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Question 1:
An organization is assigned the network number 172.10.0.0 /16, and it must create a set of subnets that supports up to 90 hosts on each subnet. Please answer the following questions:

Private IPv4 network ranges 24-bit block (/8 prefix, 1 A) 20-bit block (/12 prefix, 16 B) 16-bit block (/16 prefix, 256 C) Start 10.0.0.0 172.16.0.0 192.168.0.0 End 10.255.255.255 172.31.255.255 192.168.255.255 No. of addresses 16777216 1048576 65536

8 bit binary conversion table 128 64

32

16

Class B default subnet mask for 172.10.0.0 /16 = 255.255.0.0 172.10.0.0 172 1010 1100 172.10.0.0/16 255 1111 1111 8bit 255 1111 1111 8bit 0 0000 0000 0bit 0 0000 0000 0bit 10 0000 1010 0 0000 0000 0 0000 0000

16bits

1.1 Define subnet mask (or extended prefix length) for this organization.
Requirements for sub netting 90 Hosts Option 1 - /25 (1bit subnet) 1 subnet 126 hosts per subnet Option 2 - /26 (2bit subnet) 3 subnets 62 hosts per subnet

128 1000 000 1bit

1.2 Write IP number for the Subnet number 421 explicitly in binary and decimal notation (Note: The first subnet starts from zero)
Subnet Number Subnet 1 Subnet 2 Subnet 3 Subnet 4 Continued. Subnet 419 Subnet 420 Subnet 421 Subnet 422 172 172 172 172 10 10 10 10 109 209 210 210 0 128 0 128

172 172 172 172

10 10 10 10

0 0 1 1

0 128 0 128

Odd subnets start the IP range with a 0 (172.10.xxx.1 172.10.xxx.127 usable) Even subnets start the IP range with a 128 (172.10.xxx.129 172.10.xxx.254 usable)

Subnet ID for Subnet 421 172.10.210.0 /25

Subnet 421 Binary 172 10101100 10 0000 1010 210 1101 0010 0 0000 0000

1.3 Write explicitly IP address of the host number 68 on the Subnet number 421
172.10.210.0 Reserved for subnet ID Therefore host number 68 would simply be 172.10.210.68

IP Binary

172 10101100

10 0000 1010

210 1101 0010

68 0100 0100

Subnet 421 can support up to 126 hosts Subnet 421 has a subnet ID of 172.10.210.0 Therefor subnet 421 will have a broadcast address of 172.10.210.127

Question 2: Part I
The following is a dump of a TCP header in hexadecimal format:

00CD0018 00000EF1 00000D5D 502200D1 01BF0010

2.1 What is the source port number?
Source Port Bits 16bits Hexadecimal 00CD Binary 11001101 Decimal 205

2.2 What is the destination port number?

Destination Port Bits 16bits Hexadecimal 0018 Binary 00011000 Decimal 24

2.3 What is the sequence number?

Sequence Number Bits 32bits Hexadecimal 00000EF1 Binary 111011110001 Decimal 3825

2.4 What is the acknowledgment number?

Bits 32bits Hexadecimal 00000D5D Binary 110101011101 Decimal 3421

2.5 What is the length of the header?

Bits 4bits Hexadecimal 5 Binary 0101 Decimal 5

The minimum size header is 5 words and the maximum is 15 words thus giving the minimum size of 20 bytes and maximum of 60 bytes, allowing for up to 40 bytes of options in the header. Therefor 5 = 20 bytes The TCP Header Length is 20 Bytes

2.6 Which control bits are set? And what do they represent?
Bits Hexadecimal Binary 000100010 (URG, SYN) Decimal

Indicates that the Urgent pointer field is significant Synchronize sequence numbers. Only the first packet sent from each end should have this flag set. Some other flags change meaning based on this flag, and some are only valid for when it is set, and others when it is clear.

2.7 What is the window size?

Window Size 16bits 00D1 Hexadecimal 00D1 Binary 11010001 Decimal 209

Question 2: Part II
2.8 what does the last four digits 0010' of the above dump represent? What action will the destination node take when it receives this packet?
As shown in the contents of TCP header table below the final 16bits, in this case 0010 represents the Urgent Pointer. This field communicates the current value of the urgent pointer as a positive offset from the sequence number in this segment. The urgent pointer points to the sequence number of the octet following the urgent data. This field is only be interpreted in segments with the URG control bit set. Working notes for Question 2 Question 2 notes and working out Decimal to Hex conversion table Dec Hex 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 A 11 B 12 C 13 D 14 E 15 F

The contents of a TCP Header: Destination Port - 16 bits Sequence Number - 32 bits Acknowledgment Number - 32 bits Data offset - 4 bits / Reserved - 3 bits / Flags - 6 bits Window - 16 bits Header Checksum - 16 bits Urgent Pointer - 16 bits Options Data offset (4 bits) specifies the size of the TCP header in 32-bit words. Data offset 4bits Reserved 000 3bits
N S 1 bit C W R 1 bit E C E 1 bit U R G 1 bit A C K 11 bit P S H 11 bit R S T 11 bit S Y N 11 bit F I N 1 bit

Flags (9 bits) (aka Control bits) contains 9 1-bit flags

NS (1 bit) ECN-nonce concealment protection (added to header by RFC 3540). CWR (1 bit) Congestion Window Reduced (CWR) flag is set by the sending host to indicate that it received a TCP segment with the ECE flag set and had responded in congestion control mechanism. ECE (1 bit) ECN-Echo indicates If the SYN flag is set (1), that the TCP peer is ECN capable. If the SYN flag is clear (0), that a packet with Congestion Experienced flag in IP header set is received during normal transmission (added to header by RFC 3168). URG (1 bit) indicates that the Urgent pointer field is significant ACK (1 bit) indicates that the Acknowledgment field is significant. All packets after the initial SYN packet sent by the client should have this flag set. PSH (1 bit) Push function. Asks to push the buffered data to the receiving application. RST (1 bit) Reset the connection SYN (1 bit) Synchronize sequence numbers. Only the first packet sent from each end should have this flag set. Some other flags change meaning based on this flag, and some are only valid for when it is set, and others when it is clear. FIN (1 bit) No more data from sender

Reference (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_Control_Protocol)

Question 3:
Notes
This question is designed to test your practical networking skills by using Packet Tracer simulation software. The task is to set-up and configure two networks (LAN1, LAN2) that are connected via a serial connection (WAN1). Below is a diagram of the network:

The IP address of LAN1 is assigned as 192.168.10.0/24 and LAN2 is 192.168.20.0/24. And the WAN connection between the two routers is 209.1.14.0/24. LAN 1 will have 14 users (PC1 and PC2 stand for the users with the lowest and highest usable IP), LAN 2 will have 29 users (PC3 and PC4 stands for the users with the lowest and highest usable IP) and the WAN link should have 2 IP addresses individually. Please use VLSM to design the IP address for the device of each LAN and configure the given network. The configuration of this question includes 4 stages; each stage has various tasks to complete.

Question 3: Part I - IP address design

Subnet the IP address State the subnet masks Choose an IP address for each PC and default gateway in LANs
Designated Networks LAN 1 LAN 1 WAN

192.168.10.0 /24 192.168.20.0 /24 209.1.14.0 /24

Note: The LOWEST IP addresses of each subnet should be given to the two PCs (PC1 and PC3). The second HIGHEST IPs should be given to PC3 and PC4. And the HIGHEST IP addresses of each subnet are given as the default gateway.

LAN 1 192.168.10.0 /24

Requirements PC1 PC2 Default Gateway Subnet Mask IP Range Subnet ID Broadcast ID 14 Users 1 Default Gateway 192.168.10.1 192.168.10.14 192.168.10.15 255.255.255.224 192.168.20.1 192.168.20.29 192.168.20.0 192.168.20.30 Subnets == 15 IP addresses. Subnet /27 supports 30 hosts

LAN 2 192.168.20.0 /24

Requirements PC3 PC4 Default Gateway Subnet Mask IP Range Subnet ID Broadcast ID 29 Users 1 Default Gateway 192.168.20.1 192.168.20.29 192.168.20.30 255.255.255.224 192.168.20.1 192.168.20.29 192.168.20.0 192.168.20.30 Subnets == 30 IP addresses. Subnet /27 supports 30 hosts

WAN 209.1.14.0 /24

Requirements R1 (Router 1) R2 (Router 2) Subnet Mask Subnet ID Broadcast ID 2 hosts Subnet /30 supports 2 hosts 209.1.14.1 209.1.14.2 255.255.255.252 209.1.14.0 209.1.14.3

Question 3: Part II - Global configuration

Configure Router R1 and R2;
Naming the routers as R1 and R2; Router> enable Router# configure terminal Router(config)# hostname R1 (R2 on Router 2) Router(config)# CTRL-Z R1# copy running-config startup-config R1# exit Passwords Setting secret password as class on all routers; Configuring TELNET on the R1 router with a password of xyz123 R1> enable R1# configure terminal R1(config)# enable secret class R1(config)# line vty 0 4 R1(config)# password xyz123 R1(config)# line console 0 R1(config)# password xyz123 R1(config)# CTRL-Z R1# copy running-config startup-config R1# exit

MOTD MOTD R1> enable R1# configure terminal R1(config)# banner motd #Welcome to ITC233, Peter Voghts ASG1# R1(config)# CTRL-Z R1# copy running-config startup-config R1# exit

Question 3: Part III - Connectivity verify

Ping from PC1 in LAN1 to PC4 in LAN2. Record the information flow in EVENT LIST of simulation and explain the PDU information such as TYPE and involved layers in each stage; PC1 PC4 192.168.10.1 192.168.20.29

Question 3: Part IV - Network extension

Using your subnetting how many possible WAN links are LEFT and Why?
WAN 209.1.14.0 /24
Requirements R1 (Router 1) R2 (Router 2) Subnet Mask Subnet ID Broadcast ID 2 hosts Subnet /30 supports 2 hosts 209.1.14.1 209.1.14.2 255.255.255.252 209.1.14.0 209.1.14.3

Before the subnet of 255.255.255.252 was applied the network of 209.1.14.0 /24 had a possible range of 209.1.14.1 209.1.14.254 However, after applying the subnet mask it cut the number of possible links on that same subnet to 2. Therefore after using host IPs for R1 and R2, there are no subnets left on this subnet.

How many useful IP addresses are left and why?

As mentioned above both IP addresses on the 209.1.14.0 /30 network are being used so there are no free IP addresses. However on the 209.1.14.0 /24 range there is the possibility for another x63 (209.1.14.*** /30) networks Which means there is a possibility of (63 subnets) X (2 hosts per subnet) = there is a possibility for 126 IPs left in the 209.1.14.0 /24 network

If you are given only one extra device either one router or one switch to do expansion of this network, which one will you choose to obtain the maximum usable IP addresses? And why?
To expand this network to support the most possible IP addresses would be a switch. The reason is because the router provides a network address and could connect ONE pc to another network where as if we connected a switch to another switch on this network it would give us the potential to use the unallocated IP addresses within the 192.168.10.xx /27 or 192.168.20.xx /27 networks