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## Wiens displacement law

When a body emits radiation, there is a particular wavelength which comes out with most intensity (watts per m 3). Let this wavelength is max. Then

(temperature in Kelvin)max=(constant)
Using Wiens displacement law, it is possible to approximate a Stars temperature, by its prominent emitted wavelength.

Plancks Hypothesis: Max Planck said that energy is emitted/absorbed in packets or quanta. So energy is
quantized and not continuous. He put forward that energy is proportional to frequency. E=hf where h is Plancks constant.

## Note that Einstein applied Plancks Hypothesis to the photoelectric effect.

Stefans Law
For a black body, let energy radiated per m2 per second is E. Then, E=T4 where is Stefans constant.

For a non black body, a second constant (which is less than 1) is introduced, because a non black body is not a perfect radiator/absorber.

Wave-particle duality
A phenomenon of Electron diffraction was observed by Davisson and Germer. (names not v. important) showing that important), electron could behave as a particle and as a wave. De Broglie found the wavelength of these waves: =h/p where h is plancks constant and p is the mo momentum of the particle.

*This is the principle used in the electron microscope where an accelerated beam of electrons with shorter wavelength than light is used for grater resolving power.

## The Photoelectric Effect

The wave model of light can't explain the photoelectric effect i.e.: - the threshold frequency. - the maximum Ek of the photoelectrons. - no. of electrons is proportional to intensity, not frequency. - the instantaneous production of photoelectrons. Einstein explained this using Quantum Theory:- (Using Planck's Hypothesis) - light comes in packets of energy (photons). - each photon has energy that depends on the frequency of the light: E=hf - each photon interacts with only one electron (and vice versa). Higher frequency, shorter wavelength radiation is more energetic. The work function, , is the energy needed for an electron to leave the surface of the material. h f = + 1/2 m v2max This is Einstein's photoelectric equation. Photoelectric Current

- The plate is called the "emitter". - The electrons that cross the gap are collected at the other metal plate - called "the collector" - The flow of electrons across the gap sets up an emf between the plates that causes a current to flow around the rest of the circuit. That's a photoelectric cell producing a photoelectric current.

Stopping Potential, Vs

The emitter gives out electrons. So we call it a cathode. If you remember, work done moving a charge through a pd is W = QV and in this case charge, Q = e, the charge on an electron, then: eVs=Ekmax=(1/2)m(vmax)2 Using this information you can calculate the maximum energy of the photoelectrons emitted from the metal. Rewrite the photoelectric equation (from about 3 screens above this point) as eVs =h(f-f0)