of uddha-bhakti. They are meeting Vaiavas from India, and performing harinma-sakrtana and preaching uddha-bhakti together with them. A few ignorant, so-called Vaiavas of the sahajiy community are agitated by this, and are trying to mislead common people by presenting fraudulent accusations against the Srasvata Gauya Vaiava lineage. rla Gurudeva has established the rational and perfect conclusion on this matter in his own essay entitled Gauya Vedantcrya r Baladeva. Here we have presented some extracts from that essay. 51

The charm and superiority of the bhgavata-parampar

The guru-parampar of the commentator r Baladeva Vidybhaa The historical truth regarding the guru-parampar of the commentator, r Baladeva Vidybhaa is as follows. He first acquired specific expertise in the bhakti-stra under the guidance of Virakta-iromani (the crest-jewel of detached sdhus) Pitambara Dsa. After that, he accepted pacartriki-dk from a Vaiava called r Rdh-Dmodara Dsa, who had appeared in a dynasty of brhmaas in Kanyakubja. Rdh-Dmodara Dsa, who was the grand-son of Rasiknanda Murari, accepted dk from another Kanya-kubjiya brhmaa called r Nayannandadeva Gosvm. Rasiknanda Prabhu, a disciple of r ymnanda Prabhu, is the fourth guru before the commentator Baladeva Vidy-bhana in the pacartrika-guruparampar, and his son was the aforementioned Nayannandadeva Gosvm. The guru of r ymnanda was r Hdaya Caitanya, whose guru was Gauridsa Paita, upon whom rman Nitynanda Prabhu bestowed His mercy. Even though ymnanda Prabhu was a disciple of crya Hdaya Caitanya, he afterwards accepted discipleship under r Jva Gosvm. r Jva Gosvm was a disciple of r Rpa Gosvm, who was a disciple of r Santana Gosvm, and r Santana Gosvm was a follower and associate of rman Mahprabhu. The iya-parampar of r Baladeva Vidybhaa We have given an account of the pacartrika-parampar from rman Mahprabhu down to r Baladeva Vidybhaa. Now we will give an account of his iya-parampar. r Uddhara Dsa, referred to in some places as Uddhava Dsa, was a disciple of the commentator. Some think that these are two different people, but in any case Uddhava Dsa had a disciple named r Madhusdana Dsa. Jaganntha Dsa Bbj was a disciple of this very r Madhusdana Dsa. Previously, as Vaiava Sarvabhauma or the prominent leader of the Vaiava community in Mathur-maala, Ketra-maala and Gaua-maala, he became famous by the name of Siddha Jaganntha Dsa. rla Bhaktivinoda hkura accepted this very Jaganntha Dsa Bbj Mahrja as his bhajanaik-guru by the system of bhgavata-parampar. It was under the direction of Vaiava Sarvabhauma rla Jaganntha Dsa Bbj Mahrja that rla Bhaktivinoda hkura discovered the birthplace of rman Mahprabhu at rdhama Mypura. rla Bhaktivinoda hkura was the ik-guru or bhajanaguru of rla Gaurakiora Dsa Bbj Mahrja. rla Gaurakiora Dsa Bbj Mahrja accepted my Gurupdapadma O Viupda Aottaraata r rmad Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat Prabhupda as his own disciple and gave him dkmantras and so on. Whoever is incompetent in accepting this parampar is to be 52

counted amongst one of the thirteen types of apasampradyas mentioned in writing by r Totarama Bbj Mahrja. Alternatively, he may be regarded as the creator of a fourteenth apasampradya. From the aforementioned guru-parampar we can easily understand that r Baladeva Vidybhaa is a follower of rman Mahprabhu within the spiritual family lineage (parivra) of r ymnanda Prabhu. crya r ymnanda accepted the guidance of r Jva Gosvm, and because Jva Gosvm is exclusively rpnuga (a follower of r Rpa Gosvm), it therefore follows that r Baladeva Vidybhaa is also a rpnuga Vaiava. There are those who acknowledge that r Baladeva Vidybhaa is in the line of r ymnanda, and yet deny that he is a rpnuga Vaiava or that he is qualified for the topmost service mood of unnata-ujjvala-rasa. Such people are certainly only deluded offenders. Although r Baladeva Vidybhaa was initiated in pacartrika-dk by r Rdh Dmodara Dsa, he also accepted ik in rmad-Bhgavatam and the literatures of the Gosvms. Pacartrika-parampar is included within the bhgavata-parampar The system of bhgavata-parampar is superior to that of pacartrikaparampar, and is founded on the degree of proficiency in bhajana (bhajananiha). The charm and superiority of bhgavata-parampar is that pacartrikaparampar is included within it. In bhgavata-parampar there is no obstruction in regard to time. From the viewpoint of uddha-bhakti, the doctrines of pacartrika and of bhgavata both explain the same teachings with the same objective. In r Caitanya-caritmta it is said, pacartra bhgavate ei lakana kaya: These symptoms are described in Vedic literatures such as the pacartras and rmad-Bhgavatam. (Caitanya-caritmta Madhya 19.169). The prakrta-sahajiy sampradya, while claiming to be followers of r Rpa Gosvm, accumulate offences to the lotus feet of r Jva Gosvm. Similarly, nowadays the jti-gosvms and those who accept their remnantssuch as several members of the sahajiy, kartbhaj, kiorbhaj, and bhajankhj sampradyasproudly conceive of themselves as followers of Cakravart hkura, but cast calumnies against the commentator r Baladeva Vidybhaa. In this way, they are growing excessively hateful and progressing towards hell. Here is a diagram of the pacartrika-guru-parampar and the bhgavataparampar. This will enable readers to properly appreciate the speciality of r bhgavata-parampar, and also understand how pacartrika-guru-parampar is included within the bhgavata-parampar. With the help of the diagram below and on the next page we will give an account of the pacartrika-guruparampar and bhgavata-parampar of r ymnanda Prabhu, r Narottama


Dsa hkura, r Raghuntha Dsa Gosvm, r Baladeva Vidybhaa, rla Bhaktivinoda hkura, rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat hkura and other Vaiava cryas. r ymnanda Prabhu: In pacartrika-guru-parampar r Nitynanda Prabhus disciple is Gauridsa Paita, and his disciple Hdaya Caitanya is the dk-guru of r ymnanda Prabhu. In bhgavata-parampar r Caitanya Mahprabhus disciple is r Santana Gosvm, the disciple of Santana is r Rpa Gosvm, and Rpas disciple is r Jva Gosvm. r ymnanda Prabhu is the ik disciple of this same r Jva Gosvm. It is no exaggeration to say that r Jva Gosvm was superior to r Hdaya Caitanya in tattva, rasa, bhajana and indeed in all respects. For this reason, r Hdaya Caitanya personally sent r ymnanda Prabhu to r Jva Gosvm for advanced instruction in the practice of bhajana, and r ymnanda Prabhu accepted the anugatya (guidance) of r Jva Gosvm. Thus the serious question which deserves our consideration here is this: Which is superior, pacartrika-guruparampar or bhgavata-parampar? r Narottama hkura: According to the pacartrika-guru-parampar, r Narottama hkuras guru is r Lokantha Dsa Gosvm. However, there is no record anywhere of r Lokantha Dsa Gosvms pacartrika-dk-guru. Texts such as r Gauya vaiava abhidhana have stated that r Ka Caitanya Mahprabhu is r Lokantha Dsa Gosvms guru, but it is a wellknown fact that rman Mahprabhu did not accept anyone as His disciple according to the pacartrika-pral (method). That means that, if rman Mahprabhu is actually the guru of r Lokantha Gosvm, it is only on the basis of bhgavata-parampar. In any case, r Narottama hkura, besides being the pacartrika disciple of r Lokantha Gosvm, is also the disciple of r Jva Gosvm in bhgavata-parampar. It was in the anugatya of r Jva Gosvm that r Narottama hkura became steeped in bhajana-ik. r Raghuntha Dsa Gosvm: In pacartrika-parampar r Raghuntha Dsa Gosvm is a disciple of r Yadunandana crya, who is situated in the pacartrika-skh (branch) of r Advaita crya. However, if we consider r Raghuntha Dsa Gosvms life history deeply from another viewpoint, we find the very clear and indelible influence of the bhajana-ik of r Svarpa Dmodara and r Rpa Gosvm, who are his gurus in bhgavata-parampar. Here, too, if we compare pacartrika-parampar with bhgavata-parampar, we find that the superiority of bhgavata-parampar shines as radiantly as the sun. r Baladeva Vidybhaa: According to pacartrika-guru-parampar, r Baladeva Vidybhaa is a pacartrika disciple of r Rdh-Dmodara in the parampar of r ymnanda Prabhu. At the same time, in bhgavataparampar he is a disciple of r Vivantha Cakravart hkura with whom he 54

studied rmad-Bhgavatam and all the various Gosvm literatures, and from whom he received advanced instruction in bhajana. The guidance of r Vivantha Cakravart hkura in the life of r Baladeva Vidybhaa is widely known. Only under this guidance did he defeat the r Vaiavas in the royal court of Galt and keep intact the service and worship of r r RdhGovindaj. It was after attaining the mercy of r Govindadeva, r Rpa Gosvms worshipful Deity, that r Baladeva Vidybhaa composed r Govinda-bhya. There is no doubt about r Baladeva Vidybhaa being a rpnuga Vaiava, because he is under the guidance of r Vivantha Cakravart hkura, who is himself most assuredly a rpnuga Vaiava. Furthermore, it is a well-known fact that r Baladeva Vidybhaa attained the mercy of r Govindadeva, the treasured life-breath of r Rpa Gosvm, and ensured His continuing service. From this perspective, too, since he attained the mercy of rla Rpa Gosvm and his rdhyadeva r Govindaj, what doubt could possibly remain about his being a rpnuga Vaiava? r Bhaktivinoda hkura: According to the pacartrika-guru-parampar, the dk-guru of r Bhaktivinoda hkura is r Vipina Bihr Gosvm, who is situated in the pacartrika-parampar of r r Jhnav hkuran. From our other viewpoint, no one can deny that r Bhaktivinoda hkuras life is imprinted with the stamp of rla Jaganntha Dsa Bbj Mahrjas anugatya (guidance). Vaiava Sarvabhauma rla Jaganntha Mahrja is a disciple of the famous Madhu-sdana Dsa Bbj Mahrja in the parampar of r Baladeva Vidybhaa. It is not necessary to say that Vaiava Sarvabhauma rla Jaganntha Dsa Bbj Mahrja is superior to r Vipina Bihr Gosvm in tattva-jna, bhajana-ik, etc. r Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat hkura: According to pacartrika-guruparampar r Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat hkuras dk-guru is r Gaura Kiora Dsa Bbj Mahrja who is a descendant in the pacartrika-guruparampar from r Jhnav hkurn. rla Bbj Mahrja accepted the attire of a renunciate (vea) from a disciple of rla Jaganntha Dsa Bbj Mahrja named r Bhgavata Dsa Bbj Mahrja. Thus by bhgavata-parampar, r Gaurakiora Dsa Bbj Mahrja is in the branch of rla Jaganntha Dsa Bbj Mahrja. According to this analysis, by pacartrika-parampar rla Sarasvat hkura is in the parampar of r Jhnav hkurn, and in bhgavata-parampar he has been connected with rla Jaganntha Dsa Bbj Mahrja. It is clear from rla Sarasvat Prabhupdas life history that r Bhaktivinoda hkuras practices, precepts and bhajana-praali were his very life and soul, and that he made the fulfilment of the hkuras aspirations the sole aim and object of his life. Thus his guru in bhgavata-parampar was r Bhaktivinoda hkura, whose guru was rla Jaganntha Dsa Bbj Mahrja. Therefore


there is not even the slightest justification for raising a finger against the guruparampar of rla Sarasvat hkura, the Founder-Acrya of the r Gauya Maha. Several additional facts are worthy of our consideration on the subject of pacartrika-guru-parampar and bhgavata-parampar (1) The guru of lower rasa If a pacartrika-dk-guru in his siddha-svarpa (constitutional spiritual form) is situated in a rasa which lower than that of his disciple, how can he give bhajana-ik pertaining to the more elevated rasa? In this situation, the disciple must go elsewhere and take shelter of a Vaiava who is qualified to give the appropriate superior guidance. For example, r Hdaya Caitanya is an associate in sakhya-rasa in Ka lila, whereas his disciple r ymnanda Prabhu (Dukh Ka Dsa) is an associate in madhura-rasa. Therefore r Hdaya Caitanya personally sent Dukh Ka Dsa to rla Jva Gosvm to receive higher bhajana-ik pertaining to madhura-rasa. (2) The less qualified guru It may happen that guru and disciple in pacartrika-guru-parampar are in the same rasa, but that the guru is not so highly qualified as the disciple. Under such circumstances, the disciple must go and take shelter of an uttama Vaiava for higher bhajana-ik and this Vaiava will be called his guru in bhgavataparampar. We can see from these two considerations that the pacartrika process has some inherent defects, whereas the bhgavata-parampar is completely free from these defects, and is flawless in all respects. (3) rman Mahprabhu is not pacartrika-guru of anyone All members of the Gauya Sampradya accept r Caitanya Mahprabhu as jagad guru, and consider themselves to be His followers. However, on what basis do they maintain this conviction? There is no recorded account anywhere of rman Mahprabhu giving dk-mantra to anyone. This means that rman Mahprabhu is not the guru of anyone else in pacartrika-parampar, although He Himself is a disciple of r vara Pur. Therefore, if the Gaudya Vaiava community accepts the anugatya and discipleship of r Caitanya Mahprabhu, it can only be on one basis, and that basis is bhgavata-parampar. (4) All Gauya Vaiavas are rpnuga on basis of bhgavata-parampar only Each and every Gauya Vaiava is proud to call himself rpnuga. But let us consider this point: How many disciples did r Rpa Gosvm initiate by the pacartrika method? The fact is that r Jva Gosvm is his one and only dk disciple, and he himself is not actually a dk disciple of r Caitanya Mahprabhu. So on what basis do members of the Gauya Vaiava community accept r Rpa Gosvm as their guru? How is it possible to be a follower of r Rpa Gosvm and at the same time be a follower of r Caitanya Mahprabhu?


Even r Santana Gosvm, who is the ik-guru of r Rpa Gosvm, has no second thoughts about calling himself rpnuga. The basis of all these examples is onebhgavata-parampar. It is only on the basis of bhgavata-parampar that r Rpa Gosvm is the disciple of r Caitanya Mahprabhu, and that the Gauya Vaiava community considers r Rpa Gosvm to be their guru. Who is the pacartrika-dk-guru of rla Kadsa Kaviraja Gosvm? We cannot say, because he has not mentioned the name of his pacartrikadk-guru in any of his literatures, but he has named his ik-gurus in r Caitanya-caritmta, Adi 1.37: ei chaya guru, ik-guru ye mra t-sabra pda-padme koi namaskra These six gurus (the Six Gosvms of Vndvana) are my ik-gurus and I offer countless obeisances at their lotus feet. At the end of each chapter of r Caitanya-caritmta he has written: r-rupa-raghuntha-pade yra a caitanya caritmta kahe ka dsa In these statements he has accepted r Rpa Gosvm and r Raghuntha Dsa Gosvm as his main ik-gurus. Thus he has also accepted them as gurus on the basis of bhgavata-parampar. From these facts it becomes thoroughly obvious that bhgavata-parampar, which includes pacartrika-parampar, always shines forth brilliantly. What can we say, then, about those who ignore these facts, about those who cast aspersions on the guru-pral of r Baladeva Vidyabhaa, rla Bhaktivinoda hkura and r Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat hkura, and about those who doubt that they are rpnuga Vaiavas? Such people are certainly staunch opponents of r Caitanya Mahprabhu and secret agents of Kali. Thus, whatever opinion my most worshipful rla Gurudeva has written on the subject of the guru-pral of r Baladeva Vidybhaa, and also in regard to pacartrika-guru-parampar and bhgavata-parampar, is both logical and fully in agreement with the established conclusions of the scriptures (strasiddhnta).



Chapter Three The Gauya Sampradya is in the Line of Madhavcrya

The protection of his sampradya The followers of r Caitanya Mahprabhu accept the r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya as the Brahma-Madhva-Gauya Vaiava Sampradya on the strength of the guru parampar. This is mentioned by the prominent Gauya Vaiava cryas rla Gopla Bhaa Gosvm, r Kavi-karapra and Gauya Vednta crya rla Baladeva Vidyabhaa. Thus Gauyas consider themselves to be a branch of the r Madhva Sampradya. Vaiava cryas such as rla Jva Gosvm, r Kadsa Kavirja Gosvm, rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura, rla Bhaktivinoda hkura and Jagadguru r Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat have also accepted this opinion. However these days some people are trying to establish their own concocted opinion that the r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya is an independent sampradya of which r Caitanya Mahprabhu is the original founder. r Sundarnanda Vidyvinoda (who became opposed to his own guru r Ananta Vsudeva) has tried, together with some other personalities, to prove that the sampradya of rman Mahprabhu is not included in the r BrahmaMadhva Sampradya. They state instead that it is included in the impersonalist advaita-vd sampradya. Originally, r Sundarnanda Vidyvinoda Mahodaya accepted in his crya r Madhva that Mahprabhus sampradya is included in the r Madhva Sampradya. However, afterwards he considered that his own previous evidence was not authentic. In his later book Acintya-bhedbheda, he tried unsuccessfully to prove that the r Gauya Sampradya is an independent sampradya. All the arguments of the contending party are evident in his book. Paramrdhya r rmad Bhakti Prajna Keava Gosvm Mahrjaj, who is like a lion for the elephant-like heretics, wrote his own essay entitled Acintyabhedbheda, in which he uses scriptural evidence and incontrovertible reasoning to refute all the arguments in Sundarnanda Vidyvinodas book. This essay has been published in several issues of the Bengali r Gauya Patrik and the Hindi r Bhagavata Patrik. We shall now briefly mention some of those arguments and evidence.

The r Gauya Vaiava sampradya is in the line of r Madhva

First we shall mention two currently prominent arguments which r Sundarnanda Vidyvinoda has put forward.


Objection 1: According to r Caitanya-caritmta and r Caitanya-candroayantaka, r Caitanyadeva accepted sannysa vea from a kevaldvaita-vda sannys, r Keava Bhrati, and He has referred to himself as a myvda sannys. In addition to this, Praknanda Sarasvat, who was the guru of the myvda sannyss of K, also described him as a sannys of the myvd sampradya. keava bhratra iya tahe tumi dhanya smprady sannys tumi raha ei grme Sarvabhauma Bhatta crya has also accepted this: bhrat sampradya ei hayena madhyama (r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya 6.72) Refutation: This argument of the opposing party is totally unfounded, for the following reasons. After a jva has realised that material existence in the chain of birth and death is useless and distressful, he can recognise that the attainment of service to the lotus feet of Bhagavn is the supreme auspiciousness. Therefore one who is extremely fortunate accepts dk and ik from a person who is thoroughly versed in abda-brahma, who is adorned with realisation of Bhagavn and who has no attachment for sense gratification. That jva then enters into paramrtha, the acquisition of his highest spiritual objective. In r Caitanya Mahprabhus nara-ll (human-like pastimes), He went to Gay Dhma on the pretext of making offerings (pit-rddha) for the benefit of his deceased father. There He offered Himself fully at the lotus feet of r vara Purpda, who was the bud of the desire-tree of prema. He was also a supremely rasika and bhvuka disciple of r Mdhavendra Pur, the root of that desire-tree of prema. prabhu bale gay ytr saphala mra yatra kane dekhil caraa tomra (r Caitanya Bhgavata, di 17.50) sasra-samudra haite uddhraha more e mi deha samarpil tomre ka-pda-padmera amta-rasa pna mre karo tumi ei chi dna ra dine nibhte vara pur sthne mantra dk chilena madhura-vacane (r Caitanya Bhgavata, di 17.54) tabe tna sthne ik-guru nryaa karilena dakara mantrera grahaa


(r Caitanya Bhgavata, di 17.107) According to this section of r Caitanya-Bhgavata, r Nim Paita performed the pastime of surrendering his heart at the feet of r vara Pur. He prayed to him for the dk-mantra in order to get release from material existence and to attain r Ka prema, and r Purpda very affectionately gave him dk by the ten-syllable mantra. Sometime afterwards, r Nim Paita accepted sannysa vea in Kava from the advaita-vda sannys r Keava Bhrati. After accepting sannysa he set off for Vndvana, saturated in the madness of prema. When he arrived in Rhadea, absorbed in prema, he chanted a verse from rmad-Bhgavatam. et sa sthya partmanihm adhysit prvatamair mahribhi aha tariymi durantapra tamo mukundghri nievayaiva (rmad-Bhgavatam 11.23.57) I shall easily cross over the insurmountable ocean of nescience by rendering service to the lotus feet of r Ka. This was approved by the great is of ancient times, who were fixed in firm devotion to Mukunda. prabhu kahe sdhu ei bhikuka-vacana mukunda sevanavrata kaila nirdhraa partmnihmtra vea-dhraa mukunda-sevya haya sasra-traa se vea kaila ebe vndvana giy ka-nievana kari nibhte vasiy (r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya 3.7.9) After accepting sannysa, Mahprabhu said, This promise of the tridai-bhiku is supremely true because the vow to serve the lotus feet of r Ka is fixed by accepting this vea. Having renounced dedication to material sense objects, the purpose of accepting this vea is partm-niha, single-pointed devotion to the lotus feet of r Ka. I have accepted this vea, so now I will go to Vrndavana and serve the lotus feet of Ka. In the above verse, the phrase partmanihmtra vea-dhraa is particularly worthy of consideration. It indicates that Mahprabhu only accepted vea from r Keava Bhrati because it was favourable for the cultivation of bhagavadbhakti. He did not accept any mantra or any doctrines of advaita-vda. On the contrary, throughout His life He refuted kevaldvaita-vda and the conclusions of myvda. It is clear that r Caitanya Mahprabhu accepted only r vara Purpda as his genuine guru, because it is r vara Purpdas uddha-bhakti 61

that He accepted, preached and propagated throughout His life. r Mdhavendra Purpda and r vara Purpda are included within the Madhva Sampradya, so r Caitanya Mahprabhu and his followers, the Gauya Vaiavas, are also included in the Madhva Sampradya. Moreover, r Caitanya Mahprabhus con-temporary pastime associates r Nitynanda Prabhu, r Advaita crya, r Puarka Vidynidhi, Brahmnanda Pur and others are also followers of the r Madhva Sampradya because they are all in the line of r Mdhavendra Pur. rman Mahprabhu always respected the disciples of r Mdhavendra Pur as his gurus, and He treated the disciples of r vara Pur as Godbrothers. Guru j haya avicranya: One should not deliberate on the validity of the order of the guru. According to this conclusion, he accepted Govinda as his servant. It is proved by this that vara Pur was actually his Guru. Another point is as follows. r Madhva crya accepted sannysa from Acyutapreka, who was also a kevaldvaita-vd. Suppose we accept the opinion of the opposing party, just for the sake of argument. In that case, if Mahprabhu is a kevaldvaita-vd sannys, then by the same logic so is Madhva crya as well. Where, then, is the obstacle to rman Mahprabhujs being in the Madhva Sampradya, if both of them accepted the advaita-vd ankaras sampradya? There is a second point here. r Madhva crya accepted eka-daa (a single staff of renunciation) according to the customs and regulations of the ankara sampradya. It would be logically consistent to say that r Caitanya Mahprabhu followed his ideal example, and also accepted eka-daa sannysa from a sannys of the ankara sampradya, namely r Keava Bhrati. From this it seems clear that Gauya Vaiavas are in the line of r Madhva crya. Objection 2: Gauya Vaiava crya r Jva Gosvm has not mentioned any sort of relationship between the Gauya Sampradya and the Madhva Sampradya any-where in his literatures such as Tattva-sandarbha or Sarvasavdin. This idea has been introduced by r Baladeva Vidybhaa, who was initiated into the Madhva Sampradya in the early part of his life and only later entered the Gauya Sampradya. For this reason he had a natural inclination toward the Madhva Sampradya. Therefore Baladeva Vidybhaa has forced the issue out of prejudice, and has mentioned the r Madhva Sampradya in his commentary on Tattva-sandarbha. In his Prameya Ratnval he delineated a guru-parampar which includes r Caitanya Mahprabhu and His sampradya within the r Madhva Sampradya. Refutation: These accusations are completely groundless and imaginative fabrications. Actually Jva Gosvm acknowledged the tattva-vda of r Madhava crya, who is the guru of tattva-vda, and took support from it when he compiled his Tattva-sandharbha, Bhagavata-sandarbha and so on. Not only this,


but he also cited in his literatures the fundamental prama or substantiating verses of tattva-vda such as, vdanti tat tattva-vidas tattvam (S.B. 1.2.11). Of the four vaiava sampradya-cryas, only Madhva crya is celebrated by the name of tattva-vd. Since r Jva Gosvm has personally established tattvavda, the Vaiavas of the Madhva-Gauya Sampradya are therefore tattvavds. In the third loka of the magalcaraa (auspicious invocation) of Tattvasandarbha, r Jva Gosvm glorifies his guru r Rpa Gosvm and his paramguru r Santana Gosvm as tattvajpakau (the cryas who proclaim tattva). Similarly, the crown of the dynasty of vaiava cryas, r Baladeva Vidybhaa Prabhu, has also designated r Rpa and r Santana as tattvavid-uttamau (the highest of all knowers of tattva) in his commentary on this same loka. It is clear from this that r Jva Gosvm has offered respect to r Madhva crya, and that r Baladeva Vidybhaa has followed Jva Gosvm in honouring Madhva crya. Baladeva Vidybhaa Prabhu, has not shown any prejudice towards Madhva crya. On the contrary, if we compare Jva Gosvm with Baladeva Vidybhaa, we find that Baladeva Vidybhaa has glorified the two Gosvms r Rpa and Santana more than Jva Gosvm has. There is no doubt whatever that r Baladeva Vidybhaa is situated in the mnyadhr (the transcendental current of conclusive evidence) or the paramapar of r Gaura-Nitynanda Prabhus and of rla Jva Gosvmpda who immediately follows them. r Baladeva Vidybhaa is in the ninth generation from r Nitynanda Prabhu according to bhgavat-parampar, and in the eighth generation according to pacartrika-parampar. Historians have accepted his pacartrika-parampar as follows: r Nitynanda, r Gaurdsa Paita, Hdaya Caitanya, Symnanda Prabhu, Rasiknanda Prabhu, Nayannanda Prabhu and r Rdh-Dmodara. r Baladeva Prabhu is the initiated disciple of this r Rdh-Dmodara and is also the most prominent ik disciple of r Vivantha Cakravart. Historians have declared that in no branch of the Madhva guru-parampar were there any brilliant scholars of such widespread fame as Baladeva. In fact, at that time no one in any sampradya anywhere in India could equal r Baladevas knowledge in logic, in Vednta and in stra such as the Puras and itihsas. It is true that he stayed for some days in the most prominent maha established by r Madhva crya in Up, and that he studied the r Madhva commentary on Vednta; however, the r Gauya Sampradya was more of an influence upon him than was the r Madhva Sampradya. It is natural for scholarly personalities, who are worshipful throughout the worlds and who are the preceptors of great precepts, to follow in the lotusfootsteps of the vaiava cryas of the very influential Madhva-Gauya Sampradya. r Baladeva thoroughly studied the commentary of Madhva, and 63

also made a meticulous study of the commentaries of akara, Rmnuja, Bhskara crya, Nimbrka, Vallabha and others. It is illogical to say that he is included in each one of those sampradyas because he had studied those groups of philosophers. r Baladeva Prabhu has described historical events and quoted the conclusions of the previous Gauya Vaiava cryas in many literatures, such as his Govinda-bhya, Siddhnta-ratnam, Prameya-ratnval and his commentary on Tattva-sandharba. He has enabled all the philosophers of the world to understand that the r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya is included within the Madhva Sampradya. In this regard all the scholars of the world, eastern and western, ancient and modern, have bowed their heads in reverence, and have unanimously accepted the siddhnta and opinions of r Baladeva Vidybhaa Prabhu. r Baladeva Vidybhaa was sent by r Vivantha Cakravart to protect the honour of the Gauya Vaiava sampradya in the Galat Gadd in Jaipura. There he defeated the objecting paitas of the r sampradya in scriptural debate. There are no second opinions about this. Does this not show that r Vivantha Cakravart hkura personally inspired his ik disciple Baladeva Vidybhaa to prove that the Gauya Vaiavas are in the line of Madhva crya? rla Cakravart hkura sent his dk disciple r Kadeva Sarvabhauma with r Baladeva to help him. If r Cakravart hkura had not been so aged and weak at that time, he certainly would have gone to Jaipur in person to take part in this debate about the sampradya. He would also have established the very same conclusion as r Baladeva Vidybhaa. There is no sound evidence to prove that r Baladeva Vidybhaa was first an crya or disciple in the Madhva Sampradya. There may be hearsay and imaginative rumours, but no one has given any substantial proof. The opposition party has alleged that rla Jva Gosvm has not mentioned anywhere in his literature that Gauya Vaiavas are in the line of the Madhva Sampradya. This accusation is born of ignorance and is absurd in the extreme. In numerous places in Tattva-sandarbha, rla Jva Gosvm mentions his being in the line of Madhva. Moreover, while composing a-sandarbha, he accepted the guidance of cryas in the r Madhva Sampradya such as Vijayadhvaja, r Brahmayatrtha and Vysatrtha, and collected many scriptural proofs from their literatures. It is true that he has also quoted the statements of r Rmnuja crya and rdhara Svmpda in many places, but he has not considered these cryas to be previous cryas of the r Gauya Sampradya. r Jva Gosvm has even accepted the statements of sages of different philosophical schools such as Kapila and Ptajal when they are favourable to bhakti. Nonetheless, that does not mean that he is within those sampradyas. One may establish a specific point of siddhnta which supports the views of an crya of a particular 64

sampradya. That does not mean that one is then a member of that sampradya. Only when the siddhnta is established by taking all the opinions of the cryas disciple and grand-disciple is the person establishing that conclusion considered to be in that sampradya, otherwise not. A part of the writings of Sila Jva Gosvm in regard to this topic is quoted here: atra ca sva-daritrtha-viea-prmyyaiva. na tu rmad-bhgavata-vkyaprmyya pramni rut-purdi vacan yath dam evodhara yni. kvacit svayamadrkari ca tattva-vda-gurunmdhunikn rmac chakarcrya iyat labhvpi r bhagavatapakapatena tato vicchidya, pracura-pracrita vaiavatama- vie dakidi-deavikhyta-'iyopaiya-bhta'-vijayadhvajajayatrtha-brahmayatrtha-vysatrthdi-veda-vedrtha vidvadvarn rmadhvcrya-cara bhgavata ttparya-bhrata-ttparya, brahma-strabhydibhya saghtni. taicairamukta bhrata ttparye (2.1.8) strntari sajnan vedntasya prasdata dee dee tath granthn dv caiva pthag vidhn yath sa bhagavn vysa skn nryana prabhu jagda bhratdyeu tath vakye tadkay iti (Tattva-sandarbha 97-98) tatra taduddhat ruti catur veda ikhdy, purna ca grudn saprati sarvatr-pracaradrpamadika; sahit ca mahsa hitdik; tatraca tatra bhgavata brahma tarkadikamiti jeyam. I (Jva Gosvm) have quoted various authentic scriptural statements as evidence in the a-sandharbha literature. This is to establish the authenticity of my own interpretation or opinion which I have expressed in this literature; it is not to try to prove that the statements or conclusions of rmad-Bhgavatam are authentic. rmad-Bhgavatam, like the Vedas, is self-evident (svata-prama) and therefore does not depend upon any second evidence. In this literature I have quoted various statements of evidence from the original texts of ruti-smti, the Puras and so on, exactly as I have personally seen them in those literatures. Besides that, my predecessor cryas from among the guru-varga of tattva-vda have cited evidence which I, the author of Tattva-sandarbha (tattva-vd), have also quoted although there are several of the original texts which I have not seen personally. These tattva-vd predecessor gurus, such as r Mdhavendra Pur, have accepted the iyatva of r akara crya by accepting sannysa from cryas in the akara sampradya. Nonetheless, because of their strong inclination to Bhagavn, they remained completely aloof from the doctrines of akara. They broadly promulgated vaiava doctrines of cryas which contain various specialities from the conclusions of the cryas. The disciples and granddisciples of the renowned nanda-trtha, Vijayadhvaja, Brahmayatrtha and


Vysatrtha have collected evidence from literatures such as Bhgavata-ttparya, Bhrata-ttparya and Brahma-stra-bhya composed by rman Madhva crya, the best of those who know the Vedas and their inner purport. In his Bhrata-ttparya, rman Madhva crya has also written, By the grace of Vednta and the Upaniads, I will establish the siddhnta, since I know the confidential mystery of various other stras, I have investigated varieties of literature from different countries and I have honour for the conclusions expressed in texts such as the Mahbhrata written by the direct manifestation of Nryaa, r Ka-dvaipyana Vedavysa. I (Jva Gosvm) am composing Tattva-sandarbha following the above statements of rman Madhva crya. I am accepting statements quoted by him and those in his line, without having personally seen the originals of many of the texts. This includes tantra such as sahit and mahsahit, tantra-bhgavata and brahmatarka. This evidence clearly proves that r Jva Gosvm has accepted only rman Madhva crya as the predecessor crya of the r Gauya Sampradya. Nowhere does r Jva Gosvm such a clear statement in regard to r Rmnuja crya or rdhara Svmpda. Specifically he has not accepted all the conclusions of the disciples and grand-disciples of any sampradya crya other than Madhva. r Rmnuja crya had many disciples and grand-disciples, and rdhara Svami also had many disciples, but Jva Gosvm has not written down their names anywhere. What to speak of mentioning Nimbrka cryas name, we cannot find even a scent of his existence anywhere in Jva Gosvms literature. Objection 3: rla Jva Gosvm has described the glories of rman Mahprabhu in a verse in the magalcaraa of his Sarva-savdin. Praying to Mahprabhu, he has described Him as sva-sampradya-sahasrdhidaiva' (the eternal presiding Deity of thousands upon thousands of sampradyas founded by Him). How, then, can He be included within any other sampradya? He is personally the founder of the independent Gauya Sampradya. Refutation: This objection is quite ridiculous. The complete verse from the magalcaraa of Sarva-savdin reads as follows: durlabha-prema-pyagag-pravha-sahasra sva-sampradya-sahasrdhidaiva r ka caitanyadeva nmna r bhagavntam r Sundarnanda Vidyvinoda and other antagonists have interpreted svasampradya-sahasrdhidaivam in this verse to mean the presiding Deity of thousands of sampradyas which rman Mahprabhu has personally inaugurated. The salient point here is that rman Mahprabhu has not founded thousands of sampradyas; He has established only one sampradya, which is


called the r Madhva-Gauya Vaiava Sampradya. Therefore their interpretation is completely mistaken. r Rasikamohana Vidybhaa Mahodaya has interpreted svasampradyasahasrdhidaiva in another way as the supreme presiding Deity of his own sampradya. This meaning is quite appropriate, and all Gauya Vaiavas have accepted it. One may say, rman Mahprabhu is Svaya Bhagavn, and is directly r Kacandra. Is it necessary for Svaya Bhagavn Gauracandra to consider any other personality as His guru, and to accept dk and ik from him? The answer is, Yes, it is necessary, when r Bhagavn performs his narall (human-like pastimes). r Rmacandra has exhibited the pastime of accepting dk and ik from Vaiha Muni, r Ka from Sndpani Muni, and rman Mahprabhu from vara Purpda. These activities do not effect their bhagavatt (Godhood) even in the slightest way. Svaya Bhagavn performs such pastimes in order to give instructions to the world. There is no question of rman Mahprabhus tattva being lost if He is included in any sampradya. It is not the personal duty of Bhagavn to found a sampradya; His devotees do that. History shows that in all cases only Viu akti or the servants of Viu have ever founded a sampradya. Granted, r Bhagavn is the original, eternal personality of santana-dharma which He Himself establishes, as is evident in scriptural statements such as 'dharman tu skt bhagavat prantam' (rmad-Bhgavatam 6.3.19) and 'dharmo jaganntha skt nryah' (Mahbhrata, nti-parva 348.54). Still the statement 'akart caiva kart ca karya kraam eva ca' (Mahbhrata, nti-parva 348.7) shows that Bhagavn has no direct agency in the business of establishing a sampradya. Rather, He accomplishes this task through his empowered representatives. If it were not so, then instead of the Brahma, Rudra, Sanaka and r Sampradyas, there would be the Vsudeva, Sakaraa and Nryaa Sampradyas. Objection 4: While touring in South India, rman Mahprabhu went to Up. There he had a discussion with a tattva-vd crya, who was in r Madhva cryas sampradya. Mahprabhu refuted the views of the tattva-vds, so He can never be included in that sampradya. Refutation: rman Mahprabhuj did not directly refute Madhva cryas ideas about uddha-bhakti. Rather, He refuted the distorted opinions of the tattvavds which had entered into the Madhva Sampradya in the course of time. Readers can understand this simply by looking in this section of r Caitanyacaritmta (Madhya 9. 276.277) prabhu kahe karm, jn, dui bhaktihna tomara sampradye dekhi sei dui cihna sabe eka gua dekhi tomra sampradye satya-vigraha vare karaha nicaye 67

Karms and jns are devoid of devotion, and it is seen that both of these are respected in your sampradya. Still, in your sampradya there is one very great qualitythe form of Bhagavn or r vigraha has been accepted. Not only this, but r vigraha has also been accepted as Vrajendra-nandana r Ka Himself. He is worshipped in your sampradya in the form of Ntya-Gopla. This proves that rman Mahprabhu refuted distortions which later entered the Madhva Sampradya in the course of time. He did not refute Madhva cryas opinions on uddha-bhakti or the fundamental conclusions that he expressed in his commentaries. On the contrary, we have already shown that literatures such as Tattva-sandarbha and Sarva-savdin have been based on the conclusions of r Madhva and his disciples and grand-disciples. In this connection we should point out that a difference of sampradya does not generally arise from some minor difference of opinion. Rather, the difference between sampradya comes from the differences of theory about the principal object of worship. Objection 5: Madhva cryas doctrine includes the following specific points: (a) liberation is only attained by brhmaas who have taken birth in a brhmaa dynasty; (b) among devotees, the devas are prominent; (c) only Brahma merges with Viu; (d) Lakmj is in the category of jva; and (e) the gops are in the category of the psars of Svarga. However, in the opinion of r Caitanya Mahprabhu and the Vaiava cryas in his line these conceptions of Madhva are contradictory to the conclusions of uddha-bhakti. Under such circumstances, why would r Caitanyadeva accept the Madhva Sampradya? That being the case, how can the cryas following in his Gauya Sampradya be included within the Madhva Sampradya? Refutation: When r Baladeva Vidybhaa was in Galt Gadd in Jaipur, he used astric evidence and incontrovertible logic to break to pieces all these arguments of the opposition party. He quoted the conclusions of Madhva crya as well as those of his disciples and grand-disciples such as Vijayadhvaja, Brahmayatrtha and Vysatrtha. r Baladeva Vidybhaa has refuted all such accusations in his literary compositions such as his commentary on Tattvasandarbha, his Govinda-bhya, Siddhnta-ratnam and Prameya-ratnval, and he has proved that the r Gauya Sampradya is included within the Madhva Sampradya. In the Galt Gadd assembly, Baladeva proved that Madhva considered Laksmj to be the dear consort of Viu. Madhva taught that her spiritual body is composed of knowledge and pleasure and, like Viu, she is also completely free from defects, such as the misery of being confined in the womb prior to birth. She is all-pervading, and she also enjoys in unlimited forms along with the unlimited forms of Viu. When the avatra of Viu descends, Lakmj also


descends and remains splendidly present in the form of that avataras dear beloved consort. Like Viu, Lakmj also has various names and forms (Bhad-ranyaka Bhya 3.5, written by r Madhva). Further-more, Lakmdev is Vius subservient embodiment of all knowledge. She is also superior to and more qualified than Caturmukha Brahm. She exists radiantly on the limbs of Bhagavn in the form of various types of ornaments, and it is she who manifests all facilities for the pleasure of Viu, such as his bed, seat, throne, ornaments and so on. (This is from r Madhva cryas explanation of Brahma-stra 4.2.1, supported by rmad-Bhgavatam 2.9.13) Nowhere has r Madhva described r Lakmj to be in the category of jva. Similarly, the ideas that only brhmaas attain liberation, that the devas are the prominent devotees, that only Brahm merges with Viu and so on, are all foreign to the Madhva Sampradya. On this subject rla Bhaktivinoda hkura has explained in his The Teachings of rman Mahprabhu why r Caitanya Mahprabhu has accepted the Madhva Sampradya. r Jva Gosvm, having determined the authenticity of one whose speech is true, has also ascertained the authenticity of the Puras. Ultimately he has proved that rmad-Bhgavatam is the crest jewel of all evidence. He has shown that the same characteristic qualities which qualify rmad-Bhgavatam as the topmost evidence also apply to the scriptures certified by Brahm, Nrada, Vysa, Sukadeva and after them in sequence Vijayadhvaja, Brahmayatrtha, Vysatrtha, and their tattva-guru rman Madhva crya. These scriptures, then, are also in the category of authentic literatures. It is clearly evident from this that the Brahma-Madhva Sampradya is the gurupral (system) of the Gauya Vaiavas who have taken shelter of rman Mahprabhu. Kavi karapra confirmed this same idea in his delineation of the guru-parampar in his Gaura-ganoddea-dpik. The commentator of Vednta-stra r Baladeva Vidybhaa has also accepted this same succession. There is no doubt at all that those who do not accept this succession are prominent enemies of r Caitanya Mahprabhu and of the Gauya Vaiavas who are following in His footsteps. The doctrine of bhedbheda or dvaitdvaita which Nimbrka propounded is incomplete. It is in accepting the teachings of r Caitanya Mahprabhu that the vaiava world has attained the complete perfection of the doctrine of bhedbheda. The principal foundation-stone of acintya-bhedbheda is sac-cid-nanda vigraha, and it is because r Madhva crya has accepted the sac-cid-nanda vigraha that r Caitanya Mahprabhu has accepted the r Madhva Sampradya. There is a technical difference between the philosophical ideas which the previous Vaiava cryas have propagated because there some slight incompleteness in those philosophical ideas. The difference in sampradya is due 69

to this technical difference. r Caitanya Mahprabhu, who is directly para-tattva, has shown compassion on the world and given His own thoroughly pure and realised doctrine of acintya-bhedbheda. By the power of His omniscience, He has completed and made flawless all those opinions which were suffering from some deficiency, for example, Madhvas sac-cid-ananda nitya-vigraha, Rmnuja cryas akti-siddhnta, Viu-svams uddhdvaita siddhnta and tadya sarvasvatva and Nimbarkas nitya dvaitdvaita siddhnta. (The Teachings of rman Mahprabhu, p. 110). Another reason for rman Mahprabhus acceptance of Madhvas opinion is that Madhvas doctrine distinctly refutes myvda or kevaldvaita-vda, which is opposed to bhakti-tattva in all respects. A third point is that r Madhva crya manifested and worshipped Nanda-nandana Nartaka-Gopla in Up. When r Caitanya Mahprabhu had darana of the Deity, He became overwhelmed in ecstatic love and began to dance. He had not seen such a Deity anywhere else during his tour of South India. This is also powerful evidence for His being in Madhvas line. In his r Ka Vijaya, r Guarja Khn wrote the line, Nanda-nandana ka mora prantha: Nanda-nandana Ka is the Lord of my life (quoted in r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya 15.100), and for this utterance r Caitanya Mahprabhu sold Himself forever into the hands of r Guaraja Khns descendants. Why, then, would He not sell Himself to the parampar of those disciples and grand-disciples for whom Nanda-nandana Nartaka-Gopla is their most worshipful Lord? This is also specific evidence that the Gauya Sampradya is in the line of Madhva. Although there is some slight difference of opinion between Gauya Vaiavas and r Madhva in regard to Brahman, jva and jagat, this simple difference of opinion is not the cause of a difference of sampradya. The difference between Vaiava sampradyas has been created on the basis of a difference in upsyatattva (the object of worship) or on the basis of gradations of excellence between aspects of para-tattva. Even if there is some slight difference in regard to sdhya, sdhana and sdhaka-tattva, this is rarely considered to be the cause of a difference of sampradya. Actually, it is the difference in realisation of para-tattva or upsyatattva (the worshipful Supreme Truth) which is the main cause of distinct sampradyas. This was why rman Mahprabhu overlooked the philosophical differences with the tattva-vds and, focusing on the worship of para-tattva Nartaka-Gopla, accepted r Madhva crya as the prominent sampradya crya. Objection 6: Some persons who are ignorant of sampradya-tattva say, r Mdhavendra Pur and vara Pur cannot be sannyss of the Madhva Sampradya because they have the designation Pur, whereas sannyss in the


Madhva Sampradya are called Trtha. If r Mdhavendra Pur is not included within the Madhva Sampradya, then there are no grounds for claiming that rman Mahprabhu has accepted the Madhva Sampradya. Refutation: r Mdhavendra Purpdas title Pur is his sannysa name. Actually, he was the initiated disciple of Lakmpati Trtha, who was in the r Madhva Sampradya. r Mdhavendra Purpda later accepted sannysa from a sannys bearing the name Pur, just as rman Mahprabhu first accepted dk from r vara Pur and later manifested the pastime of accepting sannysa from r Keava Bhrati. There is no rule that the dk-guru and sannysa-guru have to be the same person. In some cases they may be, and in others not. r Madhva crya himself was first initiated in a Vaiava sampradya by the Viu mantra and after that accepted sannysa-vea from an advaita-vd, Acyutapreka. After some days, r Madhva crya influenced Acyutapreka and brought him into the Vaiava conception. Even after taking sannysa from an advaita-vd, r Madhva crya did not accept advaita-vda. On the contrary, he powerfully refuted all the ideas of advaita-vda and, having established tattva-vda, he preached and spread it everywhere. The same is also seen in the life of r Caitanya Mahprabhu. It is true that sannyss in the Madhva Sampradya are called Trtha, but Trtha is not the title of ghastha-vaiavas or bramacrs in that sampradya. Since r Mdhavendra Pur did not have the title Trtha before taking sannysa, when he accepted vea from a sannys in the advaita-sampradya, his title had to be Pur. This is not illogical. Objection 7: Some say, The sdhya (goal) and sdhana (practice) of the r Madhva Sampradya differ from that of the r Gauya Sampradya. Therefore the r Gauya Sampradya cannot be considered to be within the r Madhva Sampradya. Refutation: This objection is thoroughly false, and rooted in ignorance. Madhvas doctrine acknowledges bhagavat-bhakti as the sdhana in all respects. As with r Gauya Vaiavas, the initial sdhana prescribed for kanihaadhikr sdhakas (neophyte practitioners) is offering the results of ones fruitive activities to Ka (ka-karmrpanam). However, bhagavat-parama-prasda sdhana (i.e. uddha-bhakti) has been established as the principal practice. r Madhva crya has established bhakti as we see from his Stra-bhya (3.3.53): bhaktir evaina nayati bhaktir evaina darayati bhaktivaa puruo bhaktir eva bhyasi iti mahararuta. In stra 3.3.45 he writes, varhe ca guru-prasdo balavnna tasmd valavattaram/ tathpi ravandi ca karttavayo moka-siddhaye: The mercy of r Gurudeva is more powerful than anything else for attaining the perfection of liberation in the form of service to Vius lotus feet. Yet it is still more necessary in engagement in the limbs of sdhana-bhakti such as ravaa


and krtana. In his text Mahbhrata-ttparya-niraya (Defining the Purport of Mahbhrata) the position of bhakti is seen throughout: sneho bhaktir iti proktastay muktir na cnyath (1.105) and bhaktyaiva tuyati hari pravanatvam eva (2.59). We have not given more evidence simply because of lack of space. In the Madhva Sampradya, love of Bhagavn is the only sdhya. Although rman Madhva crya has accepted moka as the goal in some places, his definition of moka is, viav-ghri lbha mukti: Liberation is the attainment of service to the lotus feet of Viu. Thus, the r Madhva Sampradya accepts the definition of mukti spoken by rmad-Bhgavatam, muktir hitvnyath rpa svarpea vyavasthiti: The jva carries the conception of I and mine arising from the gross and subtle designations which are accomplished by the action of my. Mukti means to be released from this false identity and to be established in rendering loving service to Bhagavn in ones pure constitutional form. Madhva cryas mukti is not the syujya (merging with Brahman) spoken of by akara. Rather, it is based on love of Bhagavn. Nowhere has he accepted syujya in the form of the oneness of Brahman and jva. On the contrary, he has refuted it in every way. Madhva is well known as a bheda-vd because he accepts the jva and Brahman as being different both in the stage of bondage and of liberationabheda sarva-rpeu jvabheda sadaiva hi. Although rman Madhva emphasises bheda (difference), he does not at all disregard rutis which indicate abheda (non-difference); instead he has accepted their compatibility. In other words, we find a hint of the acceptance of acintyabhedbheda, as rla Jva Gosvm has suggested in his Sandharbha literature. According to Vednta-stra, akti aktimator abheda: The potency and the potent are not different. An indication of acintya-bhedbheda is found in a statement of Brahma-tarka which r Madhva supported. vieasya viitasypy abhedas tadvad eva tu sarvam ca cintya-aktitvd yujyate paramevare tac chaktyaiva tu jveu cid-rpa-praktvpi bhedbhedau tad-anyatra hy ubhayor api darant (Brahma-tarka) Thus there is no particular difference between Madhva crya and r Caitanya Mahprabhu regarding sdhya and sdhana. Whatever slight difference is evident is only mutual vaiitya (specific distinction). There is a very specific similarity between the Madhva and Gauya Sampradyas. The sannyss presiding over the eight mahas of the tattva-vds in Up perform bhajana in the mood of the gops under the guidance of r Kas eight beloved nyiks (heroines) in Vraja. On this subject, r Padmanbhacr, the author of r Madhva cryas biography, has written, The monks who take charge of r Ka in rotation are so many gops of Vndvana who moved with 72

and loved r Ka with an indescribable intensity of feeling, and are taking rebirths now for the privilege of worshipping Him (Life and Teachings of r Madhva crya by C.M. Padmanbhacr, Chapter XII, page 145). Even today, the service of Yasodnandana Ntya-Gopla is seen in the prominent maha in Up. rla Madhva crya has praised his iadeva Nartaka Gopala r Ka in this way in the fifth verse, chapter six of his Dvdasa stotram. devakinandana nanda-kumra vndvanjana gokulacandra kandaphalana sundara-rpa nanditagokula vanditapda Similarly, in the r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya, service to r Ka under the guidance of the gopis has been ascertained as the sdhya in the writings of rla Rpa, Santana, Raghuntha, Kadsa Kavirja Gosvm and others. In this way, by evaluating the opinions of the Gauya Vaiava cryas from first to last, one can conclude that the r Gauya Vaiava Sampradya is included within the r Madhva Sampradya and that this is consistent with reason in all respects. Objection 8: The Madhva Sampradya is bheda-vd, whereas the Gauya Sampradya is acintya-bhedbheda-vd. Therefore there is a vast difference of opinion between them. Refutation: We have said previously that, although the Madhva Sampradya accepts five kinds of bheda between Brahman, jva and jagat, still there is a hint of acintya-bhedbheda-vda in their teachings. The Vedic scriptures give evidence both for bheda and abheda in relation to Brahman, jva and jagat. However, although there is both bheda and abheda, we only have experience of bheda, not of abheda. In the field of bhakti, the difference (bheda) between upsya (the object of worship) and upsaka (the worshipper) is the back-bone of worship, and this bheda is proved both in the stage of sdhana and siddha. Otherwise, if there were no difference between the worshipper and the object of worship, then worship would not be possible. Thus, although there may be some mutual difference between the r Gauya and Madhva Sampradyas, this cannot be the cause of a difference in sampradya. The object of worship is Bhagavn, the method of worship is bhakti and the objective is moka in the form of bhagavat-sev. Vaiavas of the four Vaiava sampradyas hold slightly different opinions in regard to these tattvas, but we cannot say that they are fundamentally different. They are all adherents to the same religious principles. The difference between Vaiava sampradyas has been created only on the basis of difference in upsya-tattva (worshipful Deity) or a difference of excellence in regard to para-tattva. Though there may even exist a difference in sdhya, sdhana and sdhaka-tattva, this is rarely considered the cause of a difference between


sampradyas. Actually the difference in realisation of para-tattva and upsya-tattva is the principal cause of differences between sampradyas. The upsya-tattva has been considered superior in proportion to the degree of excellence exhibited. r Murri Gupta is one of Mahprabhus internal associates and he is described in the Gauya Sampradya as an avatra of Hanuman. Although rman Mahprabhu informed him that Vrajendra-nandana r Ka has more mdhurya (sweetness) than Bhagavn r Ramacandra, Murri Gupta was not attracted to Ka bhajana. His worshipful Deity was Rma, and he went on worshipping r Rma until the very end. r Caitanya Mahprabhu was very pleased to see his dedication to his worshipful Lord. rvasa Paita is also one of the principal associates of Mahprabhu. His worshipful Deity is r LakmNryaa, and r Karapra has considered him to be an avatra of r Nrada. It is well known that he personally preferred the worship of Lakm-Nryaa to rman Mahprabhus unnata-ujjvala rasa. Some ignorant and misguided persons say that there is a difference of opinion between r Rpa Gosvm and Jva Gosvm because r Jva Gosvm has rejected r Rpa Gosvms explanation of the parakya-rasa of the Vraja gops, and has instead supported svakya-rasa. Actually this accusation is completely unfounded and incorrect. The truth is that r Jva Gosvm supported svakyavda for the benefit of some of his followers who had taste for svakya-rasa. His internal consideration was that unqualified persons entering into the transcendentally wonderful parakya vraja-rasa should not fall into any adulterous behaviour. It is offensive to consider him an opponent of the transcendental vraja-rasa, and he is not considered to be outside the Gauya Sampradya on account of this simple divergence of views. We also see differences of opinion among the cryas of the myvd or kevaldvaita-vd sampradya; the myvds themselves accept this point. However, they are all within the advaita-vd ankara Sampradya. Some believe in vivarta-vda, some believe in bimba-pratibimba-vda, some have accepted avicchinna-vda, some admit bhsa-vda, and they have refuted each others opinions. Even so, they are included within the same sampradya. Similarly, although there are some slight mutual differences of opinion between the r Madhva and the r Gauya Sampradya, it is thoroughly appropriate to accept that the Gauya Vaiava Sampradya follows Madhva crya.


Chapter Four Bbj Vea and Siddha Pranl

Bheka-pral and siddha-pral
In recent times in Bengal and in places such as Rdh-kua and Vndvana in Vraja the custom called bheka-dhraa and siddha-pral has perverted the intrinsic nature of the uddha-bhakti established by r Caitanya Mahprabhu and the Six Gosvms. Without consideration of qualification or disqualification these people give siddha-pral and bbj vea to adulterous fellows, debauchees and ordinary people who are ignorant of stra and siddhnta. Having adopted this base practice, those people fall to even greater depths of corruption and depravity.

Bheka-dhraa (the system of bbj-vea)

From when was the custom of bheka-dhraa (the formal acceptance of bbjvea) in use? On making an investigation we see that this custom was not current at the time of the Six Gosvms, r Kadsa Kavirja Gosvm, r Narottama Dsa hkura, rla Vivantha Cakravart and so on because these personalities were instinctively paramahasas. Naturally r Santna Gosvm, taking an old dhot from Tapana Misra, tore it up and wore it as bahir-vsa and or-kaupna (loin cloth worn by a paramahasa). There is no mention at all of giving siddha-pral (the process in which the spiritual master gives details of the spiritual form, intrinsic mood etc.) in this connection. This dress of a renunciate was adopted simply to indicate a firm dedication to bhajana. Similarly, one should understand the case to be the same in regard to the other Gosvms. In one way, this is included in category of the bhikuka (mendicant) rama or sannysa because paramahasa mahtms do not have any definite or fixed dress. They are beyond rules, regulations and the distinguishing marks of the ramas such as sannysa. Since they are always carried away in bhagavat-prema, the regulations and prohibitions of scriptures such as the Vedas are no impetus for such paramahasas. However those people who are not in the paramahasa stage accept vaiava sannysa according to sttvata vaiava-smti such as Satkriysradpika or according to the same regulations they wear a white outer cloth and orkaupna. This is for firm dedication to sdhana-bhajana, and is called bhekadhraa. The word bheka is a corrupted form of the Sanskrit word bhea. rla Bhaktivinoda hkura has written in his essay entitled Bheka-Dhraa (reprinted in Gauya Patrik Year 6, No. 2): The word bheka is properly understood to mean the rama of bhikuka (mendicants). The name of the sannysa rama is bhiku-rama. Sannyss can


never associate with women in this life. They will sustain their lives by the occupation of begging. Here a question arises. In which rama are those Vaiavas who have accepted bheka situated? Our studies of stra and the instructions of Mahprabhu establish that detached Vaiavas are situated in the bhiku-rama. When the association of women is completely forbidden for them then they are situated in the sannysa rama. The sign of sannysa is kaupna (loin cloth). When they have accepted or-kaupna or bahirvsa (outer-garment) then they are definitely included in the sannysa arama. Sannysa is of two kinds, ordinary sannysa and vaiava sannysa. There is a vast difference between these two. In ordinary sannysa there is peacefulness, self-control, tolerance, renunciation, knowledge of the eternal and the temporary and the ambition to attain Brahman. When these dharmas have arisen in an individual, then sannysa has been accepted. However, the presence of these qualities does not by itself provide eligibility for vaiava-sannysa. The process for developing rati for Bhagavn begins first of all with faith in subjects related to Bhagavn. After that one proceeds to sdhu-saga, bhajanakriy, anartha-nivtti and so on. At the stage when rati for Bhagavn arises in the heart, a dharma called virakti (detachment) takes shelter of the Vaiava. At that stage the vaiava-sdhaka becomes completely detached from the ghastharama. He then wears kaupna to minimize his personal necessities, and maintains his life by begging. This is called vaiava-bheka. Those who are simple and free from duplicity and who accept bheka for the purpose of doing bhagavatbhajana are worthy to receive the prayers of the whole world. This type of acceptance of bheka is of two kinds. Some sdhakas, after achieving detachment born of bhva, accept bheka from a worthy guru; and some have put on orkaupna and bahirvsa themselves. In the sampradya of rman Mahprabhu this custom of bheka is extremely pure. Bowing my head with great faith, I repeatedly offer my obeisances to such a tradition. However, it is very unfortunate that these days the bheka-rama is becoming extremely corrupted. The consideration of eligibility has completely disappeared. Some people, who want to wear bheka although they are unqualified, have their heads shaven, put on or-kaupna and accept bheka whimsically. In the present time some perversions have come in the system of sannysa. What are they? (1) Some householder Vaiavas become bbjs, having shaven their heads and put on a kaupna. What can be more injurious than this? Their action is opposed to stra and to the interests of society. If they are actually detached from material life then they may accept bheka in genuine renunciation. Otherwise they


will disgrace vaiava-dharma and in the next life they will also have to taste the fruit of doing so. (2) There is a terrible and disastrous custom among bbjs of keeping maidservants in their ramas. In some ramas a bbj may even keep his own wife from his previous rama in the form of a maidservant. These people associate with women on the pretext of service to God and service to sdhus. (3) Bbjs who are actually renounced completely reject the greed for women, wealth, eatables and so on. Nowadays, common people are losing faith in Vaiavism, because they see that these defects are spreading among supposedly renounced people. The essence of the matter is that those who accept the symbols of renunciation without having developed the genuine detachment which arises from rati (love of Bhagavn) are a disturbance in society and a disgrace to vaiava-dharma. Their own downfall and the defamation of vaiavadharma are both guaranteed when they accept bheka before they are qualified to do so. After rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura and Baladeva Vidybhaa, a dark age began in rman Mahprabhus Gauya Sampradya, during which the current of r rpnug-bhakti became somewhat impaired. Various kinds of speculative malpractices and opinions opposed to uddha-bhakti became mixed in with the true conception. At that time the situation was so dire that the educated and cultured section of society began to hate even the name of Gauya Vaiavism, having witnessed the misbehaviour of its followers. In this way the Gauya Vaiava Sampradya became distanced from the intelligentsia and respected society. At that time the Seventh Gosvm Saccidnanda Bhakti-vinoda hkura and rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat appeared. These two personalities brought about a revolutionary transformation in the Gauya Vaiava Sampradya and restored its lost dignity. To these two mah-puruas and their followers goes the entire credit for whatever diffusion of rman Mahprabhus nma-sakrtana and uddha-bhakti has taken place among the learned and respectable sector of society, not only in India but also throughout the world. They have established the Gauya Maa preaching centres of uddha-bhakti everywhere; they have published the literatures of uddha-bhakti along with magazines and journals in all of the major languages of the world; and thus in a very short time they have revolutionized the Gauya Vaiava society. After the disappearance of Jagadguru rla Prabhupda these improper practices began to appear openly in all the prominent places of r Vraja-madala, Gauamaala and Ketra-maala. These groups of bbjs began to make allegations against rla Prabhupda and the uddha-vaiavas under his shelter. They said that Vaiavas of the Gauiya Maha are simple jns who are ignorant of rasatattva, and that their acceptance of reddish cloth and sannysa is not properly 77

established procedure. Paramrdhyatama rla Gurudeva has refuted these accusations with scriptural evidence and powerful arguments and has preached uddha-bhakti everywhere. For this purpose he had the essays previously written by rla Bhaktivinoda hkura and Jagadguru rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat Prabhupda published again in his r Gauiya-Patrik and Bhgavat-Patrik. He published a literature entitled Sahajiy-dalana (destroying the sahajiy theory) and also argued these points in huge assemblies in many places in Vrajamaala, Gaua-maala and Ketra-maala. As a result of this the opposition party made a case to prosecute him for loss of reputation in a court of law. However in the end they had to beg forgiveness in the same courtroom.

Siddha-pral is very much misused nowadays in certain places in Vrajamaala, Gaua-maala and Ketra-maala. Some people are abused and even driven from their homes when their wives pass away. Although they are bereft of tattva-jna and unaware of vaidh-bhakti-sdhana, they have their heads shaved in the middle of the night, put on kaupna and quickly take siddha-pral. These days siddha-pral can be obtained very easily by giving half a rupee. Just before giving mantra a financial contract takes place. These people think, There can be no auspiciousness for sdhakas until they acquire siddha-pral. There is no necessity for vaidh-bhakti sdhana, tattva-jna or anartha-nivtti. The rgnug-bhakta should obtain siddha-pral before he goes through anarthanivtti. In that way he can avoid getting caught in the inconvenience of vaidhbhakti. These peoples conception is exactly like thinking that a fruit will grow from a leaf before the appearance of a flower. About fifty-five years ago, we were performing Vraja-maala parikram with Paramrdhyatama rla Gurudeva. Approximately four hundred pilgrims attending the parikram were staying in a large dharma-l in Mathur. Gurudeva had made a big feast there, to which all the local sdhus, saints and Vaiavas had been invited. Bbjs who had accepted bheka also assembled there in very large numbers. When they came to meet with rla Gurudeva, he became very curious and asked them, What is the aim and object of your Ka bhajana? They were taken aback when they heard this question, but after thinking about it they said, By performing Ka bhajana we will attain mukti and merge into Ka. When Guruj heard their answer, he became very sad. On questioning them further, he found that women were also staying in their ramas as maidservants. From that day on, he vowed to reform these malpractices which had spread in the Gaudya Vaiava society. I have indicated this before. In spite of being busy in preaching uddha-bhakti throughout his life, he never forgot this matter. A great deal of credit for the improvement and


reform of this situation goes to this mah-purua. Here I am presenting whatever views I have heard from him on this subject. rla Rpa Gosvm has defined the following sequence which we have to follow in order to enter into the realm of bhakti. dau raddh tata sdhu-saga tha bhajana-kriy tato nartha-nivtti syt tato nih rucis tata athsaktis tato bhvas tata prembhyudacati sadhaknm aya premna prdurbhve bhavet krama Bhakti flees very far away when the sdhaka transgresses this sequence. Therefore it is extremely necessary to execute the first aga of sdhana-bhakti, namely vaidh-bhakti or regulative devotional service, in order to enter the realm of prema. Vaidh-bhakti is not directly the cause of the attainment of Ka prema. Still, it is necessary to observe the appropriate limbs of vaidh-bhakti in order to enter into rga-mrga. Vaidh-bhakti is established on the steadfast foundation of scriptural evidence and it is endowed with powerful codes of correct behaviour. Moreover, there is no particular difference between the observance of the limbs of rgnug sdhana-bhakti and vaidh-bhakti. The difference is only in devotion to the observance. Thus the agas of vaidh-bhakti sdhana cannot be neglected entirely. When r Caitanya Mahprabhu instructed r Santana Gosvm on the subject of the prayojana-tattva, which is Ka prema, he said, kona bhagye kona jvera sraddh yadi haya tabe sei jva sadhu-sanga ye karaya sadhu-sanga haite haya sravana-kirtana sadhana-bhaktye haya sarvnartha-nivartana anartha-nivtti haile bhaktye niha haya niha haite ravadye ruci upajaya ruci haite bhaktye haya sakti pracura sakti haite citte janme ke prity-akura sei bhava gadha haile dhare prema-nma sei prema prayojana sarvnanda-dhma (r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya 23.9-13) If by good fortune a jva develops sraddh, he begins to associate with sdhus, and in that company he engages in hearing and chanting. By following sdhanabhakti he becomes free from all anarthas and advances with firm faith (nih) whereby ruci (taste) awakens for sravaa, krtana and so on. After ruci, then sakti (deep attachment) arises, and from abundant sakti the seed of prti (affection) is born in the heart. When that emotion intensifies, it is called prema. This prema is lifes ultimate goal and the abode of all joy. 79

It is quite impossible for one who transgresses this sequence to enter the realm of bhakti. Thus, those who want to enter this domain while neglecting the limbs of vaidh sdhana-bhakti are in all respects unrestrained and outside the conclusions of stra. They have no relation at all with uddha-bhakti. rla Bhaktivinoda hkura has also expressed the same opinion. vidhi-mrga rata jane svdhnat ratna-dne rga-mrga karna pravea By considering the gradations of sdhya-vastu (objectives) we find that the prema of rmat Rdhj for Ka is the crest-jewel. Furthermore, r Caitanya Mahprabhu has explained that the sdhya for the living entities is Rdh dsya, service to rmat Rdhik imbued with prakya-bhva. In order to obtain that sdhya-vastu, sdhana is necessary. sdhya-vastu sdhana vin keha nhi pya kp kari kaha rya pbra upya (r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya 8.197) The goal of life (sdhya-vastu) cannot be achieved unless one accepts the appropriate process (sdhana). Now, being merciful upon Me, please explain that means by which this goal can be attained. In reply to this r Rya Rmnanda says, rdh-kera ll ei ati ghatara dsya-vtsalydi-bhve n haya gocara sabe eka sakh-ganera ih dhikra sakh haite haya ei llra vistra sakh vin ei ll pua nhi haya sakh ll vistriy, sakh svdaya sakh vin ei llya anyera nhi gati sakh-bhve ye tre kare anugati rdh-ka kuja-sev-sdhya sei pya sei sdhya pite ra nhika upya (r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya 8. 201-205) The pastimes of Rdh and Ka are very confidential and cannot be understood through the mellows of servitude, fraternity or paternal affection. Actually, only the gopis have the right to appreciate these transcendental pastimes, and only from them can these pastimes be expanded. Without the gopis, these pastimes between Rdh and Ka cannot be nourished. Only by their cooperation are such pastimes broadcast. It is their business to taste the mellows. One cannot enter into these pastimes without the help of the gopis.


Only one who does bhajana in the ecstasy of the gopis, following in their footsteps, can engage in the service of r r Rdh-Ka in the groves of Vndvana. Only then can one understand the conjugal love between Rdh and Ka. There is no other procedure for understanding. ataeva gop-bhva kari angikara ratri-dina cinte rdh-kera vihara siddha-dehe cinti kare tahanni sevana sakh-bhve paya rdh-kera caraa (r Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya 8. 228-229) Therefore one should accept the mood of the gops in their service. In such a transcendental mood, one should always think of the pastimes of Sri Rdh and Ka. After meditating on Rdh and Ka for a long time in the internally conceived spiritual body, one attains the opportunity to serve the lotus feet of Rdh-Ka as one of the Vraja devs. Essentially the gist of the matter is that the love-laden ll of Rdh-Ka is so confidential and so full of mysteries that it is imperceptible, even for those in moods such as dsya and vtsalya. Only the sakhs are eligible for this. Therefore, no one can attain the service of rmat Rdhik or the kuja-sev of r RdhKa Yugala by sdhana without anugatya of the sakhs, that is being under their guidance. Thus the only means of attaining this supreme sdhya is meditation on the lls of Rdh-Ka throughout the day and night by the internally conceived siddha-deha and in the mood of the sakhs. For this reason, rla Rpa Gosvm has given this instruction in his Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu in the section on the sdhana of r rgnug-bhakti: ka smaran jana csya preha nija samhitam tat-tat kath rata csau kuryd vsa vraje sad sev sdhaka-rpea siddha-rpea ctra hi tad bhva lipsun kry vraja-loknusrata ravaotkrttandni vaidh bhakty uditni tu ynyagni ca tnyatra vijeyni manibhi Here rla Rpa Gosvm has mentioned two types of sdhana in rgnug bhakti-sev: sev sdhaka-rpea siddha-rpea ctra hi tad bhva lipsun kry vraja-loknusrata When there is lobha, greed for rgtmik bhakti, rgnug bhakti is executed in two ways: in the sdhaka-rpa, the external body in which one is presently situated, and in the siddha-rpa. Eagerly desiring to attain rati for Ka or the


bhva (ecstatic sentiments) of ones chosen associates of Ka, one must follow the associates of Vrajaloka such as Lalit, Vikh, Rpa Majar and their followers such as r Rpa Gosvm and Santana Gosvm. One must render bodily service with the sdhaka-rpa following the great authorities residing in Vraja such as r Rpa and Santana. And with the siddha-rpa one must render mnas-sev following the vrajavss such as r Rpa Majar and others. The meaning of the above verse has been given in r Caitanya-caritmta in this way. bhya, antara ihra dui ta sdhana bhye sdhaka-dehe kare ravaa-krtana mane nija-siddha-deha kariy bhvana rtri-dine kare vraje kera sevana (Caitanya-caritmta, Madhya, 22.156-157) This rgnug bhakti is performed in two ways: externally and internally. Externally, in the sdhaka body, the devotee engages in hearing and chanting. In his mind, in his internally conceived, perfected spiritual body he serves Ka in Vraja day and night. Thus rgnug-bhakti sdhakas should in all respects practice bhva-sambandhi sdhana such as ravaa, krtana, service to tulas, wearing tilaka, observing vows beginning with r Ekda and Janmam and so on, for all these activities nourish ones own desired bhva. Simultaneously one must also render service to Rdh-Ka in Vraja, meditating on ones siddha-deha in the heart. The body of a gop which is suitable for rendering service to Rdh-Govinda is called siddhadeha. When the bhajana is complete, the jva gives up the inert material body, and attains the body of a gop corresponding to its eternal intrinsic form. rla Narottama hkura has said sdhane bhbiba jh siddha-dehe pba th rga pathera ei se upya (r Prema Bhakti-candrika 5.8) Whatever subject is constantly meditated upon at the time of performing sdhana, that same subject is the prominent meditation at the time of death and it engrosses the citta (heart). Ones destination at the time of death will exactly correspond to the subject one remembers at that time. Rjari Bhrata attained the body of a deer at the time of death, so what doubt is there about attaining the body suitable for rendering to the Divine Couple the service on which one constantly reflected in ones internally conceived siddha-deha?


In relation to the siddha-deha it has been said in the Sanat-Kumra Sahit, tmna cintayet tatra ts madhye manoramm rpayauvanasampann kior premodaktim rdhiknucar nitya tat sevana parya kd apy adhika prema rdhiky prakurvatm Sadiva is giving instruction to Nradaj on the subject of siddha-deha suitable for rendering service to the Divine Couple. O Nrada! Meditate in this way upon your own svarpa among r Ka's beloved associates who take pride in being His paramours in the aprkta Vndvana Dhma. I am an extremely lovely and supremely blissful kior (adolescent girl), endowed with youthful beauty. I am an eternal maidservant of rmati Rdhik. Having arranged for r Kas dearmost mistress rmat Rdhik to meet with Him, I will always make them both happy. Therefore I am the maidservant of Rdhik, the most beloved of Ka. Remaining always and forever engaged in the service of the Divine Couple may I maintain more love for rmat than for Ka. Now we should note that the descriptions of siddha-deha that stra and the mahjanas have given are for sdhakas of a particular level. Wherever siddha-deha has been mentioned it has been shown in the context of rgnug-bhakti. Specifically such instructions are intended for those very fortunate sdhakas in whose hearts lobha, a genuine greed to attain rgtmik-bhakti, has already arisen due to saskras (impressions) from this life and previous lives. Here is a further matter which is worthy of consideration. It is one thing to understand the excellence of some particular rasa by the discrimination given in stra. It is another thing altogether to have lobha for that rasa. When someone has lobha in a particular rasa, then the symptoms of lobha will also be evident in that sdhaka. When lobha arises, rgnug-bhakti sdhana begins from the stage of ruci. It will be understood from this that the nmpardha, sevpardha and various other anarthas of a sdhaka have, for the most part, already gone far away. He has already controlled the six urges mentioned by rla Rpa Gosvm in r Upademrta (Verse 1); he is virtually free from the six faults (Verse 2); he is endowed with the six qualities beginning with utshn nicayt (enthusiasm and confidence) (Verse 3); having recognized the three types of Vaiavas, he is expert in behaving appropriately with them (Verse 5); and he has also become established in the purport of the verse beginning tan nma rpa caritdi (Verse 8). In other words he conducts himself according to this verse. In this stage the sdhaka goes on performing bhajana, and when he crosses the stage of ruci and enters the stage of sakti then a semblance of the symptoms related by r Rpa Gosvm in the verse kntir-avyartha-klatva will be observed in him. In the stage of sakti, a semblance (bhsa) of the rati which arises in the stage of bhva will appear, and in order to make that rati manifest 83

fully, the sdhaka will perform bhajana meditating on his siddha-deha. When this ratybhsa transforms into rati by the practice of bhajana, then the sdhaka attains factual experience of his own svarpa. This is called meditation on siddha-deha, or the acceptance of vaiava-bheka. One who is endowed with simplicity and who has lobha for this is worshipful for the whole world. There are two types of acceptance of bheka. A sdhaka may receive bheka from some suitable guru; alternatively, when genuine vairgya arises as mentioned previously, he may accept bheka from himself. Haridsa hkura, the Six Gosvms, Lokantha Gosvm and others are examples of the practice of accepting bheka from oneself. This is also the way that rla Bhakti-siddhnta Sarasvat hkura accepted sannysa vea after the disappearance of rla Gaura Kiora dsa Bbj from whom he had received dk-mantra. We see from these examples that acceptance of bheka in this way is fully in agreement with stra. r Rmnuja crya also accepted tridai-sannysa from himself after the disappearance of his guru rla Yamuna crya. In any case, the meditation on ones siddha-deha depends on the mercy of ones guru. The guru or ik-guru who is established in rasa-vicra and who is a svarpa-siddha will indicate the details of the sdhakas perfected form. Otherwise, if the sdhaka changes the order of the sequence described above, he cannot attain perfection. On the contrary, his bhakti may become completely ruined and the conceptions of the sampradya will also become corrupted. We see this going everywhere nowadays. Some ignorant people say that there is no siddha-pral in the Gaudya Maha. This vicious propaganda is erroneous in all respects. In the authentic literature written by rla Gopla Bhaa Gosvm entitled Sat-kriy-sra-dpik and Saskra-dpik, which is a supplement to r Hari-bhakti-vilsa, there is an account of the tridai-sannysa saskra. The original manuscript handwritten by r Gopla Bhaa Gosvm is protected even today in the Royal Library of Jaipur. An old copy of this same literature is also kept to this day by the Gosvms of r Rdh-Ramana. Therefore this literature is authoritative evidence. According to Saskra-dpik, tridai-sannysa vea is given among Gauyas. In this sannysa saskra, or-kaupna, bahir-vsa and the sannysamantra for taking shelter of gop-bhva are also given. The eka-daa-bhva (eleven aspects of gop-bhva), namely sambandha, vaya, nma, rpa, ytha, vea, j, vsa, sev, park-vsa and plya-ds-bhva, are contained within this gopbhva. The identity of the siddha-deha is determined by the instructions of r Guru in accordance with the ruci of the sdhaka. Ones own nma, rpa, vayasa, vea, sambandha, ytha, j, vsa, park-vsa and plya-ds bhva given by guru is called siddha-pral. As the sdhaka goes on performing this type of


sdhana, the perfection of his svarpa takes place along with the attainment of uddha-rati in his heart. rla Bhaktivinoda hkura has described his siddha-svarpa in this way. varae tait vsa trval kamala majar nma se bra vara vayasa satata svnanda sukhada dhma karpra sev lalitra gaa rdh ythevar hana mamevar-ntha r Nanda-nandana mra para dhana r rpa majar prabhtira sama yugala sevya a avaya se-rpa sev pba mi parkh suvivsa kabe b e ds sasiddhi labhibe rdh-kue vsa kari rdh-ka sev satata karibe prva smti parihari My complexion is like a flash of lightning and my dress is bedecked with twinkling stars. My name is Kamala Majar and I am eternally twelve-and-ahalf years old. My abode is Svnanda Sukhada Kuja. My service is to supply camphor to r Yugala. I serve in the gaa of Lalit and r Rdh is my ythevar. The Beloved of my Svmin, the son of Nanda Mahrja, is the treasure of my life. I aspire to serve r Yugala like Rpa Majar and others, and I am confident that I will surely attain this service. This is my highest aspiration. Oh, when will this maidservant attain complete perfection and, residing at r Rdh-kua, serve r Rdh-Ka in complete forgetfulness of my past? In conclusion, whatever custom of accepting bheka is seen among bbjs is not a fifth rama, rather it is a second form of the fourth arama, namely the sannysa rama.


Chapter Five The Eligibility to Hear Rsa-ll Kath

rmad-Bhgavatam is a direct manifestation of the Supreme Lord. It is an ambrosial, overflowing ocean of nectarean love (prema-rasa) for Svayam Bhagavn Vrajendra-nandana r Ka, the personification of divine rasa. Rasika and bhvuka-bhaktas always drown in this ocean. rmad-Bhgavatam is the fully ripened, nectarean fruit of the desire tree of Vedic literature which comprises the entirety of Indian thought. Within rmad-Bhgavatam, gop-prema has been ascertained to be the ultimate objective. A few towering waves of gop-prema can be seen from the Veu-gta portion of rmad-Bhgavatam. Rasika-bhaktas drown themselves in these waves and even lose all consciousness of their own bodies. Greed to be immersed in this nectarean ocean sprouts even in the hearts of the faithful devotees who are situated on the shore of this ocean. r Caitanya Mahprabhu, the combined form of Rasrja and Mahbhva, resplendent with the sentiment and bodily complexion of r Rdh, relished the nectar of Veu-gta with r Svarpa Dmodara and r Rya Rmnanda in r Gambra. rla Santana Gosvm and rla Jva Gosvm collected a few drops of this nectar in their commentaries on rmad-Bhgavatam entitled Bhatvaiava-toa and Laghu-vaiava-toa respectively. r Vivantha Cakravart hkura, through his commentary named Srrtha-darin, has distributed to the whole world the same nectar in the form of the remnants of their mahprasda. Some persons believe that unqualified sdhakas are ineligible to hear, chant or remember the topics of r Veu-gta, r Rsa Pacdhyya, Yugala-gta, Bhramaragta and so on, as described in the Tenth Canto of rmad-Bhgavatam. This consideration is fully legitimate. But according to their conception, only a sdhaka who has conquered the six urges (kma, krodha, etc.), who is free from all anarthas and fully purified from the heart disease of lust, is eligible to hear such topics, while all others have no right. We will now examine this topic in greater detail. r Rpa Gosvm, who established and fulfilled the inner heart's desire of r Caitanya Mahprabhu, composed r Bhakti-rasmta-sindhu, r Ujjvala-nlamai and other sacred texts. rla Kadsa Kavirja Gosvm composed r Caitanya-


caritmta. While writing, they were deeply concerned that these confidential texts on rasa should not fall into the hands of unqualified persons. If this should occur, it may present a great disturbance to the world. A glimpse of this topic is found in r Caitanya-caritmta (di-ll, 4.231-237), as stated by rla Kadsa Kavirja Gosvm: e saba siddhnta gha,kahite n yuyya n kahile, keha ihra anta nhi pya ataeva kahi kichu kari nigha bujhibe rasika bhakta, n bujhibe mha hdaye dharaye ye caitanya-nitynanda e saba siddhnte sei pibe nanda e saba siddhnta haya mrera pallava bhakta-gaa-kokilera sarvad vallabha abhakta-urera ithe n haya pravea tabe citte haya mora nanda-viea ye lgi kahite bhaya, se yadi n jne ih vai kib sukha che tribhuvane ataeva bhakta-gae kari namaskra niake kahiye, tra hauk camatkra The esoteric and confidential conclusions regarding the amorous pastimes of Rasarja r Ka together with the gops, who are the embodiments of mahbhva, are not fit to be disclosed to the common ordinary man. But without revealing them, no one can enter into this topic. I shall, there fore, describe these topics in a concealed manner so that only rasika-bhaktas will be able to understand, whereas ineligible fools will not. Anyone who has established r Caitanya Mahprabhu and r Nitynanda Prabhu in their hearts will attain transcendental bliss by hearing all these conclusions. This entire doctrine is as sweet as newly grown mango sprouts which can be relished only by the devotees who are likened to cuckoo birds. For the camel-like nondevotees, there is no possibility of admittance into these topics. Therefore, there is special jubilation in my heart.


If those whom I fear are themselves unable to comprehend these topics, then what could be a greater source of happiness in all the three worlds? Therefore, after offering obeisances to the devotees, I am revealing this subject without any hesitation. By reading and hearing these topics, everyone can attain the highest benefit. rla Kadsa Kavirja Gosvm has clarified this topic by quoting the following verse from rmad-Bhgavatam (10.33.36): anugrahya bhaktn mnua deham sthita bhajate td kr y rutv tat-paro bhavet In order to bestow mercy upon the devotees as well as the conditioned souls, Bhagavn r Ka manifests His humanlike form and performs such extraordinary pastimes (rsa-ll) that anyone who hears them becomes exclusively devoted unto Him. (quoted in Cc, di-ll4.34) Here Kadsa Kavirja points out that the verb bhavet in the above verse is in the imperative mood. This means it is compulsory for the jvas to hear such pastimes, as explained in the following loka from Caitanya-caritmta (di-ll 4.35): bhavet kriy vidhili, sei ih kaya kartavya avaya ei, anyath pratyavya In the above verse, the verb bhavet is in the imperative mood. Therefore, this certainly must be done. To not do so would be a discrepancy. For the information of the reader, I am referring here to rla Jva Gosvm's Vaiava-toa commentary on the above quoted rmad-Bhgavatam verse (10.33.36). tatra loke dhihttvena kkhya narkra parabrahmaa r gopair anubhtatvt eva bhak tnugrahrtha tat krety abhipretam. ptakma tve pi bhaktnugraho yujyate. viuddha sattvasya tath svabhvt. yad bhva bhvite cnyatra dyate sau. tath rahuganugrhake r jaa bharata charite, yath v bhagavad anugrhake mayti ca. tatra bhakta abdena braja devyo braja jan ca sarve kla-traya sambandhino nye ca vaiav ghtbraja devn prva-rgdibhir braja jann janmdibhir anye ca bhakta darana ravadibhir aprvatva sphurat. ataeva tda bhakta prasagena td sarva cittkarin kr bhajate, y sdhrar api rutv bhaktebho nyo pi janas tatparo bhavet. kimuta rsa ll rpm im rutvety artha. vakyate ca vikrita vrajavadhbhir ida ca vio(S.B. 10.33.39) itydi. yad v, mnua 88

deham rita sarvo pi jvas tat paro bhavet, martya loke r bhagavad avatrt tath bhajane mukhyatvc ca manuynm eva sukhena tac chravadi siddhe. bhtnm iti phe nijvatra kraa bhakta sambandhena sarvem eva jann viayin mumuk muktn cety artha. iti parama kryam eva kraam uktam. tathpi bhajana sambandhenaiva sarvnugraho jeya. anyattai. tatra bahirmukhnapti tat paryantatva vivakitam, parama prema parkh mayatay r ukasypi tad varantiaya pravtte gopnm ity asyrthntare tv eva vykhyeyam. The words anugrahya bhaktn mnua deham sthita indicate that the Supreme Lord r Ka appears in His original humanlike form and performs various pastimes in order to bestow favor upon His devotees. Therefore, although r Ka is satisfied in Himself (ptakma), His display of kindness toward the devotees is quite appropriate. This is the distinctive characteristic of viuddha-sattva (pure goodness). The Lord is always prepared to reward the devotees with a result consistent with their performance of bhajana. The favor shown toward King Rahugaa by r Jaa Bharata and the Lord's favor toward me (ukadeva) illustrate this. In the verse under discussion, it is said that the Lord manifests His form and pastimes in order to bestow favor upon His devotees. The word bhakta used here refers to the vraja-devs (the gops), the vraja-vss (residents of Vraja) and all other Vaiavaspast, present and future. In order to bestow favor upon the vraja-devs, Svayam Bhagavn r Ka lovingly executes such pastimes as prva-rga (the attachment in anticipation of meeting Ka prior to their union). To bestow mercy upon all the residents of Vraja, He enacts His birth and other pastimes, and by all His activities, He bestows favor upon past, present and future devotees through the medium of hearing ll-kath. r Ka manifests all these pastimes to benefit the devotees. By so doing, even ordinary persons (other than the devotees) who hear even the more common of the Lord's pastimes become fully intent upon the Lord. Therefore, by hearing the supremely ambrosial rsa-ll, ordinary per sons will certainly become exclusively devoted to the Lordof this there can be no doubt. This fact will be elaborately discussed in subsequent verses such as vikrita vraja-vadhbhir ida ca vio (rmad-Bhgavatam, 10.33.39). The words mnua deham sthita may also indicate that those jvas who have attained the human form of life are able to hear all these pastimes and thus they become exclusively devoted to the Supreme Lord. This is so because the Lord incarnates exclusively on the earthly planets (martya loka), and it is here only that worship of the Lord takes on its predominant form. Consequently, the human 89

beings residing on the earthly planets may easily hear these narrations of the Lord's pastimes. The word bhaktn appears in this verse. But in some other editions, the word bhtn is found in its place. In that case, the purport would be as follows: the Lord incarnates only for the sake of the devotees. As a result, the devotees are the root cause of the Lord's appearance. The Lord also appears in His original humanlike form in order to bestow His favor upon the liberated souls (muktas), the aspirants for liberation (mumukus), sense enjoyers (viays) and all living entities in accordance with their relationship with the devotees. The Lord's compassion is therefore said to be the cause of His appearance. Nevertheless, it must be understood that the Lord's favor toward other living entities is due only to their relationship with His devotees. In other words, the Lord bestows favor upon other jvas only because of their connection with devotees. In his Bhgavatam commentary known as Bhvrtha-dpik, rla rdhara Svm has written that what to speak of the devotees, even materialistic persons are freed from their material absorption by hearing the Lord's pastimes, and thus they become exclusively fixed upon Him. rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura explains this verse in his commentary known as Srrtha darin: bhaktnm anugrahya tdi kr bhajate y rutv mnua deham rto jva tatparas tad viayaka raddhvn bhaved iti krntar ato vailakayena madhura rasamay asy krys td mai-mantramahauadhnm iva kcid atarky aktir astty avagamyate. The Lord performs varieties of pastimes to show favor to His devotees. Having adopted the human form of life, living entities who hear these pastimes become exclusively devoted unto the Lord. In other words, they develop firm faith in hearing the narrations of the Lord's activities. What more shall I say about the importance of hearing ll-kath? And this rsa-ll, being fully imbued with mdhurya rasa, is eminently distinguished even from the Lord's other pastimes. Like a jewel, a mantra or a powerful medicine, this rsa-ll is endowed with such indisputable, astonishing potency that by hearing it, all persons in the human form become devoted to the Supreme Lord. Therefore, all varieties of devotees who hear the descriptions of these pastimes will become successful and obtain supreme pleasure. Can there be any question of doubt in this regard?


In this context, we may cite the following verse from rmad-Bhgavatam (10.33.30): naitat samcarej jtu manaspi hy anvara vinayaty caran mauhyd yathrudro bdhi-ja viam In other words, those who are not vara, the Supreme Lord, who are powerless and subjected to karma, should never imitate the Lord's pastimes even within their minds. If anyone foolishly imitates Lord iva by drinking the poison generated from the ocean, he will certainly be destroyed. The gist of r Jva Gosvm's and r Vivantha Cakravart hkura's commentaries on this verse is that living entities who are subservient to the material body and who are anvarabereft of the controlling potency of the Supreme Lordshould never behave in such a way even within their minds. What to speak of actually performing such activities, one should not even desire to do so. In other words, such acts performed by God in transgression of religious codes should not be contemplated even within the mind. The word samcaraa (behaviour), when divided into its constituent parts (samyak and caraa), indicates complete behaviour. Here it has been used to indicate total prohibition of such activity. Therefore, the purport is that such behaviour should not be adopted even to the slightest extent. What to speak of performing such activities through speech or the senses, one should not even mentally conceive of such activities. The word hi indicates that this certainly must not be done. If one were to behave in that way, he would be completely destroyed. The significance of the word mauhyd (stupidity) is that if any one, being ignorant of the Lord's omnipotence and his own incompetence, foolishly adopts such behaviour, he will be utterly ruined, just as if anyone other than Lord iva were to foolishly consume deadly poison, he would be instantly destroyed. But Lord iva, in spite of drinking poison, is not destroyed; to the contrary, he attains even greater fame and splendour as Nlakaha, he whose throat turned blue from drinking poison.


Here in this verse, imitation of such behaviour has been prohibited, yet in the verse to come (10.33.36)y rutv tatparo bhavetit is evident that not only devotees, but even others who faithfully hear these pastimes will become fully devoted to the Supreme Lord. This has been further explained in the following verse from rmad-Bhgavatam (10.33.39): vikrita vraja vadhbhir ida ca vio raddhnvito nuuyd atha varayed ya bhakti par bhagavati pratilabhya kma hd-rogam v apahinoty acirea dhra A sober person who in the beginning faithfully and continuously hears from his guru the narrations of Lord r Ka's unprecedented rsa dance with the young wives (gops) of Vraja, and later describes those pastimes very soon attains parbhakti or prema-bhakti towards the Supreme Lord, and thus becomes competent to quickly dispel the heart disease of lust. Here r Jva Gosvm comments in Vaiava-toa: raddhay vivvasennvita iti. tad vipartvaj-ruppardha-nivrty arthaca nairantaryrthaca. tac ca phala vaiiyrtham, ataeva yo nu nirantara uyt, athnantara svaya varayec ca, upalakaa caitat smarec ca, bhakti premalaka par r gopik premnusritvt sarvot tama jtym; pratikaa ntanatvena labdh; hd-roga-rpa kmam iti bhagavad viaya kma vieo vyavacchinna, tasya parama prema rpatvena tad vaipartyt. kmam ity upalakaam anyem api hd-rogm. anyatra ruyate(r gt,18.54)brahma bhta prasanntm na ocati na kkati, sama sarveu bhteu mad bhakti labhate parm. iti atra tu hd-rogpahnt pr vam eva parama bhakti prpti tasmt parama balavadeveda sdhanam iti bhva. Having concluded the narration of the rsa-ll, ukadeva Gosvm became deeply immersed in spiritual ecstasy. In this verse, he describes the fruits of hearing and chanting the rsa-ll and thus benedicts all future listeners and recitors. Those who incessantly and faithfully hear r Ka's rsa ll with the young wives of Vraja and later recite those pastimes, quickly attain par-bhakti toward Bhagavn r Ka and thus relinquish the heart disease of lust. raddhnvita means to hear with firm faith. This word has been used to prevent the offence which results from mistrust (avivasa) or disregard (avaj) of the statements of stra in complete opposition to the principle of hearing with faith. It has also been used to promote constant hearing. By this word, the importance of hearing has been pointed out. The words atha varayed indicate that after 92

continuously hearing the rsa-ll along with other special pastimes, one will personally describe those pastimes. By upalakaa, or indirect implication, it is further indicated that after hearing and reciting, one will also remember those pastimes and take great delight in them. In other words, hearing, chanting, remembering, experiencing delight, and so on, are all implied by the words raddhnvita anuuyt atha varayed (to hear repeatedly with faith and then describe). Par-bhakti means bhakti which follows in the wake of the gops of Vraja. Therefore, the bhakti referred to here is prema-bhakti of the highest category. The word pratilabhya (repeatedly obtained), together with the word par-bhakti, indicates that first par-bhakti (possessing the distinctive characteristics of prema) is obtained within the heart at every moment in ever new varieties. Thereafter one quickly gives up the heart disease of lust. Here the difference between kma (material lust) as a disease of the heart and kma (spiritual love) in relationship to the Supreme Lord is pointed out. These two are distinct from each other. The word kma here indirectly implies that all diseases of the heart will quickly be dispelled. In Bhagavad-gt (18.54) it is said: One who is situated in the transcendental position beyond the contamination of the three modes of nature (brahma-bhta), who is fully satisfied in the self, who neither laments nor hankers for anything and who looks impartially upon all living beings attains par-bhakti unto Me. In this Gt verse it is said that one attains par-bhakti only after the disappearance of the diseases of the heart, but in the above verse it is said that one attains par-bhakti even before their departure. Consequently, it is understood that hearing and chanting of rsa-ll is one of the most powerful forms of sdhana. rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura states as follows in his Srrtha-darin commentary on the same verse (10.33.39): anudina v uyt. atha varayet krttayet. svakavitay kvya-rpatvena nibadhnteti v. par prema lakaa prpyeti ktv pratyayena hd-rogavaty apy adhikrii pratham ataeva prema praveas tatas tat prabhvenaivcirato hd roga na iti premya jna yoga iva na durbala paratantra ceti bhva. hd-roga-rpa kmam iti bhagavad viayaka kma vieo vyavacchinna tasya premmta rpatvena tad vaiparityt. dhra paita iti hd roge satyapi katham prem bhaved ity anstikya


lakaena mrkhatvena rahita ity artha. ataeva raddhnvita iti strvivsin nm pardhin prempi ngkarotti bhva. The prefix anu (repeatedly or methodically) when applied to uyt (to hear) indicates constant hearing. By continuously hearing from the lips of the ravaaguru and Vaiavas and thereafter reciting, narrating, or describing (those pastimes) in poetry of one's own composition, one attains par-bhakti or in other words bhakti which is of the nature of prema (prema-lakaa-bhakti). The suffix ktv has been used in the formation of the verb pratilabhya(obtained) as follows: prati + labh+ ktv. According to the rules of Sanskrit grammar, when the suffix ktv is applied to a verbal root with a prefix, it is replaced by yap. Then the letter 'p' is dropped and thus the final form of the word (pratilabhya) is obtained. The suffix ktv is applied to the first of two verbs performed by the same agent to show successive action (i.e., having attained prema, he relinquishes all lusty desires of the heart). In this case, the first action is pratilabhya (the attainment of prema) and the second action is apahinoti (renunciation of the lusty desires of the heart). Therefore, the suffix ktv in the verb pratilabhya indicates that although lust and other evils still remain within the heart, prema-bhakti first enters the heart and by its extraordinary influence destroys all vices to the root. In other words, hearing and reciting rsa-ll possess such astonishing power that the lust in the heart of the faithful sdhaka is destroyed and he attains prema. Though these two take place simultaneously, the influence of prema manifests first and through its effect, all lusty desires of the heart are dissipated. Thus as a result of hearing and chanting the narrations of the Lord's pastimes, one first attains prema for the Lord's lotus feet and thereafter one's heart is liberated from lusty desires and all other contamination. In other words, he becomes perfectly pure because prema is not feeble like the processes of jna and yoga. Bhakti is omnipotent and supremely independent. The words hd-roga kma indicate the difference between lusty desires of the heart and the kma in relationship to the Supreme Lord. Kma which is in relationship to the Supreme Lord is of the very nature of the nectar of prema(premmta svarpa),whereas the lusty desires of the heart are exactly the opposite. Therefore, these two items are distinct from each other. This is substantiated by use of the words hd-roga kma.


The word dhra means a paita, or one who is learned in the stra. One who disbelieves the statement of this verse and thinks, As long as the disease of lust remains in the heart, prema can not be obtained, is said to possess an atheistic temperament. One who is free from such a foolish, atheistic demeanour is known as a paita or sober person (dhra). Consequently, only those who have firm faith in the stra are known as dhra. Those who have no faith in the statements of the stra are atheists and offenders to the holy name. Such persons can never attain prema. Consequently, in the heart of the sdhakas who firmly believe in the statements of the stra, faith arises by hearing rsa-ll and other narrations. Only in the hearts of such faithful devotees does prema manifest its influence as a result of hearing ll-kath. Thereafter, lust and all evils present within the heart of the devotee are destroyed to the root. rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura's commentary on rmad-Bhgavatam (10.47.59) is also relevant to this discussion. There it is stated that bhakti is the only cause of superior qualities being found in any individual. Austerities, learning, knowledge, and so on, are not the cause of superior qualities. Although bhakti is itself of the highest excellence, it does not appear only in the most exceptional individuals endowed with all good qualities. On the contrary, it may manifest or remain even in the most condemned and vile persons. Furthermore, it causes thoroughly wretched and fallen persons to attain all good qualities, to become worthy of the respect of all, and to attain the highest and most rare association. For this reason, the opinion that Bhakti-dev enters the heart only after all anarthas, apardhas, lust and other diseases of the heart have been eradicated, is not appropriate. On the contrary, by the mercy of the Supreme Lord or the devotees, or by faithfully executing sdhana and bhajana, this rare bhakti enters the heart first and then all anarthas are automatically dissipatedthis conclusion is thoroughly agreeable. Therefore, only faithful sdhakas with firm belief in the statements of stra, guru and Vaiavas are eligible to hear the ll-kath of rmad-Bhgavatam which are saturated with rasa. And conversely, those who believe that only sdhakas who are completely free from all anarthas are eligible to hear the above-mentioned pastimes, will neither become free from anarthas nor obtain eligibility to hear even after millions of births.


Another point to consider is that if this argument is accepted, then we sdhakas who are still affected by anarthas, although possessing faith, could never read nor hear the sacred books of rasika Gauya Vaiava cryas like rla Santana Gosvm, rla Rpa Gosvm, rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura and rla Bhaktivinoda hkura. Under such a circumstance, we would be for ever deprived of the extremely confidential and elevated truths of bhakti expressed by these cryas. There would be no possibility that the sprout of greed for rgnug-bhakti would ever be awakened in our hearts. Thus we would be forever cheated from that which was not previously given, the prema-rasa of the most munificent r ac-nandana, the bestower of ka-prema. What then would distinguish the r Gauya Vaiavas who have taken shelter of r Caitanya Mahprabhu from Vaiavas of other sampradyas? A third point to consider is this. In r Caitanya-caritmta(Madhya, 8.70) the following verse is quoted from Padyval: ka-bhakti-rasa-bhvit mati kryat yadi kuto pi labhyate tatra laulyam api mlyam ekala janma-koi-suktair na labhyate Here, the words laulyam api mlyam ekalam (indeed the only price is greed) indicate that this supremely rare greed cannot be aroused even by pious activities accumulated over millions and mil lions of births. Then how can this greed be obtained? The words ka-bhakti-rasa-bhvit mati indicate one whose intelligence or perception has been awakened toward ka-bhakti-rasa. Here, the implication is that by faithfully hearing the narrations of r Ka's pastimes saturated with rasa from the lips of rasika Vaiavas in whom kabhakti-rasa has arisen, or by faithfully and attentively studying the literature related to the pastimes of r Ka, composed by them, this greed may be obtained. Besides this, there is no other means. Another argument that at present there is no sdhaka who is completely free from anarthas and, therefore, no one is eligible, nor in the future will anyone be eligible, is completely illogical. Freedom from lust and all other anarthas in and of itself is not the qualification for entrance into rgnug-bhakti. On the contrary, greed awakened towards the Lord's mdhurya(sweetness) is the sole qualification for entrance into rgnug-bhakti. Nor is there any certainty that by routine observance of the limbs of vaidh-bhakti alone, greed toward rgnug-bhakti will


automatically awaken. There is no evidence of this anywhere. Therefore, our highest obligation is to follow the purport of the commentaries of the previous cryas to the above-mentioned verses of rmad-Bhgavatam. It is by the inspiration of His Divine Grace rla guru-pda-padma nitya-llpravia o viupda aottara-ata r rmad Bhakti Prajna Keava Gosvm Mahrja and the repeated solicitation of many bumblebee-like devotees, I am presenting r Veu-gta to the readers along with a purport to the commentaries of rla Cakravart hkura and rla Jva Gosvm named Srrtha-darin and r Vaisnava-toa respectively. By reading this subject with full faith, the greed to enter into rgnug-bhakti will certainly sprout in the hearts of faithful devotees. This itself is the very purpose of human life.


Addendum One The Appearance Day Of rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat hkura Prabhupada
A lecture given in Germany: February 21, 2003 by Tridandisvami r rmad Bhaktivedanta Nryaa Mahrja
Today is a very auspicious day. It is the very holy birthday of Srila Prabhupda Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat Gosvm hkura, and also the disappearance day of rla Gour Govinda Mahrja. In the evening we will glorify them, so all the devotees should be ready to be called upon. I want to speak something about the glories of rla Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvat Prabhupda. If this mah-purua, great, self-realized soul, had not descended in this world, no one would have known the meaning of pure bhakti. No one would have known the identity of rla Bhaktivinoda hkura, the book r Caitanyacaritmta, or the books and glory of the Gosvms. Srila Bhaktivinoda hkura gave us two jewels. One is the holy birthplace of r Caitanya Mahprabhu. He manifested Gaura-dhama. Before him, no one knew where r Caitanya Mahprabhu had taken birth. No one knew where rdhama Mypura was actually located. Secondly, he gave the jewel of rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat Thakura, who preached throughout the world and universe the glory of r Caitanya Mahprabhu, r Nitynanda Prabhu, the rpnuga vicara-dhara (the conceptions of the disciplic line of rla Rpa Gosvami), and the glories of r Sri Rdh and Ka. Before the birth of rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat Gosvm and rla Bhaktivinoda hkura, and after the disappearance of rla Visvanatha Cakravart hkura, rla Narottama hkura, r Syamananda Prabhu, Srinivas Acrya, and especially rla Visvanatha Cakravart hkura and rla Baladeva Vidyabhaa, pure bhakti was covered. The sahajiy' ideas were spread throughout r Vraja-dhama and r Navadvipa dhma. Their influence prevailed and there were hardly any real Vaiavas. In the name of r Caitanya Mahprabhu, His philosophy and His prema-dharma, the sahajiy were degraded in character and most sinful. To live with another man's widow, to dance and sing with them, and to smoke cigarettes and drink


wine with them this was their idea of parakya and vaiava-dharma. Because of their influence, none of the learned and aristocratic persons even wanted to hear the name "Gaudiya Vaiavas", what to speak of follow them. They hated Gaudya Vaiavas. throughout the world and universe There are eleven sahajiy groups, like gaura-nagari, sakhi-bekhi, Aul Baul, and so on. In India, their main function was widow-bhajana. They maintained their lives by doing professional kirtanas during funeral processions. After following a dead body and singing, they would receive a donation from the deceased relatives. True vaiava-dharma is completely pure, but all aristocratic persons began to hate it and were thus in danger. At that time, rla Prabhupda Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat appeared in r Jaganntha-dhama as the son of rla Bhaktivinoda hkura. He was born with many symptoms of a mah-purua, such as natural tilaka marks on his body and the impressions of kanti-mala. rla Bhaktivinoda hkura told his wife Bhagavati-devi, "He is not an ordinary boy. Any ordinary boy cannot have these natural tilaka marks, kanti-mala and other signs. He has taken birth in Jaganntha Pur, and also I have prayed to Vimala dev, the consort of Lord Jaganntha. He has come by Her mercy. The hkura thus gave his boy the name Vimala Prasada. Prasada means mercy. After six months, the baby became qualified to have his anna- prasana mahotsava (grain ceremony in which a baby is fed grains (sweet rice) for the first time). At the same time the Jaganntha Chariot festival was taking place. The three carts carrying Jaganntha, Baladeva and Subhadra were in procession and had stopped in front of rla Bhaktivinoda hkura's house for three days. The hkura was the manager of the entire festival. Therefore, without any problem or obstacle, he took his son upon the chariot and placed him in front of Jaganntha-deva. He took some prasadam from there and placed in the mouth of Vimala Prasada, and the flower garland from the neck of Jaganntha dropped on the baby's head. It is a very good sign when the deity's falls in this way, for it means the recipient is being blessed by the mercy of Lord Jaganntha, r Govinda-deva, r Gopinatha, or any other deity. This also happened to r Caitanya Mahaprabhu Himself. Thus, Vimala Prasada's anna-prasana mahotsava was observed. Gradually he began to grow up. After some time, when he became a boy of five years, rla Bhaktivinoda hkura himself gave him harinama and the arcana mantra for Lord Kurmadeva. He began to learn many things. He was always with rla Bhaktivinoda hkura, carrying his father's r Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, r Ujjvala- nilamani, r Caitanya-caritmta and other books on his own head as 99

he accompanied him to various places for preaching or giving classes. Thus, from the beginning of his life, very good saskras came to him. This, of course, was his naravata-ll (human-like pastimes), because he was actually the eternal associate of r Varsabhanavi-devi dayitaya, near and dear to Varsabhanavi, rmat Radhika. Ka-presthaya. Ka has so much love and affection for the manjaris, the most beloved of r Varsabhanavi-devi. Gaura-vani-pracarine. What is the meaning of gaura-vani? This adjective has also been used in the prama mantra of Parama- pujyapada rla Bhaktivedanta Swami Mahrja, but we do not go in deep to uncover its meaning. Gaura-vani refers to that which Gaura (Sacinandana Gaurahari) preached, and that which He inspired in the heart of rla Rpa Gosvm the glorification of the mood of the gops and rmat Rdhik. Gauracandra said, "O Nitynanda, O Haridasa Prabhu, you should go door to door and preach 'Bolo Ka, bhaja Ka, karo Ka (chant r Ka's name, worship Him, and serve Him. This is Gaura-vani. It is also what He discussed with r Rya Rmnanda and r Svarpa Dmodara in the Gambira, especially His hidden revelation of the meaning of ceto- darpana-marjanam, yugayitam nimesena caksusa pravrsayitam, and aslisya v pada-ratam. This is Gaura-vani. It is also the love and affection explained by rla Rpa Gosvm in r Bhakti-rasamrta- sindhu, r Ujjvala-nila-mani, r Vidagdamadhava and r Lalit Madhava. This is Gaura-vani. Our entire parampar descended to this world from Goloka Vrndavana, and rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat hkura was one of the most prominent cryas. If he had not come, everything would have been transferred into sahajism wherein all philosophy is asat-sampradaya. If one is not serving his gurudeva, if he does not have strong belief in his gurudeva, and if he is not following his line of thought, such a person must be sahajiya; and this is taking place nowadays. We are preaching and therefore they are somewhat stopped, but I do not know what will happen after I leave this world. A very dangerous stage is coming. Many ISKCON devotees left rla Bhaktivedanta Swami Mahrja, their guru, rla Prabhupda, and they went to Radha-kunda. Why? They wanted to remember asta-kaliya-ll as goopis - not gops, but goopis -and for this offense they went to hell. They became "babajis". Keeping two, three, or four widows with them, they began to relish their "parakya-bhajana." I know not only two, or three, or four, but so many. They want to jump not to practice bhakti-yoga. They want to be gops by paying two pennies to any bogus person who will "give" them siddha-deha, the perfected personal identity, and tell them, "You are a gop." 100

They will give a name and all other information about that "gopi." Then, after some time, such "disciples" imagine themselves absorbed in r Sri Radha and Ka's most confidential pastimes in the kunjas. Please do not try to be like that do not go in that direction. There are some ill-charactered persons who have been rejected from the Gaudya Maha, and they also went to Radha-kunda to become babajis in that asatsampradaya. Such loose-charactered or unqualified persons imagine themselves absorbed in the asta-kaliya-ll of Rdh and Ka in Their midnight and end of the night nisanta-ll pastimes. At that time, Rdh and Ka are meeting in a kuja. If They are alone, half naked and kissing each other, what will that "meditator" think? Material ideas will come to him. He is bound to think in this way, and this is wrong. Radha-Ka ll is transcendental. Only a saintly person like r ukadeva Gosvami who was a brahmacari from his birth, or like Nrada Gosvami who is a liberated soul, or like Lord akara who is an ideal personality, can properly think of asta-kaliya-ll. You should offer prama such pastimes and try to practice bhakti-yoga, as our predecessors cryas have taught us. Gradually begin from the root of the tree, then be qualified to climb, and then reach the top. Then you can take the fruits. Otherwise, what will you have? Nothing but these bogus ideas. Try to follow rla Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvat Prabhupda, our Gurudeva rla Bhaktiprajnana Kesava Gosvm Mahrja, and rla Bhaktivedanta Swami Mahrja. Otherwise, you will also be like those misdirected persons and you will also go to hell. Srila Bhaktivinoda hkura sent his son to a Sanskrit college and, at the age of twelve perhaps, he received the degree in astrology and the title Siddhanta Sarasvat. At that time he had become the champion in astrology throughout Bengal, and therefore all the elevated paitas (those learned in scriptures) and scholars there gave him that title. Sometimes rla Sarasvat hkura would defeat the arguments of his teachers, however, and he therefore left that college. Our Gurudeva also left college. They both left because they had nothing to learn from the teachers there. During that time the governor of Bengal was Asutosa Mukarji. At that time the Indian government was ruled by the British, and the British made him Governor. He was very qualified. He established the Calcutta University, and there he kept a reserved seat for Srila Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat hkura. He requested him, "Oh, please come and be the head of the department. Please oversee it. You are the most qualified for this." Sarasvat hkura replied: "I have not come to this 101

world to count the stars of the world. I have not come to count the sands of the world. I cannot fulfill your desire." As long as rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat remained in this world that post had been kept for him, but he never accepted it. Srila Bhaktivinoda hkura then thought: "What should I do for this boy?" He established a medical dispensary and told his son, "Remain there, and somehow maintain it so that there are no losses. rla Prabhupda Sarasvat hkura began to do so, but the dispensary failed, and again the father wondered what to do. There was a king in India at that time, who was the king of Kashim Bazar, and he was a bosom friend of rla Bhaktivinoda hkura. He told the hkura, "I want a tutor for my son He will be king after me, so I want a tutor for him." rla Bhaktivinoda hkura replied. "Let us try; I will tell my son to teach him." At that time the salary was very high. rla Sarasvat hkura went to the king and began to teach his son - that the entire world, along with all the sandhis and samas, movements of the moon, is an emanation of Ka and non-different from Him. He taught as Mahaprabhu taught when He was a teacher in Navadvipa. After some time the boy became very learned and a scholar in Vaiava philosophy, and the result was that he became renounced. He was not like you. Many of you have been hearing for sixteen or twenty years, but you have not become detached. On the other hand, being taught by rla Saravati hkura, that prince became detached from worldly enjoyment. The boy's mother became very upset, and she told her husband, the king: "You have only one son, and you want to make him a sannysi? Your only son? I do not want this. If you continue in this way I will take poison and die." The king became upset and asked rla Bhaktivinoda Thakura; "What should I do?" rla Bhaktisiddhnta Thakura replied, "I will tell my boy to return home." The King said, "I will continue to give you money, the same salary that I have been giving, but he should return." At that time the king had a very big library, and rla Sarasvat Thakura Prabhupda studied the thousands of books there all the Gosvami's books, rmad Bhgavatam, Brahma-sutra, books of the other sampradyas, and so on. Though he already knew their contents, he studied those books just to set an example for us. Quickly, in one or two years, he completed that study. After that he returned home, rla Bhaktivinoda hkura again considered what would be a good engagement for his son. He purchased land in Mypura, beginning from Jaganntha Bhavan, the house of Sacinandana, Yogapitha, Candrasekara Bhavan and beyond. He gave the entire area to rla


Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat Thakura, who then began to do bhajana in Svarpa Ganja. rla Bhaktivinoda hkura told him, "We have discovered the birthplace of Mahprabhu by the help and mercy of rla Jaganntha dsa Babaji Mahrja. Now you should glorify it." Srila Sarasvat hkura then made a hut where r Gauracandra, Srimati Visnupriya, rmat Laksmipriya and Pancha-tattva were standing, and his father then ordered him, "You should perform arcana in the deities' hut, and you can maintain yourself by depending on Lord Ka while performing His worship and service." As you may know, in general, a father does not believe that his boy is very intelligent and capable. Our Guru Mahrja considered us his babies and thought, "What will they do?" He told us that he had made this Gaudya Math with bricks, and added, "After I leave this world, if you cannot maintain yourself you should sell these bricks and somehow maintain." Similarly, rla Bhaktivinoda used to think, "My baby is the same as he was when he was young." However, rla Prabhupda very quickly preached over the entirety of Bengal. He began to establish the Navadvipa-dhama parikram and Kartika parikram. Then, after some time he gave sannysa to very qualified disciples - who were practically only boys. At that time, Pujyapada Bon Mahrja, Pujyapada rdhara Mahrja, Pujyapada Vikanas Mahrja, Pujyapada Auduloumi Mahrja and many others were only about 25, 26, or 27, and they were the cream of all Bengal or all India. They were the upper-class. He brought them to him, gave them brahmacarya and sannysa, and established Sri Caitanya Maha. What is the meaning of the word "matha"? "Mathanti vasanti satrah." It is a place in which students study and learn under the guidance of their Gurudeva. It is like the gurukulas of previous times, wherein boys would study and become very qualified in all kinds of siddhnta. rla Sarasvat hkura established this. He also gave brahmacarya to many beautiful boys, and thus very quickly preached all over India. After some time he wished that this religion of r Caitanya Mahaprabhu would also go to the Western countries, and he inspired Srila Bhaktivedanta Swami Mahrja - r Abhaya Caranaravinda By his mercy Parama-pujyapada rla Swami Mahrja went abroad and preached throughout the world in just a few years. He established preaching centers and translated and published many books which were in turn translated in all the prominent languages of the world.


You have come by his mercy, and the root mercy is that of Srila Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat Gosvm hkura.


Addendum Two Boycott The Sahajiy Bbjs

A lecture given in Holland, June 10, 2001 by Tridandisvami r rmad Bhaktivedanta Nryaa Mahrja
I want to explain something so that you will be very careful. I am receiving questions about the books published by the bbjs of Vraja. They accept r Caitanya Mahprabhu, r Nitynanda Prabhu, and r r Rdh-Ka Conjugal. They have not written their own books. They only take books like Stava-mala by rla Rpa Gosvm, Stavavali and Vilpa Kusumjali by rla Raghuntha dsa Gosvm, Rdh-rsa-sudhanidhi by r Prabhodananda Sarasvat, and other Gosvami books. They have taken our Gosvamis' explanations, which are in Sanskrit, and they are simply translating them into Bengali. Everything seems to be okay. However, you should know what are the defects of these bbjs, and you should be very careful. You should carefully note down their defects in your hearts and your notebooks. First of all they don't accept that the Gaudya Vaiava Sampradya is one of the sakhas, branches, of the Brahma-Madhva Sampradya, although this fact has been clearly explained by r Kavi Karnipura, rla Jva Gosvm, and then by r Baladeva Vidyabhusana Prabhu. It has also been explained by rla Bhaktivinoda hkura, rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat hkura, by my Gurudeva, that is, rla Bhakti Prajna Kesava Gosvm Mahrja, and also by rla Bhaktivedanta Swami Mahrja. Secondly, they think that r Prabhodananda Sarasvat and Prakasananda Sarasvat are the same person, although there is so much difference between them. This cannot be so. Will a person of the Rmnuja Sampradya go down to become a Mayavadi like Prakasananda Sarasvat, and then again become Prabhodananda Sarasvati, who was so exalted that he became the guru of rla Gopala Bhaa Gosvami? This idea is absurd. Prabhodananda Sarasvati and Praknanda Sarasvat were contemporaries. Will the same person go back and forth, being a Vaiava in South India, then becoming a Mayavadi, again becoming a Vaiava in Vndvana, and again becoming a Mayavadi? rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat Thakura has vividly written about this, and great historians and research scholars have also rejected the idea that they are the same person.


Thirdly, they don't give proper honor to r Jva Gosvm, and this is a very big blunder. This is a vital point. They say that Jiva Gosvm is of svakiya-bhava, that he never supported parakya- bhava, and that he is against parakya-bhava. They say that in his explanations of rmad Bhgavatam and Brahma-samhita, in his own books like Gopla Campu, and especially in his r Ujjvala- nilamani tika, he has written against parakya-bhava. This is their greatest blunder. We don't accept their statements at all. Srila Jva Gosvm was rpnuga, a pure follower of rla Rpa Gosvami and r Rpa Majar. However, for some devotees who were not very qualified at that time, who were beginners, and who did not know what is parakya-bhava and even in Vraja there are so many like this he seemed to favor svakiya-bhava. For some followers, so that they would be able to come at least to vidhi- marga (worship according to the rules and regulations of Narada- pancaratra), Jva Gosvm wrote as if he was a supporter of svakiya-rsa. He wanted that through this they should become qualified, and then they should come to the mood of parakya. For qualified persons he has written that parakya-bhava is in Vraja and svakiya-bhava is in Dvaraka. He has vividly written this, and he also accepted this. He can never be against the teachings of Srila Rpa Gosvm, rla Santana Gosvm and r Caitanya Mahprabhu . He can never be so. He was a follower of the same root idea of parakya-bhava as Rpa Gosvm. For some unqualified persons he has written in that other way, but the bbjs of Vraja cannot reconcile this. They are ignorant persons. They became opposed to rla Jva Gosvm and took the side of rla Visvanatha Cakravart hkura, even though in fact there is no dispute between Jva Gosvm and Vivantha Cakravart hkura. Whatever Jva Gosvm wrote for the benefit of those unqualified followers is in the line of tattva-siddhnta , established philosophical truths. He wrote that, by tattva, the gops are Ka-svakiya. ananda-cinmaya-rsa-pratibhavitabhis tabhir ya eva nija-rupataya kalabhih goloka eva nivasaty akhilatma-bhuto govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami (Brahma Samhita) ["I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who resides in His own realm, Goloka, with Rdh, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who embodies the ecstatic potency (Hladini). Their companions are Her confidantes, who embody extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued and permeated with everblissful spiritual rsa."] 106

Nija-rupataya kalabhih. The gops are Ka's power. They cannot be parakya in the eyes of tattva-siddhnta . They are the same as Ka. They are the power of Ka. They are also not the wives of any gopas, cowherd men, of Vndvana. They are all beloved of Ka, and they are not different from Him. Thus, by tattva, they are svakya. (Sva means 'own' and kiya means sampatti, wealth.) This means they are of Ka, Ka's own, and they are His power. Visvanatha Cakravart hkura has written in the line of rsa-siddhnta or rsa-tattva. In rsatattva Yogamaya has arranged that both the gops and Ka think that the gops are married to other gopas, and therefore they have a paramour relationship. If it were not like this, there would be no rsa at all. (Para means 'greatest', one's own greatest wealth, and it also means 'another', another's wealth. Therefore the meaning in both tattva-siddhnta and rsa-siddhnta is harmoniously reconciled.) Srila Rpa Gosvm has explained all these things, especially in Ujjvala Nilamani, and also in his other books. The gops are Ka's own, His power, but for rsa it is said that they are parakya. What is parakya? There are two principles: atmarsa and para- rsa, or eka-rsa and aneka-rsa. Ka is eka-rsa or tm rsa. He is one rsa. In other words He is the complete embodiment of rsa. He is atmarama and ptakma. He is always full and satisfied in Himself. He doesn't need anything from anyone in order to be happy. The gops are His own power. Sakti-saktimatayor-abheda. Sakti, the energy, and saktiman, the possessor of that energy or power, are both one. They are identical. However, although Ka has this quality, He is also para-rsa. Para-rsa means that the gops are vaishisteya; that is, they also have a speciality that distinguishes them from Ka. Although they are part of Ka, although they are one with Him, their speciality is that they serve Him in the mood of rsa. Ka is the enjoyer and they are the container or reservoir of love and affection. Ka also wants to taste their mood. Aneka- rsa or para-rsa is the gopis' rsa, and Ka wants to taste that rsa in various ways. That rsa is in the form of parakya rsa, and this is the meaning of parakya rsa nothing else. These are a very high-class of philosophical understandings, and Srila Bhaktivinoda hkura has explained all these truths. Therefore, Jva Gosvm is not of a different opinion than Rpa Gosvami. They have the very same opinion. Vivantha Cakravart Thakura has proven that Jva Gosvm was in parakya-bhava, and that he accepted rmad Bhgavatam and Ujjvala-nilamani. [In his own Ujjvala-nilamani tika, rla Jva Gosvm has written, "Svecchaya likitam kincit, atra kincid parecchaya. I have written some things by my own desire and some things by the desire of others. The portions which are consistent, in which svakya and parakya are reconciled and in the line of Rpa 107

Gosvm, is my desire, and the portions that are not reconciled are written by the desire of others." I have written about all these topics in my book called Prabandha Pacakam, Five Essential Essays. You should try to know these things fully. The bbjs say that we are not a branch of the line of Madhvacarya. They say Madhvcrya is of a different opinion than the Gaudya Vaiavas. But this is quite wrong. We have so many specialties that are there in the line of Madhvcrya. Also, they say that because Caitanya Mahprabhu took sannysa from Kesava Bhrati, a Mayavadi, He, Himself, must be a Mayavadi. We don't accept this. Mahprabhu's actual guru was Isvara Purpda, He only took vea, red cloth, from Kesava Bhrati, and there is no harm in this. Madhvcrya also did this, and Rmnujcrya as well. [Another point is as follows. r Madhvcrya accepted sannysa from Acyutapreksa, who was also a kevaldvaita-vd. Suppose we accept the opinion of the opposing party, just for the sake of argument. In that case, if Mahprabhu is a kevaladvaita- vadi sannysa , then by the same logic so is Madhvcrya. Where, then, is the obstacle to rman Mahprabhuj's being in the Mdhva Sampradya, if both of them accepted the advaita-vd ankara's Sampradya? There is a second point here. r Madhvcrya accepted eka-danda (a single staff of renunciation) according to the customs and regulations of the akara Sampradya. It would be logically consistent to say that r Caitanya Mahprabhu followed his ideal example, and also accepted eka danda-sannysa from a sannyasi of the akara Sampradya, namely r Kesava Bhrati. From this it seems clear that Gaudya Vaiavas are in the line of Sri Madhvcrya.(from Five Essential Essays)] Sannysa can be taken in this way. [During the time of Lord Caitanya, the influence of akarcrya in society was very strong. People thought that one could accept sannysa only in the disciplic succession of akarcrya. Lord Caitanya could have performed His missionary activities as a householder, but He found householder life an obstruction to His mission. Therefore He decided to accept the renounced order, sannysa . Since His acceptance of sannysa was also designed to attract public attention, Lord Caitanya, not wishing to disturb the social convention, took the renounced order of life from a sannys in the disciplic succession of Sankaracarya, although sannysa was also sanctioned in the Vaisnava sampradya. (Cc. di-ll 3.34 purp.)] However, Mahprabhu took gopal-mantra and other mantras from Isvara Purpda. rla Bhaktivinoda hkura, rla Rpa Gosvm, and rla Jva Gosvm have accepted this that Caitanya Mahprabhu was not a Mayavadi. Mdhavendra Purpda also took sannysa from a Mayavadi, but he took dk initiation in the line of Mdhva, and Lakmpati Trtha was his guru. 108

We are thus in one line. There is some little difference in upasana-marga, but by tattva we are both the same. r Baladeva Vidyabhusana Prabhu has written about this very vividly, and the opinion of Kavi-karnapura is also that we are in the Mdhva Sampradya. He wrote a loka about this. Another point is that the bbjs don't accept that rla Baladeva Vidyabhusana is in the Gaudya Vaiava line. They are vehemently opposed to this understanding. However, if Baladeva Vidyabhaa Prabhu is out of our Gaudya Sampradya, then who is our savior? He went to Galt Gadd in Jaipur and defeated the r Vaiavas. He told them that rmat Rdhik should be on the left of Ka. He wrote a commentary on Vednta Sutra called Govinda-bhasya, and that commentary has been accepted as the Gaudiya-bhasya (commentary representing the Gaudya Sampradya). [As far as we in the Madhva-Gaudiya Sampradya are concerned, our acaryas accepted rmad-Bhgavatam as the natural commentary on Brahma-sutra. The Gaudya Sampradya did not make any commentary on the Brahma-sutra because they accepted, and Caitanya Mahprabhu accepted, that rmadBhgavatam is the natural commentary because it was also written by Vyasadeva, the original author of Brahma- sutra. If the author has made his own commentary, there was no need of another. This is the Gaudiya-vaisnava-siddhnta . Sometime back, however, in Jaipur, there was a challenge that the Gaudya Sampradya has no commentary on the Vedanta-sutra. Vivantha Cakravarti hkura was requested to go there, because he was the most senior Vaiava scholar. He was living in Vndvana at that time, and because he was very advanced in age at that time, he authorized Baladeva Vidyabhaa, "You do it. There is no need, but people are demanding, 'Where is your commentary on the Vedanta-sutra?'" Therefore, by the dictation of Govindaj at Jaipur, Baladeva Vidyabhaa, wrote the commentary on Brahma-sutra called Govinda-bhasya. In this way, the Brahma-Madhva- Gaudya Sampradya has also got a commentary on Brahmasutra, and that is required. (from rla Prabhupda's lecture on Sept. 30, 1973)] If Baladeva Vidyabhaa Prabhu is not in our sampradya, then what sampradya is He in? All his commentaries are in the line of Srila Rpa Gosvm and our Gaudya Vaiava cryas. If Baladeva Prabhu is out of our sampradya, everything will be finished. This is a vital point. Also, these bbjs say that if anyone wears the saffron cloth of sannysa , he is not in the Gaudya Vaiava line. They have no correct idea. It is stated in Caitanya Caritamrta: kiba vipra, kiba nyasi, sudra kene naya yei Ka-tattva-vetta, sei 'guru' haya


["It does not matter whether a person is a vipra (learned scholar in Vedic wisdom) or is born in a lower family, or is in the renounced order of life. If he is master in the science of Ka, he is the perfect and bona fide spiritual master." (Madhya-lila 8- 128)] Ka dsa Kavirja Gosvm has written 'kiba nyasi'. Nyasi means sannyasi. Isvara Purpda, Mdhavendra Purpda, and all renunciates in their line were sannyss in saffron cloth. There are so many associates of Caitanya Mahprabhu who wore saffron cloth. Svarpa Dmodara also wore saffron cloth. What harm was there? Saffron cloth is the sign of renunciation. It is the color of anuraga, attachment for Ka. Because it is a color, it is worn by sadhvis. Sadhvi means a married lady, a lady who is not a widow. 'Married' means having Ka as one's beloved. We are not widows, but those who wear white cloths are widows. From where has this word 'babaji' come in our line? From whom has it come? Isvara Purpda, Mdhavendra Purpda, r Caitanya Mahprabhu , Nitynanda Prabhu, and after Him, r Rpa Gosvm, Sri Santana Gosvm, rla Raghuntha Bhaa Gosvm, r Jva Gosvami, r Gopla Bhaa Gosvm, and r Raghuntha dsa Gosvami. After them, Ka dsa Kavirja Gosvm and Vndvana dasa hkura, and then Narottama dsa hkura, ymnanda dsa, Srinivasa Acrya, and Vivantha Cakravart hkura. Where is the word babaji? Was anyone known as Babaji? From where did this word babaji come? The bbjs have no reply. These Vaiavas were all paramahasa, not bbj. Sri Santana Gosvm did not wear saffron cloth because he had great honor for r Caitanya Mahprabhu's saffron or reddish cloth. He was thinking, "I cannot be like Him, I am not so high." Therefore, out of honor and reverence he wore white cloth, and he used to worship this saffron cloth. In Vraja, the Vrajabasis all used to call Santana Gosvm 'baba'. They called Santana Gosvm bara-baba, elder sadhu, and Rpa Gosvami chota-baba, younger sadhu. After them, others in their line took white cloth; but then, after the time of Vivantha Cakravarti hkura, they deviated. Some, like Jaganntha dsa Babaji, Madhusdana dsa Babaji, and Gaura Kiora dsa Babaji, took this bbj name out of humility, and everyone used to call them that. [Baba means sadhu or father, and ji is a suffix meaning respectable. These mukta-mahapurusas are paramahasas, and they are also the eternal associates of Rdh and Ka. They are far above the conception of bbj or sannysa (which is within the varnarama system). For them to accept the nomenclature bbj, therefore, is their humility.] [After rman Mahprabhu, His lila-parikaras (eternal pastime associates) such as the six Gosvms, Sri Lokantha and Bhugarbha, and later r Kadsa Kavirja, r Narottama hkura, and r Vivantha Cakravart hkura were naturally niskincana 110

paramahasa Vaiavas. There was no need for them to wear sannysa -vesa, saffron cloth. Secondly, rman Mahprabhu had performed the ll of wearing sannysa-vea and saffron cloth. Thus considering themselves to be worthless, lowly and unqualified, these mahtms did not wear sannysa-vea and saffron cloth in order to show honor and respect to the vea of Sriman Mahprabhu and also to maintain their own identities as servants under the shelter of His lotus feet. On the other hand, in order to express veneration for the niskincana paramahasa-vea of the associates of rman Mahprabhu, and, under their guidance to preach His message throughout the entire world, many akicana Vaisnavas on the path of raganuga-bhajana, holding the paramahasa-vea upon their heads, have accepted a position below their worshipable superiors by wearing the saffron cloth of the sannysa arama which is included within the system of varrama dharma. These two customs, each having their own place, are both exquisitely beautiful and also completely in accordance with siddhnta . Today suddha-hari-bhakti has been, is being, and will continue to be, preached and spread throughout the world by these mahapurusas, great perfected saints, who wear this second type of niskincana sannyasi-vesa. (from Five Essential Essays)] When rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat hkura saw that many bbjs were now bogus, that they were with widow matajis and producing sons, he became very furious and said that we will again accept the same saffron cloth of others like Rmnujcrya, Madhvcrya, Mahprabhu , and Isvara Purpda. He then preached everywhere in the world. At that time, those family persons who were of loose character and had no status in society honored these bogus bbjs. That is why Srila Prabhupda Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat hkura re-introduced the reddish cloth and sannysa . Presently, those who are bogus persons, but were previously in the Gaudya Maha, have become lusty and have thus been kicked out from the Gaudya Maha. Now they have become bbjs. The bbjs especially criticize rla Bhaktivinoda hkura, saying that he didn't have a guru. This is a bogus idea. rla Bhaktivinoda hkura preached the name and the glories of r Caitanya Mahprabhu and the Gaudya Vaiava Sampradya to the whole world. He wrote hundreds of books. Still, the bbjs say he did not have a proper guru, and that rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvati Prabhupda also had no proper guru. [A sdhaka may receive bheka (sannysa vea) from some suitable guru and alternatively, when genuine vairgya (in bhava-bhakti) arises, he may accept bheka from himself. Haridsa hkura, the Six Gosvms, Lokanatha Gosvm, and others are examples of the practice of 111

accepting bheka from oneself. This is also the way that rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat hkura accepted sannysa vea after the disappearance of rla Gaura Kiora dsa Babaji, from whom he had received the dk mantra. We see from these examples that acceptance of bheka in this way is fully in agreement with stra. Sri Rmnujcrya also accepted tridandi-sannysa from himself after the disappearance of his guru rla Yamunacarya. (from Five Essential Essays)] You should know that rla Bhaktivinoda hkura was in the Bhagavata-parampara of rla Jaganntha dsa Babaji Mahrja. rla Prabhupda Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat hkura was also in the line as the same Jaganntha dsa Babaji Mahrja, Srila Bhaktivinoda hkura, and his guru, rla Gaura Kiora Das Babaji Mahrja. They were all in the same line. Those in the bbj line say that our Guru Mahrja, rla Bhakti Prajnana Kesava Gosvm Mahrja, and even rla Bhaktivedanta Swami Mahrja, were not in the proper disciplic line, and that they have no guru-parampara. But it is actually the bbjs who are not in the guru-parampara. I saw in France that so many devotees have given up rla Bhaktivedanta Swami Mahrja, and they have become bbjs. They took babaji-vesa, dor-kaupin and so on. Then, after two years, they fell down with mataji-babajis. They accepted and lived with divorced ladies. They are bound to do this. Thus, those who are not accepting that rla Bhaktivedanta Swami Mahrja, our Guru Mahrja, rla Bhakti Prajna Kesava Gosvm Mahrja, rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat hkura Prabhupda, rla Bhaktivinoda Thakura, and all other high-class Vaiavas are in the Gaudya line, are completely ignorant. If you read their books this poison may come. avaisnava-mukhodgirnam putam hari-kathamrtam sravanam naiva kartavyam sarpocchistam yatha payah (Padma Purana) ["One should not hear anything about Ka from a non-Vaiava . Milk touched by the lips of a serpent has poisonous effects. Similarly, talks about Ka given by a non-Vaiava are also poisonous."] Srila Raghuntha dsa Gosvm's Vilpa Kusumjali, and other books like Ka Bhavanamrta, Rdh-rsa-sudhanidhi, and Stava- vali are all good books. They are amrta, nectar. However, you should not hear them from non-Vaiavas; otherwise the bogus ideas of such non-Vaisvnavas will come, and you will be deviated. Be very careful about this.


Another point is regarding bhajana-pral. Instead of giving the proper process to the appropriate persons, without giving proper training, without considering whether a person is qualified or not, these bbjs give their own version of bhajana-pral. Their so-called disciples do not know who is Ka or what is bhajana. They don't know any definition of bhakti, and they don't even know how to clean themselves after passing stool. They don't know anything. What will become of them? naitat samacarej jatu manasapi hy anisvaram vinasyaty acaran mauhyd yatharudro 'bdhi-jam visam ["One who is not a great controller should never imitate the behavior of ruling personalities, even mentally. If out of foolishness an ordinary person does imitate such behavior, he will simply destroy himself, just as a person who is not Rudra would destroy himself if he tried to drink an ocean of poison." (SB. 10.33.31)] If someone is not qualified, but he wants to drink poison as Sankara did, he will die at once. First be akara, and then take poison. First be qualified. First you should know rla Rpa Gosvm's Upadesamrta: vaco vegam manasa krodha vegam. Also read Mana Sika. First learn tattva: maya-tattva, jiva-tattva, and Ka-tattva. Afterwards, if you have actual greed, then you can read those other books. Otherwise, if you don't learn these principles first, you will be lusty, and you will be bound to deviate and give up bhajana and sdhana. We should read Jaiva Dharma. There, rla Bhaktivinoda hkura has explained all the ideas of rla Rpa Gosvm. First learn trnad api sunicena taror api sahisnuna / amanina manadena kirtaniyah sada hari. "One can chant the holy name of the Lord in a humble state of mind, thinking himself lower than the straw in the street. One should be more tolerant than the tree, devoid of all sense of false prestige and ready to offer all respects to others. ln such a state of mind one can chant the holy name of the Lord constantly." This was advised by r Caitanya Mahprabhu : ye-rupe la-ile nma prema upajaya tahara lakaa suna, svarupa-rama-raya


["O Svarpa Dmodara Gosvm and Rmnanda Rya, hear from Me the symptoms of how one should chant the Hare Ka maha-mantra to awaken very easily one's dormant love for Ka." (Antya 20.21)] Caitanya Mahprabhu Himself gave us the instruction to have these qualities. Try to develop these qualities, and then you can read the other books. There are so many devotees around the world, especially in France, who are reading all these elevated books. However, they don't know Ka-tattva or any other tattva, and they have no niha, steady and strong faith, in their gurudeva. Gradually they are giving up rla Swami Mahrja, rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvat hkura, and the entire guru-parampara. They criticize this line. Therefore, although the books which have been translated by these bbjs are themselves bona fide, we should boycott them. Don't read them. If you are qualified like a hasa, a swan, if you can separate milk from water, then you may read their translations otherwise not. About ten years ago I went on Vraja Maala Parikram with Pujyapda Janardana Mahrja. We went to Rdh-Kunda, and there we challenged the bbjs. We had a discussion for three hours, but no one came. I have also challenged those bbjs in my book, Five Essential Essays, but no one responded. After reading that book they wanted to take us to court, and I challenged them, "Yes, we will see you in court." But they never came. Their lawyers had advised them not to go to court, as they would have lost everything. Don't be attracted to these sahajiy bbjs of Vraja. You should be attracted to our guru- parampar: rla Bhaktivedanta Swami Mahrja, rla Bhaktivinoda hkura, rla Bhaktisiddhnta Sarasvati hkura Prabhupda, r Baladeva Vidyabhaa, rla Jiva Gosvm, rla Vivantha Cakravart hkura, and all those in our Bhagavata-parampara. I have come to tell you these things only to make you all careful. Don't be bewildered. Try to be very strong, knowing all these points.


From left to right: rla Bhakti Pramode Pur Mahrja, rla Bhakti Rakaka rdhara Mahrja, rla Bhakti Sarvasva Giri Mahrja, rla Bhakti Prajna Keava Mahrja, rla Bhakti Vicra Yayavra Mahrja, rla Bhaktivednta Nryaa Mahrja

What to speak of the other Vaiava Sampradyas of today, even in the akara sampradya we see a unity and anugatya, or adherence to t he principles of predecessors, which is lacking everywhere in our Gauya Sampradya. Therefore, with folded hands, it is our earnest prayer that, after deeply and seriously studying this Prabandha Pacakam, the camaraderie within the pure sampradaya may be protected and preserved.