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Osvrt na spaljivanje pokojnika u liburnskom kulturnom kontekstu A review of the cremation rite in the liburnian cultural context

Izvorni znanstveni rad Prapovijesna arheologija SINEVA KUKO Odjel za arheologiju Sveuilite u Zadru Obala kralja Petra Kreimira IV/2 HR-23000 ZADAR skukoc@unizd.hr

Original scientific paper Prehistoric archaeology


UDK/UDC UDK 903.5(497.5-3Dalmacija-17)637 393.2(497.5-3Dalmacija-17)-09/-08 Primljeno/Received: 04. 10. 2010. Prihvaeno/Accepted: 09. 12. 2010.

Autor nastoji formulirati novi problem pojavu i znaenje incineracije kod Liburna uoen 2004. i 2007. godine, otkriem prvih spaljenih pokopa u liburnskim funerarnim kontekstima iz starijeg eljeznog doba, u humku 13 iz Nadina kod Benkovca, s tri grobne are, te u humku Jokina glavica-Krneza s 4 arna groba (10./9. st. pr. Kr.), jo nepublicirana. Problem se moe rjeavati u okviru kulturne dinamike na Jadranu i irem zaleu (s urnenfelder svijetom) krajem bronanog i poetkom eljeznog doba. Ukljueni su najnoviji rezultati 14C analize kostiju spaljenih pokojnika iz humka 13 iz Nadina i humka Jokina glavica-Krneza. Kljune rijei: spaljivanje pokojnika, sjeverna Dalmacija, Liburni, bronano doba, radiokarbonska analiza The author attempts to formulate a new problemthe appearance and significance of incineration in the Liburnian societyobserved in 2004 and 2007, when the first cremation burials in the Early Iron Age funerary contexts of the Liburnians were discovered: in mound 13 in Nadin near Benkovac, with three burial urns, and in the Jokina Glavica-Krneza mound with four as yet unpublished urn burials (10th/9th cent. BC). The problem can be approached in the frame of cultural dynamics in the Adriatic and its wider hinterland (including the Urnfield world) at the end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age. The latest 14C results of the bones of the cremated persons from mound 13 in Nadin and from the Jokina Glavica-Krneza mound are considered. Key words: cremation of the dead, northern Dalmatia, the Liburnians, Bronze Age, radiocarbon analysis

U prapovijesti sjeverne Dalmacije spaljivanje pokojnika (sl prakticiralo se rano ronano oa cetinskoj klt sl ano ano

In the prehistory of northern Dalmatia cremation rials were practise in the Early Bronze Age in the Cetina cltre Ervenik (Bttler 932: 355, PovrjeMatakov Brig (Batovi, Kko 988: 564, Nain (Batovi, oni 2005: 8687, KrnezaDevia Glavica (Gsar, Vjevi 200; 200a (Fig 23, then occasionally in the Hellenistic perio (Dragii, grave 4: AC (Brsi 2000: 8 an, for the first ti me with greater intensity, ring the Romanization of the Lirnians However, recent iscoveries (Nain, mon 3: Fig 56; KrnezaJokina Glavica2: Fig 0 inicate that crema
1 This earthen mound (with mediaeval burials) was perhaps built already in the Early Bronze Age. Small remains of cremated human bones were placed directly on the ground in the centre of the mound, accompanied by a single fragment of a ceramic vessel similar to the Cetina forms. The attribution of this cremation burial to the Cetina culture is possible, but it has not been confirmed beyond doubt by the discovered archaeological assemblage. The second prehistoric burial in this mound, positioned above the mentioned cremated remains, was an inhumation burial in a stone cist (120 x 96 x 80 cm), which lacked any in situ grave goods. The human remains from the grave were radiocarbon dated to the Middle Bronze Age (16301450 BC). 2 Four urn burials (with grave goods: two-part serpentine fibula and other items) from Jokina Glavica-Krneza were dated to the 9 th-8th cent. BC by radiocarbon analysis only. Their detailed archaeological interpretation is in progress. Marijanovi 2010 (manuscript).

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Nalazita sa spaljenim pokojnicima iz ronanog i elje ta ta anog elje anog znog oa sjevernoj Dalmaciji Fig. 1 Sites with cremation burials from the Bronze and Iron Ages in northern Dalmatia

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Hmci s oreom spaljivanja iz ronanog oa: Matakov rigPovrje (prema Batovi, Kko 988; 2 Ervenik (prema Bttler 932; 3 Devia glavicaKrneza (prema Gsar, Vjevi 200 Fig. 2 Mounds with cremation burials from the Bronze Age: 1) Matakov Brig-Podvrje (after Batovi, Kuko 1988); 2) Ervenik (after Buttler 1932); 3) Duevia Glavica-Krneza (after Gusar, Vujevi 2010)

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Sl 3 Devia glavicaKrneza: hmak (prema Gsar, Vjevi 200 Fig. 3 Duevia Glavica-Krneza: the mound (after Gusar, Vujevi 2010)

ri Ervenik (Bttler 932: 355, PovrjeMatakov rig (Bato jeMatakov jeMatakov Matakov Matakov vi, Kko 988: 564, Nain (Batovi, oni 2005: 8687, KrnezaDevia glavica (Gsar, Vjevi 200; 200a (sl 23, povremeno helenizm (Dragii, gro 4: AC (Brsi 2000: 8 i, prvi pt intenzivno, tijekom romanizacije Lirna No, nova otkria (Nain, hmak 3: sl 56; KrnezaJokina glavica2: sl 0 kazj na stanovit zastpljenost ore a incineracije na ovom prostor i tijekom tis pr Kr, lirnskoj kltri (Kko 2004; 2009: 4244; Kko, Batovi 2005 Hmak 3 iz Naina, z oreene nove, o saa ne , ene ene , poznate kltrne elemente (Kko 2009: 4950 kljji i samo spaljivanje mrtvih (groovi 4 i 3, tipian je li groovi an an rnski olik s ominacijom inhmiranih pokopa iz 9 6 st pr Kr (sl 4, 6 U njem, s najveim rojem sahranjenih pokojnika prapovijesnim gronim hmcima sjeverne Dalmacije, s ostacima orea tragovima vatre na zemlji i na ivotinjskim kostima (fnerarna goza?, s rojnim ostacima keramikih posa (liacija?, prvi pt s ntar oiajenog lirnskog krnog ozia, akle, skom prostornom oir, poloeni zgreni, ispreni i spaljeni mrtvi (sl 6 Gro 4 hmk 3 (sl 78 sastojao se o vij zemljanih
1 Ovaj zemljani humak (sa srednjovjekovnim ukopima), moda je bio podignut ve u ranoj bronci. U sreditu je imao sitne ostatke spaljenih ljudskih kostiju, postavljene izravno na zemlju, te samo jedan ulomak keramike posude bliske cetinskim oblicima. Pripadnost spaljenog pokopa upravo cetinskoj kulturi ovdje je mogua, no naenom arheolokom graom, dakle, nije nedvojbeno potvrena. Drugi pak prapovijesni grob u ovom humku, postavljen povrh spomenutih spaljenih ostataka umrloga, s kamenom krinjom (120 x 96 x 80 cm) i inhumiranim pokojnikom, no bez priloga in situ, datiran je radiokarbonskom analizom ljudskih ostataka u srednje bronano doba (1630.1450. g. pr. Kr.). 2 etiri arna pokopa (s prilozima: dvodijelna zmijolika fibula i dr.) iz Jokine glavice-Krneza, za sada su tek metodom radioaktivnog ugljika odreeni u 9. 8. st. pr. Kr. Slijedi njihova detaljna arheoloka interpretacija. Marijanovi 2010 (u rukopisu).

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Poloaj graina i istraenih hmaka iz ronanog i elje znog oa na potez BiljaneNainRatevi (prema Bato vi, oni 2005 Fig. 4 Position of hill-forts and investigated mounds from the Bronze and Iron Ages on the stretch BiljaneNadinRatevi (after Batovi, ondi 2005)

tion was practise to a certain extent in this area even ring the st millennim BC, in the Lirnian cltre (Kko 2004; 2009: 4244; Kko, Batovi 2005 Mon 3 from Nain, in aition to new an hitherto nknown cltral elements (Kko 2009: 4950, incling the very practice of cremating the ea (graves 4 an 3, is a typical Lirnian form with prevailing inhmation rials from the 9th6th cent BC (Fig 4, 6 It not only containe the largest nmer of inhme inivials of all prehistoric rial mons in northern Dalmatia, with visile remains of a

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Sl 5 Lirnska graina Nain (Neinm snimljena iz zraka Fig. 5 Aerial view of the Liburnian hill-fort of Nadin (Nedinum)

posa s ostacima spaljenih pokojnika Nalazio se posre jgoistonog kvaranta arama s oteeni i poremeeni gornji ijelovi, ok je njihova onja polovica (o vrata o na naena in situ are s poloene jena z rg, pravc IZ Nije poznato jes li imale poklopac (zjel, ka men plo i sl Rekonstrkcijom posa nije stanovljena poklopna keramika zjela U ari (sl 8a ilo je hmsa s malo sitnog kamenja te jean vei kamen U hms s ili lomci spaljenih kostij, oko 50 komaa Posenih nalaza ili priloga posi nije naeno Analiza pak osteolokih ostataka pokojnika iz are (sl 8a, metoom raioaktiv nog gljika nije spjela zog kontaminiranosti materijala3 Drga ara (r 2 gro 4 ila je ispnjena hmsom i sitnim kameniima (sl 8 U njoj je ilo znatno manje kos tij nego ari : peesetak vrlo sitnih lomaka spaljenih i nekoliko kostij koje moa nis gorjele4 Vei roj kostij io je pri n pose, eljini oko 2 cm Na n pose naena je ronana krasna igla s glavicom olik ice (sl 4 Drgi spaljeni pokop (gro 3: sl 9ac, jgozapanom kvarant hmka 3 Nain, sastojao se o are sa sto tinjak lomaka spaljenih ljskih kostij ara je poloena zaoljen in promjera oko 50 cm, ograen tek s nekoliko manjih zakoenih ploastih kamenja Ono je moglo sliti kao grona arhitektra, ali nije pravilno sloeno i nije savano sa svih strana pose Naeno je oko 200 lomaka are, samo neki prvotnom poloaj
3 Analize kostiju pokojnika su provedene u Beta Analytic Inc., Miami, Florida. 4 Kosti iz are 2 nisu analizirane metodom radioaktivnog ugljika zbog nedostatka financijskih sredstava.

ritaltraces of fire on the gron an on animal ones (a fnerary feast, with nmeros remains of ceramic vessels (liationt also represents the first example where the inhme ea in contracte an extene position, as well as cremate inivials, were place within a sal Lir nian circlar enclosre wall, ie in close spatial contact (Fig 6 Grave 4 in mon 3 (Fig 78 containe two clay ves 8 8 sels with the remains of cremate persons It occpie the mile of the sotheastern sqare The pper parts of the rns were amage an istre, while their lower halves (from the neck to the ase were fon in situ The rns were place one next to the other in the EW irection It is not known whether they ha lis (a owl, stone sla etc Re constrction of the vessels faile to proce a single cera mic owl that col have serve as a li Some small stones an a single larger stone were fon with hms in rn (Fig 8a The hms containe the fragments of cremate ones in aron 50 pieces There were no special fins or grave goos in the vessel A raiocaron analysis of the osteological remains of the ea person from rn (Fig 8a i not sccee e to the contamination of the sample3 The secon rn (no 2 in grave 4 was fille with hms an small stones (Fig 8 It containe far fewer ones than rn : fifty or so very tiny fragments of rnt ones as well as several ones that may not have rne Most ones lay within a 2 cm thick layer near the ottom of the vessel4 A
3 The radiocarbon analyses of the cremated bones were carried out at Beta Analytic Inc., Miami, Florida. 4 The bones from urn 2 were not submitted for radiocarbon analysis due to lack of finances.

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Nain, tlocrt hmka 3 s oznaenim arnim groovima 4 i 3 (crte: I oni 2004 Fig. 6 Nadin, ground plan of mound 13 with marked cremation graves 4 and 13 (drawing: I. ondi 2004)

ecorative ronze loopheae pin was fon on the ot tom of the vessel (Fig 4 The secon cremation rial (grave 3: Fig 9ac, in the sothwestern sqare of mon 3 in Nain, consiste of an rn with a hnre or so fragments of cremate hman o nes The rn was place into a ron epression aron 50 cm in iameter, line with only a few small stone slas pla ce at a slant They may have serve as grave architectre, t they were not arrange neatly an were not preserve on all sies of the vessel Aron 200 fragments of the rn were fon, only few in a primary position Grave 3 was oviosly partly istre; it lacke grave goos, except for a tiny fragment of sheet ronze (05 cm in iameter from an nknown oject The rn was not reconstrcte (Fig 9c, t its textre an shape are, in the main, similar to the two reconstrcte vessels from grave 4 (Fig 8a Raiocaron metho, however, ascertaine that the hman ones in this rn rial (Fig 9ac i not elong to the Iron Age, t to the Mile Bronze Age (630450 BC Inhmation is the main, or in fact, the only fnerary rite in the st millennim BC in many commnities of the western Ariatic, particlarly in its central an sothern parts; to e precise, except in the Veneto cltre in the northern Aria tic (an the Golasecca worl in the hinterlan of Veneto, an among the Villanovan societies (Bologna, Vercchio

Sl 7 a Nain, hmak 3, gro 4 (fotografija: M Parica 2004; Nain, hmak 3, gro 4 (crte: A eri 2004 Fig. 7 a) Nadin, mound 13, grave 4 (photo: M. Parica 2004); b) Nadin, mound 13, grave 4 (drawing: A. deri 2004)

Oito je gro 3 io oteen i ijelom poremeen, io je ez priloga, osim sitnoga lomka ronanog lima (promjera 0, 5 cm o nepoznatog premeta ara nije rekonstrirana (sl 9c, ali njezina faktra i olik glavnom s sroni vjema rekonstriranim posama iz groa 4 (sl 8a Metoom raioaktivnog gljika, metim, tvreno je a kosti pokoj nika ovom arnom gro (sl 9ac ne pripaaj eljeznom ve srenjem ronanom o (630450 g pr Kr Inhmiranje pokojnika glavni je, onosno, jeini fne rarni ore tis pr Kr mnogim zajenicama zapa nog Jarana, osoito njegovog srenjeg i jnog ijela; konkretno, osim venetske kltre na sjevernom Jaran (i Golasecca svijeta venetskom zale, te villanova zaje nica (Bologna, Vercchio Emiliji i Romagni, spaljivanje pokojnika, najee samo prvim stoljeima eljeznog

in Emilia an Romagna, the cremation of the eamostly only in the first centries of the Iron Agewas practise only in a few small zones of the central Ariatic (Picenm an the sothern parts of the western Ariatic (semicremation in Dania, as well as in a few areas in sothern Italy (Cam pania: Cmae, Pontecagnano Cremation is almost asent in the eastern Ariatic, except in the territory of the Histri In the soth of the eastern Ariatic worltogether with eastern Herzegovinawhich is connecte with Glasinac in many respects, there is no cremation either, except for a single ncertain fin (the mon in Grine in the Ljo mirsko Polje plain (Marijan 2002: 23, 54 At Glasinac itself, with cremation episoes in the Bronze Age (ovi 979: 69; Benac 984: 3940, cremation ha een on the rise alreay starting with the 6th cent BC In Alania too, altho

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a Nain, hmak 3, gro 4: rekonstrirana ara (snimio: S Govorin 2009; Nain, hmak 3, gro 4: rekonstrirana ara 2 (fo tografija: S Govorin 2009 Fig. 8 a) Nadin, mound 13, grave 4: reconstructed urn 1 (photo: S. Govorin 2009); b) Nadin, mound 13, grave 4: reconstructed urn 2 (photo: S. Govorin 2009)

oa, oavlja se tek malim i rijetkim zonama srenjeg (Pi cenm i jnog ijela zapanog Jarana (polspaljivanje Daniji, kao i rijetkim porijima jne Italije (Campa nia: Cmae, Pontecagnano Na istonom Jaran, osim histarskog prostora, spaljivanje se gotovo ne pojavljje U jnom istonojaranskom svijet, s istonom Hercegovi nom, koji je viestrko vezan za Glasinac, nema incineracije, samo jean vojeni nalaz (hmak Grinama Ljo mirskom polj (Marijan 2002: 23, 54 Na samom Glasinc, s ronanoonim incineratorskim epizoama, (ovi 979: 69; Benac 984: 3940 spaljivanje je znatnom porast ve o 6 st pr Kr I Alaniji, gje ominira inh , macija, tis pr Kr postoji iritalnost, osoito na sjever (GlasinacMati, zatim na jg, kltri Devoll (Jani 972: 20325; Mirita 979: 24, 33 U zale istonog Jarana

gh inhmation was the ominant rite, oth rites existe in parallel ring the st millennim BC, especially in the north (GlasinacMati, t also in the soth, in the Devoll cltre (Jani 972: 20325; Mirita 979: 24, 33 In the hinter lan of the eastern Ariatic the two rites were se concr rently in the Iapoian society (Fig 2a, primarily in the necropolises in the Una asin (the Ponje region (Fig 2 (Mari 968: 579; likewise, cremation is known from the flat necropolises in the Donja DolinaSanski Most cltral grop (ovi 987: 270273, among the Colapiani (kovi 2004: 74209, as well as eep in the interior in the graves of the KaptolMartijanec an also Binjak grops (imek 2004: 8029; koerne 999: 2039; 2004: 327, an fi nally, in most of the eastern Alpine worl (Styria etc an in Transania (Teran 990: 56, 528, where cremation

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a Nain, hmak 3, gro 3 s keramikom arom (fotografija: M Parica 2004; Nain, hmak 3, gro 3 s keramikom arom (crte: A eri 2004; c Nain, hmak 3, gro 3, lomci keramike are Fig. 9 a) Nadin, mound 13, grave 13 with the ceramic urn (photo: M. Parica 2004); b) Nadin, mound 13, grave 13 with the ceramic urn (drawing: A. deri 2004); c) Nadin, mound 13, grave 13, fragments of the ceramic urn

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Sl0 Krneza, Jokina glavica: zemljani hmak (prema Gsar 2009 Fig.10 Krneza, Jokina Glavica: the earthen mound (after Gusar 2009)

poznata je iritalnost ko Japoa (sl 2a, primarno nekropolama Ponja (sl 2 (Mari 968: 579; takoer, spaljivanje nekropolama na ravnome kltrnoj skpini Donja DolinaSanski Most (ovi 987: 270273, zatim ko

as a irect remnant of the Urnfiel cltre, in aition to flat cemeteriesis often comine with mons Incinera tion appearsthogh not freqentlyin Lika (Vreac, Orlov Kamen, mon IV; Kompolje, grave 2: Fig 2a; GospiLipe, rn grave 8th cent BC: Fig 2 alreay ring the Late Bron ze Age an at the eginning of the Iron Age (DrechslerBii 96: 70, 88, T XXVI: ; 983: 38, 386; T LVI: 67; there the rns were oviosly inspire y the typology of the Urn fiel cltre vessels from northern Croatia The rns from Nain are large vessels (one as mch as 435 cm high: Fig 8a, of coarse textre, necorate, with a glolar elly with two horizontal ringhanles The neck is prononce in varios ways, eg it is particlarly promi nent (conical on one of the vessels (Fig 8a In the case of rn 2 (Fig 8, 4 from grave 4 it is in fact nclear to what extent was the neck originally prononce an how close is the rn typologically to an otherwise freqent type of lar ge vessels (pots withot a neck an with a flaring rim (Fig 6ac, which were se y the Lirnians an the Danians for chilren rials (Fig 6 (Batovi, 987: T XXXV: 3, an also as rns among the Histri, Iapoes an the Picentes: N mana (Fig 5 This type of vesselpot withot a neck in

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Lja, Matakova glavica: hmak: a pogle iz zraka; tlocrt s poloajem pose; c rekonstrkcija pose (prema Gsar, Vjevi 200 a; iealna rekonstrkcija pose (prema Gsar, Vjevi 200 a Fig.11 Ljuba, Matakova Glavica: the mound: a) aerial view; b) ground plan with the position of the vessel; c) reconstruction of the vessel (after Gusar, Vujevi 2010 a); d) ideal reconstruction of the vessel (after Gusar, Vujevi 2010 a)

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Sl 2 a Kompolje, arni gro 2 (prema DrechslerBii 96; GospiLipe, arni gro, 8 st pr Kr (prema BalenLetni 2004; c Jezeri ne, ara iz groa 2, 8 7 st pr Kr (prema Mari 968; Rii, velika posa (prema Mari 968 Fig.12 a) Kompolje, urn grave 2 (after Drechsler-Bii 1961); b) Gospi-Lipe, urn grave, 8th cent. BC (after Balen-Letuni 2004); c) Jezerine, urn from grave 12, 8th-7thcent. BC (after Mari 1968); Ribi, large vessel (after Mari 1968)

Kolapijana (kovi 2004: 74209, te oko kontinen t groovima KaptolMartijanca i Binjaka (imek 2004: 8029; koerne 999: 2039; 2004: 327 i, napokon, znatnom ijel istonoalpskog svijeta (tajerska i r i Transaniji (Teran 990: 56, 528, gje je incineraci ja, kao izravni ostatak kltre polja sa arama, z grolja na ravnome, esto kominirana s hmcima Maa nije osoito prakticirana, incineracija se pojavljje Lici (Vreac, Orlov kamen, hmak IV; Kompolje, gro 2: sl 2a; GospiLipe, arni gro 8 st pr Kr: sl 2 ve kroz kasno ronano i poetkom eljeznog oa (DrechslerBii 96: 70, 88, T XXVI: ; 983: 38, 386, T LVI: 67; are s t oito inspirira : are ito ito ne tipologijom posa kltre polja sa arama iz sjeverne Hrvatske Nainske are velike s pose (jena je visine 43, 5 cm: sl 8a; gre s faktre, nekraene, loptasto naglaenog trha s vije horizontalne prstenaste rke, s razliito (? istakntim vratom, koji je poseno izraen (stoast ko jene pose (sl 8a Za ar 2 (sl 8, 4 iz groa 4, zapravo

rn grave 3 at Kompolje (Fig 6c is ate y a ow fila (DrechslerBii 96: 70, 88, T XXVII: 2 The ellie form of the Nain rn with a prononce conical neck (Fig 8a, 3 fins analogies in the Lirnian ce ramics also in the large fnerary vessels with a owl serving as a li (Nin: Fig 5a, which were se for rying new orn chilren (Batovi 973: 399, 402403; 987: T XXXV: 2 The same type of rial ad encytrismos was practice in Dania (Tin Bertocchi 975: T 67: 2; De Jliis 988: 595, sl 58, an elsewhere, in a vessel (Fig 5 sometimes almost ientical to the rn from Nain (Fig 8a, 3 The ellie sha pe of the Nain rns (Fig 8a, 3 with a prononce neck fins certain analogies in the ceramic vessels fon in se veral instances in rials ner mons (Fig a in nor thern Dalmatia from the Iron Age or the (Late Bronze Age, t which nfortnately often o not len themselves well to precise ating Namely, the remains of a glolar vessel with a neck (Fig c from the Late Bronze or Iron Age earthen mon Matakova Glavica in Povrje were fon

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Sl 3 Nain, hmak 3, gro 4: rekonstrirana ara (crte: I oni 2008 Fig. 13 Nadin, mound 13, grave 4: reconstructed urn 1 (drawing: I. ondi 2008)

Sl 4 Nain, hmak 3, gro 4: rekonstrirana ara 2 i ronana igla (crte: I oni 2008 Fig. 14 Nadin, mound 13, grave 4: reconstructed urn 2 and a bronze pin (drawing: I. ondi 2008)

nije sigrno koliko je vrat izvorno io naglaen i koliko je stoga ara tipoloki liska jenom, inae estom tip veli ara ki ki , e estom e kih posa (loncima ez vrata, s razvraenim ooom (sl 6ac, koje s slile za pokop jece ko Lirna (sl 6 (Batovi, 987: T XXXV: 3, ko Dana (sl 6a, ali i kao rne ko Histra, Japoa (sl 6c i Picena: Nmana (sl 5 Taj tip poselonca ez vrata arnom gro 3 iz Kompolja (sl 6c atiran je lnom filom (DrechslerBii 96: 70, 88, T XXVII: 2 Trasti pak olik nainske are s istakntim stoastim vratom (sl 8a, 3 ima analogije lirnskoj keramici, takoer velikim gronim posama s poklopnom zje er er lom (Nin: sl 5a za sahran novoroenai (Batovi 973: 399, 402403; 987: T XXXV: 2 Isti nain pokopa ad encytrismos oavljao se Daniji (Tin Bertocchi 975: T 67: 2; De Jliis 988: 595, sl 58, i rgje, posi (sl 5 koja je poneka gotovo ientina ari iz Naina (sl 8a, 3 Trasti olik nainskih ara (sl 8a, 3 s istakntim vra asti asti ara sl a, , tom ima oreen analogij i keramikim posama, naenim nekoliko slajeva, pokop po hmcima (sl a iz sjeverne Dalmacije iz eljeznog, onosno, (kasnog ronanog oa koje se, metim, esto opir preciznom atiranj Konkretno, zemljanom hmk Matakova glavi , ca Povrj iz kasnog ronanog ili pak eljeznog oa, ostaci loptaste pose s vratom (sl c naeni s na pr sl c eni eni stenastom kamenom konstrkcijom, ntranjim oziom (sl a Fnkcija pose nije poznata, jer je nepoznat ore sahranjivanja: nis naeni ostaci pokojnika (Gsar,

aove a ringshape stone strctre the interior enclos re wall (Fig a The fnction of the vessel is nientifie, ecase the rial rite is not known: no remains of a ecea se person were fon (Gsar, Vjevi 200a5 Analogies for the Nain rnsespecially rn in grave 4 (Fig 8a, 3are clearly perceptile in a significantly wier area throgh the 0th8th cent BC in varios cltral circles an in iverse rial contexts: in incineration as well as in inhmation rials We refer to the ceramic forms of the Re type (MllerKarpe 959: T 08: H; T 2: D6; Garovec 983: 59, sl 6, 27, V Gorica, Dalj/Vkovar (VinskiGasparini 983: T LXXXIX: 4; T XCI: , 2, 0, 56, Terni II (Mller Karpe 959: T 43: A; T 45: A, B, Este II (MllerKarpe 959: 94 C, Bologna III (MllerKarpe 959: T 62: S; T 7: E, gr 36; T 78: O; T 8: D5, Roma II (MllerKarpe 959: T 24: A9, B8, C7; Civilt el Lazio primitivo 976: T V: A2, 5; T XXXIX: A8, Cmae I (MllerKarpe 959: T 6: A8; T 8: A, Ponteca gnano IA (DAgostino, Gastali 988: 003, Fig I: , 22, ie the forms istrite from the Danian Basin the Alps the Balkans6 the Apennine peninsla at the transi tion from the Late Bronze Age to the Iron Age These forms are nornamente or ornamente (meaner, spiral, zigzag ans, often with white incrstation, with variosly place
5 The paper is in press; I therefore thank my colleagues for allowing me to inspect the documentation. 6 For instance, in the Donja Brnjica-Gornja Straava cultural group (Pomoravlje, Kosovo), the urns with a conical neck and small handles with or without a button. (Garaanin 1983: 774776, T. CVII: 46).

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Vjevi 200a 5 Analogija nainskim arama, poseno ari gro 4 (sl 8a, 3, jasno je oljiva i na znatno irem prostor kroz 0 8st pr Kr, razliitim kltrnim krgovima i razliitim gronim kontekstima: incineratorskima i onima s inhmacijom Rai se o keramikim olicima tipa Re (MllerKarpe 959: T 08: H; T 2: D6; Garovec 983: 59, sl 6, 27, V Gorica, Dalj/Vkovar (VinskiGasparini 983: T LXXXIX: 4; T XCI: , 2, 0, 56, Terni II (MllerKarpe 959: T 43: A; T 45: A, B, Este II (MllerKarpe 959: 94 C, Bologna III (MllerKarpe 959: T 62: S; T 7: E, gr 36, T 78: O; T 8: D5, Rim II (MllerKarpe 959: T 24: A9, B8, C7; Civilt el Lazio primitivo 976: T V: A2, 5; T XXXIX: A8, Cmae I (MllerKarpe 959: T 6: A8; T 8: A, Pontecagnano IA (DAgostino, Gastali 988: 003, sl I: , 22, tj olicima rasprostranjenim o Ponavlja Alpa Balkana6 Ape ninskog polotoka na prijelaz kasnog ronanog elje anog anog elje zno oa, koji s nekraeni ili pak kraeni (meanar, spi , eni eni eni meanar, eni , rala, cikcak vrpce, esto s ijelom inkrstacijom, s razliito poloenim i olikovanim rkama, te razliito istakntim vratom i trhom Sline keramike profilacije sjevernoj Hrvatskoj zapravo postoje ve starijoj kltri polja sa ara ara ma7, onosno, na Apeninskom polotok o protovillanova vremena (Peroni 989: 87, sl 25: , 9 Nainske nekraene are olikom s srone i histarskoj gronoj keramici o 9 o 8 st pr Kr, s meanrospiralnim motivima ijeloj inkrstaciji, s razvraenim ooom, ali glavnom s niskim koninim vratom I histarski olik are io je spomente iroko rasprostranjene tipologije pos a o kasnog (0 8 st pr Kr urnenfelder svijeta Po navlja (Dalj, Vkovar, preko Balkana o srenje i jne Ita lije (Sala Consilina tijekom 9 i 8 st pr Kr, te istovremenog zapanojaranskog krga (Garovec, Mihovili 987: 304 U Lirnima po mnogoem liskoj Daniji, spaljivanje je marginalno8 Njegova prva pojava Apliji (Torre Castellc cia, nakon gotrajne traicije inhmiranja, paa vrijeme kltrnoetnikih promjena krajem 2 i poetkom st pr Kr, kaa ovje efinitivno nestaje sapeninska kltra, pojavljj se protovillanova elementi i kaa propaaj sta ra naselja i poinj nova, pozaini ega stoje i oreene transjaranske (ilirske, alkanske migracije (De Jliis 988: 594595 Unato anskolirnskim sronostima klt
5 Rad je u tisku; stoga zahvaljujem kolegama na uvidu u dokumentaciju. 6 Npr. u grupi Donja Brnjica-Gornja Straava (Pomoravlje, Kosovo) urne s koninim vratom i ruicama s ili bez dugmeta (Garaanin 1983: 774776, T. CVII: 46). 7 Npr. u grupi Zagreb, tip trbuaste are blago stoastog vrata (VinskiGasparini 1983: 581, T. LXXXVIII: 2, 7). 8 U Dauniji, gdje se umrli iskljuivo inhumiraju u zgrenom poloaju, s grobnim prilozima esto identinim onim liburnskima iz starijeg eljeznog doba, tek se izuzetno u to vrijeme prakticira i spaljivanje, tonije poluspaljivanje (grob iz Ordone iz 8. st. pr. Kr.) s ostacima triju pokojnika i bogatim bronanim prilozima) i tek u prvoj polovini 4. st. pr. Kr. zbiva se odreeni prodor incineracije. Radi se o "neobinim" pojavama poluspaljivanja, iskljuivo u monumentalnim helenistikim grobnicama tipa a grotticella, a camera (hipogeji iz Canose, Lavella), s pokojnicima u isprueno-zgrenom poloaju, poloenima u grobu uz lomau koja je djelomino unitavala tijelo. Obred spaljivanja zavravao je sakupljanjem izgorenih ljudskih ostataka i njihovim prilaganjem u metalnu posudu zajedno s prilozima koji nisu gorjeli (De Juliis 1988: 608, 620).

an shape hanles, an necks an ellies prononce in varios ways Similar ceramic profilations in northern Croa tia ha existe in fact alreay in the oler Urnfiel cltre7, as well as from the proto-Villanovan perio in the Apennine peninsla (Peroni 989: 87, sl 25: , 9 The shapes of the necorate rns from Nain are simi lar to the Histrian fnerary ware from the 9th to 8th cent BC, with meaner an spiral motifs in white incrstation, with flaring rims an generally short conical necks The Histrian variant of the rn also elongs to the mentione wiely i strite typology of vessels from the Late (0th8th cent BC Urnfiel worl of the Danian Basin (Dalj, Vkovar, across the Balkans to central an sothern Italy (Sala Consilina ring the 9th an 8th cent BC, an the contemporaneos we stern Ariatic circle (Garovec, Mihovili 987: 304 Crema tion is only marginally present in Dania, a region otherwise closely relate with Lirnia in many respects8 Incineration first appears in Aplia (Torre Castellccia, after a long an estalishe traition of inhmation, in the time of cltral an ethnic changes towars the en of the 2th an the e ginning of the th cent BC, when the Sapennine cltre efinitely isappears from here an new proto-Villanovan elements appear, an when ol settlements collapse an new are create, all processes for which a ackrop of sorts is fon in certain Transariatic (Illyrian, Balkan migrations (De Jliis 988: 594595 In spite of the similarities etween the Danians an the Lirnians in the clt of the ea, the Picentes stan clo sest to the Lirnians in the Ariatic worl regaring the intensity an the time when cremation was se In oth milies the incineration element was a transitory event; among the Picentes, however, in aition to sporaic cre mation rials, eg Ancona, Nmana (Lollini 976: 2223; Lcentini 2009: 9802; Novilara: two graves Servici, 29, 39, Piceno IIIII, from the 8th/7th cent BC (Lollini 976; Bein haer 985: 9399; Lcentini 2000: 5860; 2007: 02, there is also the Fermo necropolis (9th7th cent BC (Lollini 976: 25, 30; Drago Troccoli 2003: 3384 The Nain rns, especially the one with a conical neck, ths fin an almost ientical analogy as regars the shape in an rn with meaner ecoration from the 9th cent BC ma le grave 52 from Nmana (Fig 5c This grave, with ceramic ecoration close to that of the Histri, with a SiroloNmana type pin, a razor, a knife an a whetstone (Kko, elhar 2009: 9 is sally mentione as an inicator of Transaria tic contactsetween Picenm an Lirnia (Balkans (Lolli
7 For instance in the Zagreb group, the type of a bellied urn with a slightly conical neck (Vinski-Gasparini 1983: 581, T. LXXXVIII: 2, 7). 8 In Daunia, where the inhumation of the dead in a contracted position is exclusively used, with grave goods often identical to those of the Liburnians in the Early Iron Age, cremationor semi-cremation, to be more preciseis used only exceptionally (an 8th cent. BC grave from Ordona, with the remains of three dead persons and rich grave goods), and the first substantial presence of the incineration rite occurs only in the first half of the 4th cent. BC. We are dealing with unusual phenomena of semi-cremation, exclusively in monumental Hellenistic tombs of the a grotticella and a camera types (hypogea from Canosa, Lavella), with the dead placed into graves in extended-contracted position next to the pyre that partly destroyed the body. The ritual of cremation ended by collecting the burnt human remains and placing them into a metal vessel together with the goods that did not burn (De Juliis 1988: 608, 620).

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Sl 5 a Nin: keramike pose sa sahranjenom novoroenai (prema Batovi 973; 987; Salapija: keramike pose sa sahranjenom novoroenai (prema Tin Bertocchi 975, c Nmana, gro 52, Qagliotti: kraena ara (prema Lollini 976; Nmana, gro 495, Davanzali (prema Lcentini 2007; e Matelica, gro Villa Clara, groni prilozi: keramike pose (prema Stopponi 2003: T I: a, Fig. 15 a) Nin: ceramic vessels with burials of newborn children (after Batovi 1973; 1987); b) Salapia: ceramic vessels with burials of newborn children (after Tin Bertocchi 1975), c) Numana, grob 52, Quagliotti: decorated urn (after Lollini 1976); d) Numana, grave 495, Davanzali (after Lucentini 2007); e) Matelica, Villa Clara grave, grave goods: ceramic vessels (after Stopponi 2003: T. I: a, b)

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Sl 6 a Salapija: keramiki lonci sa sahranjenom novoroenai (prema Tin Bertocchi 975; Lirnski lonac sa sahranjenim novoroen em (prema Batovi 973; c Kompolje, arni gro 3 (prema DrechslerBii 96 Fig. 16 a) Salapia: ceramic pots with burials of newborn children (after Tin Bertocchi 1975); b) Liburnian pot with the burial of a newborn child (after Batovi 1973); c) Kompolje, urn grave 3 (after Drechsler-Bii 1961)

mrtvih, intenzitetom i vremenom spaljivanja pokojnika jaranskom svijet Lirnima s ipak najlii Piceni U oje sreine incineratorska komponenta ila je prolazni ogaaj; ali, ko Picena, z sporaine spaljene pokope, npr Ancona, Nmana (Lollini 976: 2223; Lcentini 2007: 9802; Novilara: va groa Servici, 29, 39, Piceno IIIII, iz 8/7 st pr Kr (Lollini 976; Beinhaer 985: 9399; Lcentini 2000: 5860; 2007: 02, postoji nekropola Fermo (9 7 st pr Kr (Lollini 976: 25, 30; Drago Troccoli 2003: 3384 Nainskim arama, osoito onoj sa stoastim vratom, tako je formom gotovo jenaka meanrom kraena ara mkom go 52 iz Nmane iz 9 st pr Kr (sl 5c Ovaj gro, s keramikim krasom liskim histarskom, s iglom tipa SiroloNmana, ritvom, noem i kamenim rsom (Kko, elhar 2009: 9 oino se navoi kao znak transjaranskih, picenskolirnskih (alkanskih (Lollini 976: 2223, 58, onosno, picenskohistarskih (Lcentini 2007: 02 oira tijekom starijeg eljeznog oa, kaa je lirnskopicenska interakcija ila najizraenija Ista nainska ara (sl 8a, 3 olikom potpno ogovara ari s epolikim oatkom na rici gro iz Nmane, 495, Davanzali, s kraja 9 st pr Kr (sl 59 Uoljiva je openita poarnost izme strktre priloga ovom picenskom gro (s vije are, iastom iglom i iglom s iskastom glavom i lirnskih priloga iz groa 4 iz hmka 3, jelomino i iz groa 9 s viestrkim kopima iz istog hmka iz Naina (Kko, elhar 2009: 9 Takoer, va tipa ara gro 495, Davanzali posjeaj na kominacij olika vaj ara iz nainskog groa 4, pogo ara tovo ako se pretpostavi a nainska ara r 2 (sl 8, 4 izvorno nije imala istaknti vrat (sl 4 i a je, akle, profi sl , , profi lacijom ila popt prve are iz groa Davanzali 495 (sl 5: (Lcentini 2007: sl 3: Sroan olik ikoninih posa pojavljje se prilino isto vrijeme i kao groni prilog
9 U grobu se, izmeu ostalog, nalazi i uiasta igla, poput kronoloki neosjetljive igle iz nadinske are (Lucentini 2007: 100, sl. 3: 2).

ni 976: 2223, 58, that is, etween Picenm an Histria (Lcentini 2007: 02ring the Early Iron Age, when the LirnianPicenian interaction was most prononce The shape of the same rn from Nain (Fig 8a, 3 correspon s to the rn with a corkshape application on the small hanle in the grave from Nmana, 495, Davanzali, from the en of the 9th cent BC (Fig 5 9 There is a marke general correlation etween the strctre of goos in this Picenm grave (with two rns, a loopheae pin an a pin with a iscoi hea an the Lirnian goos from grave 4 from mon 3, an partly also from grave 9 with mltiple rials from the same mon in Nain (Kko, elhar 2009: 9 Also, two types of rns in grave 495, Davanzali, are re miniscent of a comination of forms of two rns from Na in grave 4, especially if we presme that rn no 2 from Nain (Fig 8, 4 originally lacke a prononce neck (Fig 4, an therefore its profilation was like that of the first rn from grave Davanzali 495 (Fig 5: (Lcentini 2007: Fig 3/ A similar form of iconical vessels appears at approxi mately the same time as a grave goo in inhmation rials in Picenm, eg in the Villa ClaraMatelica grave (Stopponi 2003: 394 (Fig 5e Both incinerationsin the Lirnian an the Picenian clts of the eaare convergent phenomena, explicale in the context of the ynamic en of the Bronze Age an the eginning of the new age, in the area from the Dan ian Basin, the Alps, to the Apennine peninsla, proaly aie y minor migrations at the trn of the st millennim BC The irection from which incineration arrive in the Pi cenm cltre from as early as the final Bronze Agefrom the Apennine protoVillanovan north or from central Italy is an open qestion; the connection of Picenm with the
9 The grave containedamong other goodsa loop-headed pin like the chronologically unsusceptible pin from the Nadin urn (Lucentini 2007: 100, Fig. 3: 2).

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picenskim pokopima s inhmacijom, npr gro Villa Cla , raMatelica (Stopponi 2003: 394 (sl 5e Oje incineracije, lirnskom i picenskom klt mrtvih, konvergentne s pojave, ojanjive kontekst inaminog zavretka ronanog oa i poetka nove epohe o Ponavlja, Alpa, o Apeninskog polotoka, vjerojatno potpomognte i manjim migracijama na prije laz s 2 na tis pr Kr Pitanje je oakle je sve incinera cija stizala picensk kltr jo o vremena finalnog ronanog oa (iz apeninskog protovillanova sjevera ili iz srenje Italije; picenska veza s villanova krgom srenje Italije (Lollini 976: 59; Balelli 2000: 5556; Drago Trocco Lollini li 2003: 7780, moa i oreeno naslijee protovillanova svijeta Pianello i Genga (Bianco Peroni, Peroni 2000: 475, ali i veze s istonim Jaranom, ez smnje, oslika nim nim , , vaj pozain spaljivanja ko Picena U zatvorenom krg kltrnoetnikih oira tijekom 0 8 st pr Kr o Po etnikih etnikih kih kih navlja, jgoistonoalpskog prostora o Apeninskog polo , noalpskog noalpskog toka, pravo kltrna interakcija Lirna Histra Picena (i Japoa: sl 2ac, 6c i, akako, njihovog zalea, oar je poetan kontekst za iscrpnij analiz lirnskog spaljivanja starije eljezno oa, onosno, na samom poetk te epohe, na prijelaz s 0 na 9 st pr Kr Unato nespjeloj raiokaronskoj analizi arnog po kopa (sl 3 rni iz groa 4 nainskom hmak 3, taj pokop, akle, vremenski oreje na poetak eljenog oa cjelokpni tipino lirnski kontekst hmka 3, zatim komparativni keramiki materijal na irem prostor Jarana (Picenm i r i ireg zalea (o Ponavlja o jgoisto noalpskog svijeta na prijelaz ronanog (urnenfelder eljezno oa i, napokon, najnoviji arni pokopi (s prilozi ma: voijelna zmijolika fiila i r s lirnskog prostora, iz Jokine glaviceKrneza, ko kojih s analizom raioaktivnog gljika kosti spaljenih pokojnika atirane o 9 o 8 st pr Kr (Gsar, Vjevi 200 Spaljeni lirnski pokop starijeg eljeznog oa jest oreeni tjecaj kasnog urnenfelder krga, koji se na razliite naine orazio poecima lirnske, picenske, histarske kltre i rgje Na kraj, ostaje prolem groa 3 hmk 3 Nain (sl 9c, metoom raioaktivnog gljika atiranog srenje ronano oa (630450 g pr Kr, sa arom (nerekonstriranom koja je, metim, faktrom i tipologijom ipak srona ostalim arama na arama inskom hmk 3 (sl 8a, 3, 4 Uvaavaji raiokar sl a, , , , onsk analiz osteolokih ostatka iz rne gro 3, tre alo i zakljiti a je na ovom nainskom kltnom mjest pokapanje zapoelo ve srenje ronano oa, za to osim naveenih raiokaronskih atma nema rgih, izravnih arheolokih okaza Ipak, o saa istraeni hmci oko Naina (sl 4 potje iz ronanog i eljeznog oa: nekima s se spaljivali pokojnici ve ranoj ronci (cetinska kltra, takoer, nekima postoji kontinitet sahranjivanja kroz (kasno ron ano i eljezno oa (Batovi, oni 2005: 749 Stoga se postavlja pitanje o temeljenosti, ovje samo naznaene, hipoteze o stanovitoj (cetinskoj? traiciji spaljivanja kroz (neistraeno srenje ronano i protolirnsko oa sjevernoj Dalmaciji

Villanovan circle of central Italy (Lollini 976: 59; Balelli 2000: 5556; Drago Troccoli 2003: 7780, an perhaps also certain legacy of the protoVillanovan worl Pianello i Genga (Bianco Peroni, Peroni 2000: 475, t also the con nections with the eastern Ariatic, notely reflect the ackgron of the cremation rite in the Picenian society Within the close circle of cltralethnic contacts ring the 0th8th cent BC from the Danian Basin, the sothea stern Alpine area to the Apennine peninsla, precisely the cltral interaction etween the Lirnians, the Histri an the Picentes (as well as the Iapoes: Fig 2ac, 6c an, na trally, their hinterlan, is a goo starting context for a mo re thorogh analysis of the Lirnian cremation in the Early Iron Age, that is, at the very eginning of that perio, at the transition from the 0th to the 9th cent BC In spite of the faile raiocaron analysis of the crema tion rial in rn from grave 4 in mon 3 in Nain, this rial has een chronologically etermine to the egin ning of the Iron Age y the entire typically Lirnian con text of mon 3, y ceramic comparana in the wier area of the Ariatic (Picenm etc an the wier hinterlan (from the Danian Basin to the sotheastern Alpine worl at the transition from the Bronze (Urnfiel to the Iron Age, an finally, y the latest rn rials (with grave goos: twopart serpentine fila etc from the Lirnian territory, from Jo kina GlavicaKrneza, which yiele cremate hman ones raiocaron ate to the 9th an 8th cent BC (Gsar, Vjevi 200 The Lirnian cremation rial of the Early Iron Age owes something to the inflence from the Late Urnfiel cir cle, which was reflecte in varios ways in the eginnings of the Lirnian, Picenian an Histrian cltres, as well as el sewhere There is finally the prolem of grave 3 in mon 3 in Nain (Fig 9c, raiocaron ate to the Mile Bronze Age (630450 BC, with an (nreconstrcte rn whose textre an typology, however, are similar to the remaining rns in mon 3 in Nain (Fig 8a, 3, 4 Acknowleging the raiocaron analysis of the osteologi cal remains from the rn in grave 3, we shol concle that the rials at this clt place in Nain starte alreay in the Mile Bronze Age, althogh there is no other irect archaeological evience for this except for the mentione raiocaron ates However, the hitherto investigate mons aron Na in (Fig 4 elong to the Bronze an Iron Ages: some con taine cremations from as early as the Early Bronze Age (the Cetina cltre, an some even exhiit continity in rials throgh the (Late Bronze an Iron Ages (Batovi, oni 2005: 749 It is therefore appropriate to qestion the va liity of thehere only tentatively introcehypothesis aot a traition of cremation of sorts (in the Cetina clt re throgh the (ninvestigate Mile Bronze Age an the proto Lirnian perio in northern Dalmatia Incineration in the Lirnian cltre of the st mil BC cannot e explaine in a linear fashion as a continity from the Early Bronze Age: there are missing linksparticlarly in the poorly investigate Mile Bronze Agein the knowle ge on the cltral ynamics of the 2n mil BC in northern

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Incineracija lirnskoj kltri iz tis pr Kr ne moe se pravocrtno ojanjavati kao kontinitet ranog ronanog oa: neostaj mekarike, osoito one iz slao istraenog srenjeg ronanog oa, poznavanj kltrne inamike 2 tis pr Kr na prostor sjeverne Dal macije Ali, tipini lirnski pokop nasljeje oreene formalne i simoline elemente (kamena grona krinja, hmak, ozi, liacija, it iz ronanog oa, a poneke vjerojatno i iz eneolitika Oreeni morfoloki elementi keramikih posaara ko Lirna naelno s mogli iti stanovit nastavak olika iz starijih faza ronanog oa (Tipologija velikih lirnskih keramikih lonacapitosa za pokop jece: sl 5a, 6, kao i sam ore ad encytrismos, potjee iz starije, ronanoone, sreozemne traicije Tako je zemljanom hmk Devia glavicaKrneza (sl 2: 3, 3 gro popt lirnskih, sa zgrenim pokojnikom kamenoj krinji, atiran metoom raioaktivnog gljika srenje ronano oa (Gsar, Vjevi 200 Ovaj poatak, kao i onaj o atiranj spaljenog arnog groa 3 iz hmka 3 Nain (sl 9ac, jeini s egzaktni poaci o srenjem ronanom o sjeverne Dalmacije I ok je hmak 3 iz Naina (sl 6 jeini primjer iri sl talnosti po lirnskim hmcima, Devia glaviciKr , evia evia a a Kr Kr neza (sl 2: 3, 3 prvi pt je oena iritalnost hmk iz ronanog oa sjevernoj Dalmaciji: ispo spomentog groa (sl 3: 2 s inhmacijom krinji iz srenjeg ronanog oa ili s ostaci spaljenog (cetinskog pokopa (Gsar, V cetinskog jevi, 200 0 Ovje naznaena rana hipoteza o stanovitom kontin ena ena itet pojeinih elemenata klta mrtvih i samog spaljivanja sjevernoj Dalmaciji o starijeg ronanog o eljez anog anog nog oa moe se provjeravati samo novim arheolokim otkriima koja i ojasnila itne aspekte fnerarnih orea i vjerovanja kltrnoj inamici ovog prostora kroz go vremensko razolje 2 i tis pr Kr

Dalmatia Nevertheless, the typical Lirnian rial inhe rite certain formal an symolic elements (stone grave cist, mon, enclosre wall, liation etc from the Bronze Age, an some in fact even from the Eneolithic Certain morphological elements of the Lirnian ceramic vessels rns col in principle e consiere a contination of sorts of the forms from the oler phases of the Bronze Age (The typology of large Lirnian ceramic potspithoi for rials of chilren: Fig 5a, 6, as well as the ad encytrismos rital itself, erive from an olerBronze AgeMeiterranean tra ition For instance, a grave from the earthen mon in Devia GlavicaKrneza (Fig 2: 3, 3, similar to Lirnian rials, with a constricte inhmation rial in a stone cist, was raiocaron ate to the Mile Bronze Age (Gsar, Vjevi 200 This information, in aition to the ate of the cremation rn rial 3 from mon 3 in Nain (Fig 9ac, are the only exact ata from the Mile Bronze Age of northern Dalmatia While mon 3 in Nain (Fig 6 is the only Lirnian mon where oth rites are present together, Devia GlavicaKrneza (Fig 2: 3, 3 provie the first example of a Bronze Age mon that containe oth cremation an inhmation rials: eneath the mentione inhmation grave (Fig 3: 2 in a cist there lay the remains of a cremation rial (of the Cetina cltre (Gsar, Vjevi, 2000 The here otline working hypothesis aot a certain continity of specific elements of the clt of the ea an the rite of cremation itself in northern Dalmatia from the Early Bronze Age to the Iron Age, can e teste only with new archaeological iscoveries that wol explain crcial aspects of the fnerary ritals an eliefs in the cltral ynamics of this area throgh a long chronological perio spanning the 2n an st millennia BC

10 Usp. bilj. 1

10 Comp. note 1

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SINEVA KUKO, A REVIEW OF THE CREMATION RITE IN THE LIBURNIAN CULTURAL CONTEXT, PRIL INST ARHEOL ZAGREBU, 27/200, P 95-0

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