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Chapter 1: Multivariable Functions

1.1 Functions of Two Variables

Notation and Terminology

Domain and Range

Graphs of Functions of Two Variables

Level Curves

1.2 Some Common Surfaces

1.3 Functions of Three Variables

Domain and Range

Level Surfaces

1.1 Functions of Two Variables

In most scientific problems, a quantity under investigation will depend (for its values), not only on one variable, but on several other variables.

1.1.1 Notation and Terminology

The terminology and notation for functions of two or more variable is similar to that for functions of one variable.

z

f (x, y)

w F(x, y, z)

u

g

(

x

1

,

x

2

,

,

x

n

)

The function f is called a real-valued function of two variables or simply function of two variables.

We refer to x and y as the independent variables and z as the dependent variable.

Similarly, F is a function of three variables x, y and z and g a function of n variables.

Thus we say that,

The volume V of a circular cylinder of radius r and height h is a function of two variables.

V

f

(

r

,

h

)

r

2

h

r and h would be the independent variables and V the dependent variable.

The temperature at each point in a closed room is represented by

T F(x, y, z)

2

x

y

2

z

2

x, y and z are the independent variables and T the dependent variable.

Notes

Some relationships between several variables are not stated as an explicit formula for one of the variables in terms of the others.

For example,

z

2

sin x

tan y

In such cases, it may be necessary to specify which is the dependent variable.

As with functions of one variable, functions of several variables can be represented numerically (using a table of values), algebraically (using a formula), and sometimes graphically (using a graph).

1.1.2 Domain and Range

A real-valued function, f, of x, y, z, a rule for manufacturing a new number, written f (x, y, z,), from the values of a sequence of independent variables (x, y, z,). For example,

is

 1. f f (x, y)  x  y (1, 2)  1  2 1 f (2,  1)  2  (1)  3 x  y  xz 2. h(x, y, z) 
 h (2, 2,  2)  2  2  2(  2)  0

Function of two variables

Substitute 1 for

x and 2 for y

Substitute 2 for

x and 1 for y

Function of three variables

Substitute 2 for x, 2 for y, and 2 for z

Definition 1.1.2

A function of two variables is a rule f that assigned to each ordered pair (x, y) in a set D a unique number f (x, y). The set D is called the domain of the function, and the corresponding values of f (x, y) constitute the range of f.

Example Let f (x , y ) 1 x y .

 (a)  Evaluate f ( 1,2) , f (0, 3) and f (r , s ). (b) Describe the domain and the range of f.

Solution

(a) By substitution, f ( 1,2)
f (0, 3)
1
(
1)
2
4
1
0
( 3)
2

f (r , s ) 1
r
s

(b) The domain is a set of all ordered pairs

(x , y ) for which 1 x

y is defined. There

is no restriction on the independent variables. This means we can have all real values of x and y as inputs. Thus the domain of f consists of all points in the entire xy- plane. This normally can be written as

D

f {( ,
x y
)
x , y
}

The range which is the set of outputs, is all single real numbers, that is

R

f

Example

Let.

f (x , y )

: { z z  3x y
2

1

or

.

R :

f (
,
)

i. Describe and sketch the domain. ii.Determine the range.

Solution (i) The domain is a set of all ordered pairs (x , y ) y for which

have the restriction y

3x

2

1 is defined. We must 0 in order for the square root to be defined. Thus the domain of

f consists of all points in the xy-plane that are on or above the x-axis. This can be written as

D

f {( ,
x y
)
y
0}

The graph of the domain: y
y  0

x

(ii) The range is all real numbers greater than or equal to 1, that is

R

f

: { z

z 1}

or

R

f

: [
1,
)

Question 1

Given

f x , y 2x
2

y .  i. Evaluate f ( 2, 5), f (5, 2), and f (0, 2).

ii. Find the domain and range.

Question 2

Given

f

x , y y
2

x

.

i. Evaluate f (3, 1), f (1, 3), and f (2, 0).

ii. Find the domain and range.

Question 3

Find the domain and range of the following

functions.

(a)

(b)

(c) 2 y )

z ln(x sin u 2v 25 x
2
y
2

f u , v

f (x , y )

1.1.3 Graphs of Functions of Two Variables y f (x ), the graph is a curve in the xy-

plane 2 consisting of all ordered

pairs (x ,y ) z f (x ,y ) , the graph is a surface in consisting of (x ,y,z ) for (x, y) in the domain of f 3 w f (x ,y,z ) , the graph is 3- dimensional inside 4

3-DIMENSIONAL COORDINATE SYSTEM   Floor:

Ceiling:

xy-plane; equation is z 0. plane parallel to the xy- plane; equation is z 8. yz-plane; equation is x 0. plane parallel to the yz- plane; equation is x 30. xz-plane; equation is y 0. plane parallel to the xz-

Front wall:

Back wall:

Left wall:

Right wall:

plane; equation is y 25. The xy-, xz-, and yz-planes are called the coordinate planes. 10_17b.jpg Graphs in Three-Dimensional System

The graph of the function f of two variables is the set of all points (x, y, z) in three-dimensional space, where the values of (x, y) lie in the domain of f and

z

f (x, y). z
(x, y, f(x, y))
y
D
(x, y)
x

Sketching Graphs of Two Variables Function

There are two ways to picture the values of

a function f (x , y ):

a contour plot, or a two-dimensional picture of the level curves of the surface, which have equations of the form

f (x , y ) c , where c is a constant;

the graph of the function, which is the

set of points (x, y,

dimensional space satisfying

z) in three-

z f (x , y ).

1.1.4 Level Curves

When the plane z c intersects the surface z f (x, y), the result is the space curve with the equation

f (x, y) c.

The intersection curve is called the trace of the graph f in the plane

z c.

The projection of this curve on the xy- plane is called a level curve.

A collection of such curves is a contour map.

Relationship Between Graphs of Surfaces and Level Curves Definition 1.1.4

The level curves of a function f of two variables are the curves with equations f (x , y ) c , where c is a constant (in the

curves for

range of f

).

A set

of level

z f (x , y ) is called a contour plot of f.

Example Sketch the contour plot of

z 3 x y

using level curves at c  9, 6, 3, 0, 3, 6, 9.

Solution The level curve of the function is defined by

3 x y c where c  9, 6, 3, 0, 3, 6, 9.

Solving for y, we have the level curves of height c as straight lines y 3 x c . The contour map is as shown below:

Traces at

c 9, 6, 3, 0, 3, 6, 9: Contour plot: y
c = -6
c = 0
c
= 6
x
c = - 9
c = - 3
c = 3
c = 9

Example Sketch the contour plot of

using level curves at c 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

f (x , y ) 4x

2

y

2

Solution The level curve of f at c has the equation

4x

2

y

2

c .

If c 0, the graph is the single point (0, 0). For c 0 we can rewrite the equation as 2
2
x
y
c
4
c
ellipses.

1

 c  1: c  2: c  3: c  4:

, which represents a family of 2
2
x
 y
1 4
1

2 2 x
 y
2
4
2
2 2
x
 y
3
4
3

2 2

x 4
4

y

4

1

1

1

1 z
6
4
2
4
0
2
2
4

x

y

Traces at c 0 y
c = 5
c
= 3
c = 4
c
= 2
c
= 1
c = 0

x

Contour plot

1.2 Some Common Surfaces

The graph of an equation in

surface. Four types of surface in space: 3 is called a

Planes

Std equation: ax by cz d

Spheres

Std equation:

(x a)

2 (y b)

2

Cylinders

(z c)

2

2

r

parabolic, circular, hyperbolic and elliptic

3-D analogs of conic sections

Std equation:

Ax

2 2
2
By
Cz
Dxy Exz Fyz Gx
Hy Iz J

For simplicity, we only gave the equation for the quadric surfaces that are centred on the origin.

Ellipsoid:

x

2

a

2

y

2

b

2

z

2

c

2

1

hyperboloid of one sheet:

x

2

a

2

y

2

b

2

z

2

c

2

1

hyperboloid of two sheets:

2

z

c

2

x

2

a

2

elliptic cone:

x

2

a

2

y

2

b

2

 2 y b 2  1 2 z  2 c

elliptic paraboloid:

x

2

a

2

y

2

b

2

z

c

hyperbolic paraboloid:

 2 2 y  x z  b 2 2 a c 2 2 2 Ellipsoid: x y z  1  a b 2 2  c 2 All traces in the coordinate planes and planes parallel to these are ellipses. If a b c , the ellipsoid is a sphere. 2 2 Elliptic Paraboloid: z  x  y c a 2 b 2 The trace in the xy-plane is a point (the origin), and the traces in planes parallel to and above the xy-plane are ellipses. The traces in the yz- and xz- planes are parabolas. Hyperbolic Paraboloid (saddle 2 2 surface): z y x   c b 2 a 2 The trace in the xy-plane is a pair of lines intersecting at the origin. The
 traces in planes parallel to these are hyperbolas. The traces in the yz- and xz-planes are parabolas, as are the traces in planes parallel to these. 2 2 2 Elliptic cone: x y z  2  2 2 a b c The trace in the xy-plane is a point (the origin), and the traces in planes parallel to these are ellipses. The traces in the yz- and xz-planes are pairs of lines intersecting at the origin. The traces in planes parallel to these are hyperbolas. Hyperboloid of One Sheet: 2 2 2 x y z  1  2  c 2 2 a b The trace in the xy-plane and planes parallel to these are ellipses. The traces in the yz-plane and xz-plane are hyperbolas. The axis symmetry corresponds to the variable whose coefficient is negative. Hyperboloid of Two Sheets: 2 2 2 z  x  y  1 c 2 a 2 b 2 There is no trace in the xy-plane. In planes parallel to the xy-plane the traces are ellipses. In the yz- and xz- planes, the traces are hyperbolas.

1.2.1 Sketching Common Surfaces

The following ways can be use to sketch the surface z f (x , y )

in 3-space:

using the traces of the surface in the coordinate planes and sometimes in parallel planes

using algebraic manipulation to identify the standard equation of the function.

Using traces to visualise and sketch a surface   3

Graphing Planes in A plane is the graph of a linear equation in three variables x, y, z which satisfy ax by cz d .

Illustration Sketching planes in 3-space

Domain and range defined the surface

Traces curves of intersection in coordinates planes

Plane surface in 3-space

Example Suppose x 4. Sketch the graph of the function.

Solution

There is no restriction on the values of y and z. The plane consists of all points of the form (4, y, z). The only intersection point is with the x-axis at (4, 0, 0). There is no triangular portion. Why? Look at the traces:

xz-plane, y 0 : x

xy-plane, z

No trace in the yz-plane. Thus, x 4 is a plane parallel to the yz-plane. 4, a straight line 0 : x 4, a straight line

PLANES PARALLEL TO THE COORDINATE PLANES Important Facts Always remember which coordinate system we are in. For instance, for the case of x 4 : In

4 is a point in a 1-D coordinate

system.

In

consists of all the points that are in the form

2-D

coordinate system. , x  2 ,

the

graph

is

a

of

the

equation

line

in 4

x

(4, y ) . This

vertical

a

In 3 ,

the

graph

of

the

equation

x 4

consists of all the points that are in the form (4, y, z ) . In a 3-D coordinate system this is a

plane that is parallel to the yz-plane and pass

through the x-axis at x 4 .

Example

Sketch the graph of the functions.

(i)

(ii)

y x z 3y 5. 2z 6

Solution

(i) There is no restriction on the values of x. Thus, the plane will lie along the axis corresponding to this variable. The intersections points are (0, 0, 5) and (0, 5, 0). Look at the traces:

yz-plane, x xz-plane, y xy-plane, z 0 : y z

5, a straight line 0 : z 5, a straight line 0 : y 5, a straight line Therefore, y z 5 lies along the x-axis.

(ii)The plane will cut through all the coordinate planes. Plot points of intersection between the plane and the coordinate axes. Connect the points plotted above with line segments. Shade the triangular portion of the plane in the first octant.

Question 1

Show that the graph of the equation

2

x y
2
z
2
4x
6y
3
0

is a sphere. Find its center and radius.

Question 2

Find the domain and range of the following functions; also sketch traces for some values of z k,xz trace and yz trace; and hence sketch the contour lines and the surface z f x, y. z
x
2
y
2
(a)
z
x
2
y
2
4x 6y 13
(b)
z
1
x
2
y
2
(c)

1.3 Functions of 3 Variables Basic ideas of functions of two variables can be extended to the study of functions of three variables. The graph of a one variable function is 2-space, a two variables function is in 3-space thus we expect a three variable function will be in 4-space. It is difficult to visualise graphs in 4- space. However, we can draw the level surfaces of the graph to ascertain the properties and behaviour of three variables functions.

1.3.1 Domain and Range

Definition 1.3 A function f of three variables is a rule that assigns to each ordered triple (x , y , z ) in some domain D in space a unique real number w f (x , y , z ). The range consists of the output values for w.

Example

Let 2
y
2
z
2

f (x , y , z ) x

. i.Evaluate f (1,2,1) , f (1, 0,1) , f ( 3,2,1) .

ii. Determine the domain and range.

Solution i. By substitution, 2
2
1
2
6

f (1,2,1) 1 2 2 0
2
1
2
2

f (1, 0,1) 1 2
2
2
1
2
14

f ( 3,2,1) ( 3)

ii. The domain is a set of all ordered triplets

(x , y, z ) for which

2

x y
2
z
2

is defined.

2 2
2

x y z 0 for all points in space. Thus the domain is the entire 3-space.

Domain

: {(

x , y , z )
x , y , z
)

Range : 0 f (x , y , z ) 1.3.2 Level Surfaces

The graphs of functions of three variables consist of points (x , y, z , f (x , y, z )) lying in four-dimensional space.

Graphs cannot be sketch effectively in three-dimensional frame of reference.

Can obtain insight of how function behaves by looking at its three- dimensional level surfaces.

Level surfaces are the three dimensional analog of level curves. If f (x , y , z ) is a function of three variables and k is a constant then f (x , y, z ) k is a surface in 3-space. It is called a contour surface or a level surface. Definition 1.3.2 Level Surface

A level surface of a function of three variables is a surface of the form

f (x , y, z ) k , where k is a constant. By

allowing k to vary, the function f can be represented by the family of level surfaces.

Example Describe the level surfaces of the function,

f (x , y , z ) x
2
y
2
z
2

Solution (a) The level surfaces have equation of the form x
2
y
2
z
2
k .

For k 0, the graph is a sphere of radius k , centred at the origin. For k 0, the graph is the single point

(0,0,0).

For k 0, there is no level surface. Question

Find the domain and range of the following functions; also sketch traces for some values of xy trace, xz trace and yz trace; and hence sketch the graph of the equations in three dimensions.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) 1
x
2
2
2y 9x
2
2
9

2

y 16x 9y 36z z

z

2

y

2

9x 2
2
144 y
2
4z
2
49