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A Project Report On



Balasubramani Caddur Vivek Nikhal Jayesh Deshpande



The EARTH LEAKAGE AND HIGH/LOW VOLTAGE PROTECTION CIRCUIT is specially designed for home appliances to protect from earth leakage and high-low voltage fluctuations. The circuit is used for single phase A.C. main supply i.e. 230V at 50 Hz. The circuit uses an electronic relay for its protection operation. The protection circuit will disconnect the load from the main supply in case of any failure. In a simple two-wire electrical power system, the conductor connected to ground is called the neutral, and the other conductor is called the hot, also known as the live or the active. As far as the voltage source and load are concerned, grounding makes no difference at all. It exists purely for the sake of personnel safety, by guaranteeing that at least one point in the circuit will be safe to touch (zero voltage to ground). The "Hot" side of the circuit, named for its potential for shock hazard, will be dangerous to touch unless voltage is secured by proper disconnection from the source. For an example: If we take a look at a simple, household electrical appliance such as a toaster with a conductive metal case, we can see that there should be no shock hazard when it is operating properly. The wires conducting power to the toaster's heating element are insulated from touching the metal case (and each other) by rubber or plastic. However, if one of the wires inside the toaster were to accidentally come in contact with the metal case, the case will be made electrically common to the wire, and touching the case will be just as hazardous as touching the wire bare. Whether or not this presents a shock hazard depends on which wire accidentally touches.



SIZE OF THE PRODUCT - 30 X 25 X 12 cm WEIGHT 1.5Kg


In order to protect electrical and electronics appliances from voltage fluctuations or earth leakage, this circuit is used. There is a block of power supply which gets input from 12-0-12v 500 mA transformer. The output of power supply is 5V regulated and also 12V. There is a timer circuit block which gives a delay of 3sec in order to avoid the affect of initial fluctuations on the load. It consists of a current transformer which produces voltage at its output when short circuit takes place. The input to the current transformer is main supply and its output is given to the sensor circuit. The output of current transformer is given to the earth leakage sensor circuit. This sensor circuit compares the output from transformer with a reference voltage and disconnects the mains from the appliances if it is more than the reference voltage. The output of transformer is given as an input to the high/low voltage protection circuit. This circuit disconnects the supply from the appliances if the voltage is not in the specified range. There is a high/low voltage indicator circuit which indicates the voltage output of the transformer and tells if it is above or below the specified range. There is a receiver block for IR rays which are used to reset the circuit after fault correction.

R3 10k 40% R2 10k 40% U1 555
1 Gnd 2 Trg 3 Out 4 Rst Vcc 8 Dis 7 Thr 6 Ctl 5

R1 1k + C1 1uF

C2 1uF


Timer IC is operated in monostable mode. Monostable multivibrator has one stable state. The stable state is either low or high. The state changes only when a proper trigger pulse (- ve going incase 555 ) is applied to the second pin of the timer IC. The o/p switches from stable state to astable state. The output remains for a while in astable state and returns back to stable state. If again change of state is required then next trigger is necessary. The duration of astable state ( pulse width ) depends on external components R and C. The circuit designed provides a delay of 3 sec. to avoid the effect of initial fluctuations on the appliances. The IC 555 used has 8 pins. The description of the pins which are used is given below: Pin no 1:- Ground -All voltages are measured with respect to this terminal . Pin no 2 :- Trigger-The output of the timer depends on the amplitude of the external trigger pulse applied to this pin. The output is low is the voltage as this pin is grater than 1/3 Vcc. However, when a negative going pulse of amplitude larger than 1/3 Vcc is applied to this pin the comparator two output goes low, which in turn switches the output of timer is high. The output remains high as long as the trigger terminal is held at a low voltage.


V1 12V

Pin no 3:- Output-There are two ways a load can be connected to the output terminal either between pin 3 and ground or between pin 3 and supply voltage + Vcc ( Pin 8 ) . When the output is low the load current flows through to the load connected between pin 3 and + Vcc onto the output terminal and is called the sink current . However the current through the grounded load is 0 when the output is low for this reason the load connect between 3 and +Vcc is called the normally on load and then connected between pin 3 and ground is called the normally of load . On the other hand when the output is high the current through the load connected between pin 3 and + Vcc is 0 however the output terminal supplies current to the normally of load . This current is called source current . The maximum value of source or sink current is 200 mA . Pin no 5:-Control Voltage-An external voltage applied to this terminal changes the threshold as well as the trigger voltage .In order words by imposing a voltage on this pin or by connecting a pot between this pin and ground, this pulse width of the output waveform can be varied. When not use the control pin should be bypassed to ground with 0.01 uF capacitor to prevent any noise problem. Pin no 7:- Discharge-This pin is connected internally to the collector of transistor , when the output is high, transistor is off and acts as an open circuit to the external capacitor C connected across it. On the other hand when the output is low, transistor is saturated and acts as a short circuit, shorting the external capacitor C to ground. Pin no 8:- +Vcc-The supply voltage of + 5V to +18V is applied to this pin with respect to ground.


A current transformer (CT) is a type of instrument transformer designed to provide a current in its secondary winding proportional to the alternating current flowing in its primary. They are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents, often in the presence of high voltages. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured A current transformer is used to detect if there is any kind of short circuit due to improper earthing. Whenever there is problem in earthing the output of current transformer will be in few mili volts because the path for flow of current is completed. This output voltage is given to the sensor circuit where it is compared with a reference voltage adjusted using a preset .The current transformer used in the circuit has 180 turns and a gauge of 40. The inner diameter of the CBCT is 1.2 cm and the outer diameter is 3 cm. The current transformer used for detecting earth leakage is a special type of CT known as Core Balance Current Transformer (CBCT).

Core balance CT (CBCT):

The CBCT, also known as a zero sequence CT, is used for earth leakage and earth fault protection. The concept is similar to the RVT. In the CBCT, the three core cable or three single cores of a three phase system pass through the inner diameter of the CT. When the system is fault free, no current flows in the secondary of the CBCT. When there is an earth fault, the residual current (zero phase sequence current) of the system flows through the secondary of the CBCT and this operates the relay. In order to design the CBCT, the inner diameter of the CT, the relay type, the relay setting and the primary operating current need to be furnished.


The most common design of CT consists of a length of wire wrapped many times around a silicon steel ring passed over the circuit being measured. The CT's primary circuit therefore consists of a single 'turn' of conductor, with a secondary of many hundreds of turns. The CT acts as a constant-current series device with an apparent power burden a fraction of that of the high voltage primary circuit. Hence the primary circuit is largely unaffected by the insertion of the CT. Common secondaries are 1 or 5 amperes. For example, a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi ratio, with five taps being common for multi ratio CTs.

Accuracy for current transformer

The accuracy of a CT is directly related to a number of factors including: burden rating factor load external electromagnetic fields temperature and physical configuration.

Safety precautions while operating current transformer

Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary, as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary, and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer.


EARTH LEAKAGE Why is earthing required?

To help ensure that the former failure is less likely than the latter, engineers try to design appliances in such a way as to minimize hot conductor contact with the case. Ideally, of course, you don't want either wire accidentally coming in contact with the conductive case of the appliance, but there are usually ways to design the layout of the parts to make accidental contact less likely for one wire than for the other. However, this preventative measure is effective only if power plug polarity can be guaranteed. If the plug can be reversed, then the conductor more likely to contact the case might very well be the "hot" one.

Normal condition:
In a properly functioning appliance (shown above), the current measured through the hot conductor should be exactly equal to the current through the neutral conductor, because there's only one path for electrons to flow in the circuit. With no fault inside the appliance, there is no connection between circuit conductors and the person touching the case, and therefore no shock.

Fault condition measurement

This difference in current between the "hot" and "neutral" conductors will only exist if there is current through the ground connection, meaning that there is a fault in the system. Therefore, such a current difference can be used as a way to detect a fault condition. If a device is set up to measure this difference of current between the two power conductors, a detection of current imbalance can be used to trigger the opening of a disconnect switch, thus cutting power off and preventing serious shock. In a protection device an earth leakage current is sensed by comparing the active and neutral currents flowing through a circuit, usually by the simple means of measuring the current induced in a coil through which both of the wires have been passed. Under normal conditions, as there are identical currents in both wires and the currents will be flowing in opposite directions, there will be no current induced in the


coil. The current induced in the coil by a fault condition can be used to trigger an interruption to the circuit.



The output of current transformer is given to the input of this circuit. In normal condition the output of current transformer is negligible. This input is compared with a fixed voltage using a comparator. The compared value is then given to the relay which is in normally closed position. For no input to the relay its closed contacts do not switch. When the earth and phase wire get shorted, earth leakage occurs. This leakage is detected by the CBCT and is given as an input to the sensor circuit. The sensor circuit compares it with a fixed predecided level and gives corresponding output at pin 9 of IC324. This causes the relay contacts to switch from normally closed to open position. The relay causes the contacts of SSR to switch from closed to open position and the mains are disconnected from the appliances, thus protecting the user from getting any kind of shock. There are reset and test switches. When the test switch is pressed even in absence of earth leakage, the relay in the circuit becomes open and thus the SSR disconnects the load from supply. This shows that the protection circuit is in proper working condition. We can reset the circuit after repairing the fault in earthing after the circuit detects it and test the circuit if it is in proper working condition.



D1 DIODE R1 1k R2 1k LED1 220uF VR1 10k 40% T1 BC 547 VR2 R3 1k R4 1k LED1 VR3 T2 BC 547 ZENER R5 1k R6 1k LED1 T3 BC 547 ZENER

230 to 12

10k 40%

10k 40%



This is an ac mains voltage indicator that uses three LEDS to indicate low, normal and high levels of AC mains voltage. Presets VR1, VR2, VR3 are used to adjust the base voltages of transistors T1, T2 and T3 respectively. The AC supply is stepped down by a transformer to deliver an output of 12V AC 250 mA. The secondary output is rectified by diode and smoothened by a capacitor to give about 12V DC. This DC voltage varies proportionately with AC mains voltage which is sensed by transistors. When voltage across the base of the transistor reaches 9.7V (zener voltage 9.1V plus base emitter voltage 0.6V) by adjusting preset transistor starts conducting. This causes LED to light up. LED stops glowing when base voltage drops below the preset value. Preset values are so adjusted that if the input voltage is above 230V all three leds glow . If voltage drops below 250V the third led stops glowing and only two of them glow indicating voltage is between 200V to 230V, if voltage goes below 200V second led also goes off and only one led glows indicating voltage is between 175V to 200V.if voltage goes below 175V all the leds turn off indicating voltage is below 175V.




This circuit is designed using transistors and other discrete components. It can be used to protect loads such as refrigerator, TV from undesirable over and under line voltages, as well as surges caused due to sudden failure or resumption of mains power supply. This circuit can be used directly as a standalone circuit between the mains supply and the load, or it may be inserted between an existing automatic / manual stabilizer and the load. The on-time delay circuit not only protects the load from switching surges but also from quick changeover effect of over / under voltage relay. When mains voltage goes out of preset limits, the relay is turned off immediately, and it is turned on only when AC mains voltage settles within preset limits. In sampling part of the circuit transistor T1, presets VR1 and VR2 are used for presetting over or under voltage cut-off limits respectively. The limits are set according to load requirement, as per manufacturers specifications. Once the limits have been set, zener D1 will conduct if upper limit has been exceeded, resulting in cut off of transistor T2. Same condition can also result when mains voltage falls below under voltage setting, as zener D2 stops conducting. Thus in either case transistor T2 is cut-off and T3 is forward biased via resistor R3. This causes LED1 to be on. Simultaneously capacitor C2 quickly discharges via diode D5 and transistor T3. As collector of transistor T3 is pulled low, transistors T4 and T5 both are cut-off, as also transistor T5. Thus LED2 and LED3 are off and the relay is de-energized When the mains voltage comes in the acceptable range, transistor T2 conducts to cut-off transistor T3. LED1 goes off. Transistor T5 gets forward biased LED2 becomes on. However T4 and T5 are still off, since base of T4 via zener D4 is connected to capacitor C1, which was in discharged condition. Thus, LED3 and relay RL1 remain off. Capacitor C1 starts charging slowly via resistors R6 and R7, and presets VR3 and VR4. When potential across capacitor C1 reaches 6.8V to breakdown zener D4, transistor T4, as also transistor T5 gets forward biased to switch on LED3 and relay RL1 or load, while LED2 goes off. Should the mains supply go out of preset limits before completion of the on-time delay, capacitor C1 will

immediately discharge because of conduction of transistor T3, and the cycle will repeat until mains supply stabilizes within preset limits for the on-time delay period. Zener diode D3 is used to obtain regulated 9.1 volts for timing capacitor C1, so that preset on-time delay is more or less independent of variation in input DC voltage to this circuit. To switch off the relay rapidly during undesired mains condition, the timing capacitor C1 is discharged rapidly to provide complete control over turning on or off of relay RL1 or the load. The functioning of LEDs and relay, depending on the circuit condition, is summarized in table given below.

Circuit condition




Relay/ Load OFF OFF ON

Over or under voltage cut-off ON operation On-time delay in operation OFF AC voltage normal after onOFF time delay





The circuit is useful to reconnect the main supply which is disconnected from the appliances because of short circuit or leakage in earthing. With the help of remote we can connect the supply to the load without using a handle or a manual press button switch as seen in ELCBS AND MCBS at homes. This circuit receives the IR rays transmitted by any IR remote control and at all frequencies. The IR detector detects it and then it gives a trigger pulse to the timer IC 555.The output of the timer IC is connected to the relay input to reconnect the main supply to the load for normal operation. When sensor receives IR rays, it gives active low output this output acts as trigger pulse for IC 555. After receiving the trigger pulse IC gives a high output, which is given as input for base of Q3, which is an NPN transistor, after receiving high pulse from 555, Q3 starts conducting. The collector of Q3 is connected to base of Q2, which is an NPN transistor. Emitter of Q2 is connected to +5v supply so that emitter voltage is higher than that of base voltage & because of that Q2 remain in non-conducting state.



VO =VDC= 5V Vin=230V IDC=2 Amp Ripple=1 % 5 = 0.05

1) Transformer design
r = V'rms/VDC V'rms = ripple rms voltage r = ripple factor Vrms = r * VDC = 0.05 * 5V V'rms = 0.25V Vr(p-p) = 4(3^1/2) * V'rms = 4(3^1/2) * 0.25 Vr(p-p) = 1.732V Vm = VDC + Vr(p-p)/2 = 5 + 1.732/2 Vm = 5.866V Vrms = Vm/(2^1/2)

= 5.866/(2^1/2) Vrms = 4.14V N2/N1 = Vsec(rms)/Vprim(rms) = 4.14/230 N2/N1 = 0.0180 N2/N1 = 55:44 so, transformer to be used with the turns ratio of 55:44:1

2) Design of rectifier
Im = (IDC*3.14)/2 = (2*3.14)/2 Im = 3.14amp Irms = Im/(2^1/2) = 3.14/(2^1/2) Irms = 2.220amp

3) Rectifier design
PIV = Vm = 5.866


4) Capacitor filter design

R = VDC / IDC = 5/2 R = 2.5 R = 1/(4*(3^1/2)*f*c*r) 0.05 = 1(4*(3^1/2)*50*c*2.5) C = 23.094f DESIGNING OF TIMER CIRCUIT:
FOR MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR: TON = 1.1*R*C Let , TON = 5sec ,C = 47F 5 = 1.1*R*47 R = 96.5k Assume R = 100 k



VCC = 12V, VCE = 0.2 V, IC=25 mA VCC = VCE + ICRC


RC = (VCC - VCE ) / IC RC = (12 0.2) / 0.025 RC = 472 Assume RC = 470


VCC = 12V, VCE = 0.2 V, IC = 0.25 mA VCC = VCE + ICRC RC = (VCC - VCE ) / IC RC = (12 0.2) / 0.25 mA RC = 47.2 K Assume RC = 470 K

I1 = 0.045 mA, V1 = 12V, V2 = 6.8V R1 = (V1 V2) / I1 R1 = (12 6.8) / 0.045 mA R1 = 115.55 K Assume R1 = 120 K
Assume : R2 =1K ,R5 = 1K,R7 = 1K.They are current limiting resistors.




Resistor R1 is pull-up resistor Assume R1 = 470


TON = 0.5 sec, Assume C1 = 2.2 uF TON = R2C1 R2 = TON / C1 R2 = 0.5 / 2.2 uF R2 = 227 K Assume R2 = 220 K

Voltage at pin 3 of IC 555 = 4V, IB1 = 43 uA R3 = (V / IB1) R3 = (4 / 43 uA ) R3 = 93.02 K Assume R3 = 100K


In market we have many ELCBs and MCBs but the advantages of using this designed circuit are as follows: This circuit provides protection to the appliances from earth leakage as well as from voltage fluctuations.
The reset operation of the circuit is not manual as in available circuits.

The remote operated reset operation makes the circuit more user friendly.
The circuit designed is employed with maximum of electronic devices

so as to increase the life of the circuit.

The relay used to connect and disconnect the entire load is Solid State

Relay (SSR) which is an electronic relay, so less maintenance required.

There is an indicator provided to know whether the supply is normal

230V with 10% tolerance. Also if there is high or low voltage it is indicated using LEDs.

There are buzzers provided to inform whether supply has been received,
reset operation has taken place and also if there is earth leakage. There are different sounds for different reasons.

The EARTH LEAKGE AND HIGH LOW VOLTAGE PROTECTION CIRCUIT, being a protection circuit is connected before all the load is connected to the main supply.It acts as a stand alone circuit between the main supply and the load of the house. It can be used in offices for providing protection to the computers.It is specially designed for protection to the domestic appliances. It can be converted for a three phase system and can be used in industries.


The disadvantages of the designed protection circuit are as follows:
The load is disconnected from the supply for any fluctuations in voltage.

It should stabilize those fluctuations as frequent connecting and disconnecting will damage the load.
Initial cost is higher because of use of SSR. It cannot overcome electrical surges. To reset the circuit the remote should emit IR rays in line of sight with

the IR detector


This circuit can be made more technologically advanced and easy operated with few of the following additions:
Instead of disconnecting the load from the supply using relay we can use

a stabilizer in order to maintain constant supply to the appliances although the fluctuations are present.
The circuit can used to provide protection in industries by converting it

for three phase supply.

RF transmitter and receiver can be used to overcome the line of sight

Size of the circuit can be reduced using SMDs and VLSI technique.


CONCLUSION Since we have come to know the hazards of earth leakage and voltage fluctuations we realize the need to have a protection circuit at our homes, offices and in industries. Moreover our circuit provides combined protection and at lower cost as compared to available circuits. Our project proves to be user friendly.


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SR. NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

COMPONENT NAME Transformer (0 to 12 V ,500 mA) SSR (75A) CBCT (180 turns 40 gauge) Bulb (100W) Bulb (15W) Relay (12V,5A) Holder Buzzer Push to on switch Push button switch Connector IC 7805 IC 324 IC 555 Resistors Preset Capacitors Diode LEDs Zener Total

NO. OF COMPONENTS 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 3 1 2 1 1 1 2 45 7 18 10 8 6

COST 30 850 200 12 10 60 10 60 14 10 5 20 15 20 20 21 31 10 8 12 1418