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A HANDBOOK TO TWENTIETH-CENTURY MUSICAL SKETCHES

This indispensable handbook explains how scholars and students should work with and think about the composers working manuscripts. Over the past quarter-century, the scholarly study of autograph sources has exploded and nowhere is this more true than in the eld of twentieth-century music. And yet, few if any courses or seminars broach the subject of sketch studies and the skills required to examine the manuscripts. This book surveys the knowledge necessary to work efciently in archives and libraries housing this material and with the skills and techniques specically related to sketch studies: transcription, reconstructing sketchbooks, deciphering handwriting, dating documents. It deals with the music of important twentieth-century composers and presents visual examples of manuscripts from the collections of world renowned institutions such as the Paul Sacher Foundation. The book aims to make the work of both researchers and students more efcient and rewarding. patricia hall is Associate Professor of Music Theory at the Department of Music, University of California, Santa Barbara. She is the author of A View of Bergs Lulu through the Autograph Sources (1997). She has also contributed to several works including The Cambridge Companion to Berg (1997) and has written articles and reviews for a number of journals. friedemann sallis is Professor at the Dpartement de musique, Unie versit de Moncton. He is the author of An Introduction to the early works of e Gyrgy Ligeti (1996). He also contributed to Music of the Twentieth-Century o Avant-Garde (ed. L. Sitsky, 2002) and has published numerous articles on music of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

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A HANDBOOK TO TWENTIETH-CENTURY MUSICAL SKETCHES


ed ited by

PA T R I C I A H A L L A N D F R I E D E M A N N SA L L I S

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p u b l i s h e d by t h e p re ss sy nd i c at e o f t h e u n i ve r s i t y o f c a m b r i d g e The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom c a m b r i d ge u n i ve r s i t y p re s s The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge, CB2 2RU, UK 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011 4211, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia Ruiz de Alarc n 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain o Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa http://www.cambridge.org
C

Cambridge University Press 2004

This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2004 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge Typeface Adobe Garamond 11/14 pt.
A System LTEX 2 [tb]

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0 521 80860 X hardback

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to our students

v
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Contents

List of illustrations Acknowledgements Introduction Friedemann Sallis (Universit de Moncton) and Patricia Hall e (University of California, Santa Barbara) 1 Sketches and sketching Giselher Schubert (Hindemith Institut) and Friedemann Sallis (Universit de Moncton) e 2 Preliminaries before visiting an archive Ulrich Mosch (Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle) 3 Archival etiquette Therese Muxeneder (Arnold Schoenberg Centre, Vienna) 4 Coming to terms with the composers working manuscripts Friedemann Sallis (Universit de Moncton) e 5 The classication of musical sketches exemplied in the catalogue of the Archivio Luigi Nono Erika Schaller (Archivio Luigi Nono, Venice) 6 Digital preservation of archival material William Koseluk (University of California, Santa Barbara) 7 Transcribing sketches Regina Busch (Alban Berg Stiftung, Vienna)
vii
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page ix xii 1

17

32

43

59

74

85

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viii

Contents 8 A tale of two sketchbooks: reconstructing and deciphering Alban Bergs sketchbooks for Wozzeck Patricia Hall (University of California, Santa Barbara) 9 Written between the desk and the piano: dating Bla Bart ks sketches e o L szl Somfai a o (Bartk Archives of the Institute of Musicology of the Hungarian o Academy of Sciences) 10 Dening compositional process: idea and instrumentation in Igor Stravinskys Ragtime (1918) and Pribaoutki (1915) Tomi M kel a a (Otto-von-Guericke-Universit t Magdeburg) a 11 Floating hierarchies: organisation and composition in works by Pierre Boulez and Karlheinz Stockhausen during the 1950s Pascal Decroupet (Universit de Li`ge) e e 12 Elliott Carters sketches: spiritual exercises and craftsmanship Denis Vermaelen (Universit de Tours) e 13 E-sketches: Brian Ferneyhoughs use of computer-assisted compositional tools Ross Feller (Oberlin College) 14 John Cages Williams Mix (19513): the restoration and new realisations of and variations on the rst octophonic, surround-sound tape composition Larry Austin (University of North Texas) Appendix: Select list of composer institutes Notes Select bibliography Index

102

114

131

146

161

176

189

214 221 239 246

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Illustrations

Paul Hindemith, Concerto for Woodwinds, Harp and Orchestra, second movement, sketch. Hindemith Institut, Frankfurt am Main Plate 1.2 Paul Hindemith, Sonata for Four French Horns, nal movement, sketch. Hindemith Institut, Frankfurt am Main Plate 2.1 Home page of the Paul Sacher Foundation Plate 2.2 Luciano Berio, Requies for chamber orchestra (19835), short score (second draft), p. 1, Luciano Berio Collection, Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle Plate 2.3 Luciano Berio, Requies for chamber orchestra (19835), sketch, Luciano Berio Collection, Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle Plate 2.4 Luciano Berio, Requies for chamber orchestra (19835), short score (second draft), no page number, Luciano Berio Collection, Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle Plate 3.1 Vault of the Arnold Schoenberg Centre Plate 3.2 Proper viewing of source material Plate 3.3 Proper handling of manuscripts Plate 3.4 Proper viewing of bound objects Plate 4.1 Gy rgy Kurtg, Kafka-Fragmente, Op. 24, for soprano and violin o a (19857), sketches for Leoparden, Gy rgy Kurtg Collection, Paul o a Sacher Foundation, Basle Plate 4.2 Gy rgy Ligeti, Requiem for soprano, mezzo-soprano, double choir o and orchestra (19635), sketches for the Kyrie, Gy rgy Ligeti o Collection, Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle Plate 4.3a Gy rgy Ligeti, Sppal, dobbal n diheged vel (With Fifes, Drums o a u and Fiddles) for soprano and percussion (2000), Tanc Dal (Dancing Song), draft, Gy rgy Ligeti Collection, Paul Sacher o Foundation, Basle Plate 4.3b Gy rgy Ligeti, Sppal, dobbal n diheged vel (With Fifes, Drums and o a u Fiddles) for soprano and percussion (2000), Tanc Dal (Dancing Song), fair copy, bars 119, Gy rgy Ligeti Collection, Paul Sacher o Foundation, Basle
ix
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Plates Plate 1.1

page 13 14 19

24 26

28 34 38 39 40

46

47

48

49

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List of illustrations Plate 4.4 Gy rgy Ligeti, Variations concertantes for chamber orchestra o (1956, unnished), short score, bars 126, Gy rgy Ligeti o Collection, Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle Gy rgy Ligeti, Requiem for soprano, mezzo-soprano, double o choir and orchestra (19635), Kyrie, draft, bars 1115, Gy rgy o Ligeti Collection, Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle Luigi Nono, Da un diario italiano, work timetable, Archivio Luigi Nono C Eredi Luigi Nono Anton Webern, top: F nf Canons nach lateinischen Texten, Op. 16 u No. 1, sketches; bottom (upside down): Kinderst ck (M. 266), u sketches, Anton Webern Collection (folder 49, page [6]), Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle Anton Webern, F nf Canons nach lateinischen Texten, Op. 16 u No. 1, sketches (identied as page 2 by the composer), Anton Webern Collection (folder 49, page [3]), Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle Anton Webern, top: Kinderst ck (M. 266), sketches, bottom u (upside down): F nf Canons nach lateinischen Texten, Op. 16 u No. 1, sketches, Anton Webern Collection (folder 49, page [6]), Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle Anton Webern, detail from the upper right-hand corner of sketches for Kinderst ck (M. 266) (see Plate 7.3), u Anton Webern Collection (folder 49, page [6]), Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle Anton Webern, detail from the lower middle section (staves 915) of sketches for Kinderst ck (M. 266) (see Plate 7.3), u Anton Webern Collection (folder 49, page [6]), Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle Alban Berg, Wozzeck, dimensions of the A recto leaf for ONB Musiksammlung F 21 Berg 13/II and 13/VII Alban Berg, Wozzeck, sketchbook ONB Musiksammlung F 21 Berg 13/II, showing gatherings Alban Berg, Wozzeck, sketchbook ONB Musiksammlung F 21 Berg 13/II, showing added leaf Alban Berg, Wozzeck, concept sketch for Act I, scene 2, ONB Musiksammlung F 21 Berg 13/II p. 92 Alban Berg, Wozzeck, concept sketch for Act I, scene 2, ONB Musiksammlung F 21 Berg 13/II p. 93

50

Plate 4.5

52 66

Plate 5.1 Plate 7.1

92

Plate 7.2

94

Plate 7.3

96

Plate 7.4

97

Plate 7.5

99 104 106 107 110 112

Plates 8.1 and 8.2 Plate 8.3 Plate 8.4 Plate 8.5 Plate 8.6

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List of illustrations Plates 9.16 Plate 10.1 Plate 10.2

xi

Plate 10.3 Plate 10.4 Plate 12.1 Plate 12.2 Plate 12.3

Plate 12.4

Plate 12.5 Plate 13.1 Plate 13.2 Plate 13.3 Plate 14.1 Plate 14.2 Plate 14.3 Plate 14.4

Bla Bart k, Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 1, sketches in the e o Black Pocket-book 11820 Igor Stravinsky, Ragtime, sketch, Sketchbook V, Igor Stravinsky Collection, Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle 137 Igor Stravinsky, draft of the full score, notated on the back side of a draft for a letter written to Edwin Evans and dated 9 January 1918, Igor Stravinsky Collection, Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle 138 Igor Stravinsky, Pribaoutki, Natashka, sketch of bars 1114, Igor Stravinsky Collection, Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle 140 Igor Stravinsky, Pribaoutki, Polkovnik, sketch for bars 2732, Igor Stravinsky Collection, Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle 141 Elliott Carter, A Mirror on Which to Dwell, Anaphora, bars 548 167 Elliott Carter, matrix of the all-triad structure, Elliott Carter Collection, Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle 170 Elliott Carter, A Mirror on Which to Dwell, Anaphora sketch dated 29 July 1975, Elliott Carter Collection, Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle 171 Elliott Carter, A Mirror on Which to Dwell, Anaphora sketch dating from 5 August 1975, Elliott Carter Collection, Paul Sacher Foundation, Basle 172 Elliott Carter, A Mirror on Which to Dwell, Anaphora, bars 12 173 Brian Ferneyhough, Trittico per Gertrude Stein (1989), rhythmic sketch transcription 180 Brian Ferneyhough, Terrain (1992), sketch transcription of 3rd Rereading Filter Sequence 182 Brian Ferneyhough, screen shot and sample rhythm from Patchwork Patches, Random-Fun perm-to-1 Comb.pw 186 John Cage, Williams Mix, score, page 5 190 John Cage, programme of the premi`re of Williams Mix e 192 John Cage, Williams Mix, score, page 192 194 John Cage, Williams Mix, score, page 1 196

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Acknowledgements

This book was originally conceived by Patricia Hall as an ideal text for a course she has taught since 1999 on twentieth-century sketches and autographs. Many of the topics for the book correspond to subjects covered in this course subjects we thought would be valuable to anyone studying twentieth-century sketches and autographs. In this regard, we must rst thank the authors of this book, who, as dedicated teachers and researchers, took time from their busy schedules to contribute to this pedagogical endeavour. At Cambridge University Press we were also very fortunate to have Penny Souster guiding and encouraging this project. Special thanks go to Ulrich Mosch and the Paul Sacher Foundation for their generous contribution and we would also like to thank the Alban Berg Stiftung, the Archivio Luigi Nono, the Bart k Archives, the Hindemith Institute and the John Cage Trust for o allowing us to reproduce their holdings. In its planning stage (at a cafeteria in Basle, Switzerland), we very much beneted from Tomi Mkels suggestions on possible authors and topics and sincerely thank him for a a his contribution. We heartily thank J. Bradford Robinson and Michael Graubart for their translations and John Boulay for his competent work on the translation of the two chapters submitted in French. We are deeply grateful to Marion Macfarlane for scrupulously correcting all the translated chapters and also for her expert advice. We would like to thank the Direction gnrale des technologies of the Universit de Moncton and particularly Lo Blanchard e e e e for the time and energy invested in preparing the plates and examples presented in this book. Finally, we could not have completed this project without the help of our research assistants. In the nal rush to submit the manuscript to Cambridge, Katherine Schroeder was a Godsend, sending les electronically to Moncton, contacting authors, and checking footnotes. We would also like to thank Elise Malinge, Myrianne Dub, Myl`ne Ouellette, e e Rene Fontaine and Serge-Andr Comeau for their assistance at various stages of this project. e e Similarly, William Koseluk kindly produced the musical examples for chapters 9 and 12. The research for this book was funded by the Austrian-American Fulbright Commission, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, a General Research Grant from the University of California, Santa Barbara and grants from the Facult des arts et e des sciences sociales as well as the Facult des etudes suprieures et de la recherche of the e e Universit de Moncton. e

xii
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Acknowledgements Copyright materials are reproduced as follows:

xiii

Plates 1.22 were reproduced by kind permission of the Hindemith Institute. Plates 2.14, 7.15 and 10.14 were reproduced by kind permission of the Paul Sacher Foundation. Plate 4.1 was reproduced by kind permission of the Paul Sacher Foundation and Editio Musica Budapest on behalf of the composer. Plates 4.24.5 were reproduced by kind permission of the Paul Sacher Foundation and the composer. Plate 5.1 was reproduced by kind permission of the Archivio Luigi Nono. Plates 8.16 were reproduced by kind permission of the Austrian National Library and the Alban Berg Stiftung. Plates 9.16 were reproduced by kind permission of the Bart k Archives of the Institute for Musicology of the o Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Plates 12.1 and 12.5 were reproduced by kind permission of G. Schirmer and Associated Music Publishers. Plates 12.24 were reproduced by kind permission of the Paul Sacher Foundation and the composer. Plates 13.13 were reproduced by kind permission of the Paul Sacher Foundation and the composer. Plates 14.14 were reproduced by kind permission of the John Cage Trust.

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Index

abbozzo, 47 access issues, 23, 31, 36, 40 concerning computer-generated material, 1878 acidity, 35, 37 Adorno, Theodor, 232 Agawu, Ko, 232 agogic indications, 134, 144, 145 alignment, 89 ALN, see Archivio Luigi Nono alterations, 11 ambiguity, 177 analysis, 1334 limits of, 4, 221 of pitch combinations, 8, 1625, 1689 of serial music, 14660 sketches and, see under sketches annotations, see verbal elements and annotations under sketches Arnyi, Jelly d, 11617, 130, 230 a archives and institutions housing musical sketches, 1, 59, 21420 access issues, 31, 36 application procedures, 36 behaviour in and proper handling of material, 379, 40 contacting before visiting, 18 counting of manuscript holdings, 69, 226 estimating time needed at, 1819 inspections, 35 preparation for visiting, 1721, 23, 2931, 36, 3940, 73 reducing need to visit, 37 responsibilities of archivists and researchers, 3642, 712 working in, 31, 36 see also digital archives and sources Archivio Luigi Nono, 5972, 215, 226 Articial Life theory, 177 artwork(s), see work(s) of art Asafyev, Boris, 135 Austin, Larry and Ivess Universe Symphony, 211, 213 Williams [re]Mix[ed], 189, 191, 197, 199213, 237; sounds recorded for, 202, 20712 autograph, meaning of, 513, 185 Babbitt, Milton, 164 Bach, Johann Sebastian, 54, 156

backups, 78 Barron, Bebe, 189, 192, 193, 2378 Austin and, 211 and Cages Williams Mix, 193, 194, 207, 208, 210, 211, 2378 Barron, Louis, 189, 192, 193, 2378 and Cages Williams Mix, 193, 194, 207, 208, 210, 211, 2378 Bart k, Bla, 55, 215 o e compositional methods, 8, 23, 11430 handwriting, 116, 1234 lecture notes, 230 performances of works by other composers, 127 sketchbooks, 114, 11516, 126 use of piano for composing, 8, 114, 115, 116 Improvisations on Hungarian Peasant Songs, 117, 125, 126 The Miraculous Mandarin, 115, 122, 123, 125, 126, 127, 230 Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 1 (1921), 115, 11630, 230, 231 Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 2 (1922), 115, 122 Three Studies Op. 18, 125, 126, 231 Bart k, Ditta, 229 o Bart k, Mrta, 11617, 127 o a BBC Sound Effects Library, 211 Beethoven, Ludwig van, 6, 54 sketchbooks, 102, 106, 108, 2289 sketches, 54, 131 Symphony No. 10 (sketches), 16 bella copia, 51 Benary, Peter, 224 Benjamin, Walter, 3, 6 Berberian, Cathy, 279 Berg, Alban, 214 Carter compared to, 168 compositional methods, 6, 7, 8, 102 explanatory notes, 7 handwriting, 10813 paper used for sketches, 90 printed scores, 227 sketchbooks, 10213 verbal instructions and footnotes in scores, 134 Lulu, 15 Lyric Suite, 7 Wozzeck, 102, 103, 11011, 112, 168

246
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Index
Berio, Luciano, 1823, 30, 223 compositional methods, 23, 27 Folk Songs, 27 Gesti, 22 Rendering, 16 Requies, 17, 18, 1920, 21, 22, 239 Sequenza III, 29 Sequenza V, 22 BIS, 232 Bishop, Elizabeth, 166 Blacher, Boris, 220 books, sketches written in, 45, 69 books and bound documents, proper handling, 379, 40 Borio, Gianmario, 55, 221 Boulez, Pierre, 8, 146, 14756, 15960, 192 Cage and, 147, 191, 192, 199, 212 compositional methods, 23, 14756 denition of system, 160 sketches, 1489 and Stravinsky, 151 Antiphonie, 1489, 1536, 235 Le marteau sans matre, 148, 14950, 1513, 156, 160 Piano Sonata No. 3, 1489, 235 Premi`re tude de musique concr`te, 147 e e e Structures, 147, 150 Brahms, Johannes, 54 Britten, Benjamin, 216 brouillon, 47 Brown, Carroll, 194 Brown, Earle, 189, 193, 194, 201, 206, 237 Octet, 192, 199, 236, 2378 Bruckner, Anton Symphony No. 9 (sketches), 15 Busoni, Ferruccio, 216 Cage, John, 8, 1916, 208, 209, 212, 217, 218 and Brown, 2378 and compositional methods, 1946 and computers, 2023 and the I Ching, 191, 193, 194, 1956, 2023, 237 Concerto for Prepared Piano and Chamber Orchestra, 193 Fontana Mix, 237 HPSCHD, 203 Imaginary Landscape No. 4, 193 Imaginary Landscape No. 5, 193, 2367 Instances of Silence, 237 Music of Changes, 193, 203 Newport Mix, 237 Rozart Mix, 194, 237 String Quartet, 191, 193 Williams Mix, 191, 213; Cage on performance, 212; performance conguration, 2067; sounds recorded for, 202, 20712 Carter, Elliott, 1615, 181 compositional methods, 16575 Harmony Book and related research, 8, 1625, 1689 pre-compositional strategies, 1625 sketches, 16175 view of his place in music-theoretical research, 1634 Concerto for Orchestra, 163 Double Concerto, 164 Eight Etudes and a Fantasy, 168 A Mirror on Which to Dwell, 16575, 235; Anaphora, 16575 String Quartet No. 1, 163, 164 String Quartet No. 2, 164 Casella, Alfredo, 217 catalogues and cataloguing, 201, 36, 37, 41, 5973 of pitch combinations, 8, 1625, 1689 see also classication systems and inventories cellulose, 33 Cerha, Friedrich, 15 Cernovitch, Nicola, 194 Czanne, Paul, 5 e Chadabe, Joel, 212, 213 Charlip, Remi, 194 chronology and dating, 910 composers own, 10, 45, 68, 91, 116, 178, 224 computer les, 1789 examples of investigation into, 27, 2930, 45, 55, 93100, 11630, 1789, 224 external evidence and, 9, 6970, 126, 178 of literary texts, 53 paper and, 9, 6970, 91 see also order classication systems, 36, 43, 5973 see also catalogues and inventories Coda Finale (notation program), 177, 181 collaboration, 1516, 110, 1934, 203, 224, 2378 colleagues, as source of information, 17 colour identifying, 103 of ink/ink ow, 124, 230 issues in reproduction, 30, 75, 789 of paper, 103 complete editions, publication of sketches in, 1011 completeness/incompleteness, see under sketches completions of, and works based on, sketches, 1516, 211, 213 see also Austin, Larry, Williams [re]Mix[ed] complexity, 177 composer institute, 1, 21420 composers attitudes to sketches, 9, 223 comments and explanatory notes on own work, 7 compositional technique/process, 69, 88, 131, 1323 computer-assisted, see computer-assisted composition/sketching individual/collective, 1516, 133 not notating self-evident aspects, 89, 45 pre-compositional strategies, 68, 114, 1625 reconstructing/understanding, 114, 115, 12730, 133, 1425, 1467, 162, 178, 181, 187

247

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248
computer-assisted composition/sketching, 1767, 17888, 2023 see also Williams [re]Mix[er] computers, 76, 1878 storage systems, 801 testing databases, 83 see also computer-assisted composition/sketching and digitisation condentiality, 133, 162 conservation issues, 31, 325, 74, 187 see also storage continuity drafts sketches, 47, 90, 11516 cooperation, see collaboration copia, bella, 51 copies, see fair copies and working copies copyists, 226 copyright, 23, 36, 40, 54, 132, 223 corrections, 30 cotton, 33 creative (compositional) process, see compositional technique/process cross-reference signs, 91, 95, 227 Cunningham, Merce, 194 Dahlhaus, Carl, 54, 57 Dallapiccola, Luigi, 215 databases, 5973 of digital les, 814 requirements for, 723 testing, 83 dating, see chronology Debussy, Claude, 216 Bart k and, 127 o Dun Cahier dEsquisse, 5 deletions, 30, 179, 236 notations which may indicate, 100, 228 see also erasures Dessau, Paul, 220 dictionary of pitch structures, 8, 1625, 1689 digital archives, 814 digitisation and digital scans, 17, 23, 2930, 367, 7481 of analog tapes, 2001 and deciphering handwriting, 110, 113 problems and benets of, 74 technological aspects, 7481 terminology, 76 see also image manipulation and working copies diplomatic transcription, see transcription(s) Dlugoschevsky, Lucille, 194 dpi, 76 draft(s), 23 range of meaning, 20 relationship to sketches, 9, 44, 4751, 11416 terms for in other languages, 47 Druckvorlage, 53 e-sketches, see computer-assisted composition/sketching bauche, 47 e

Index
Eberle, Josef, 103, 230 Eco, Umberto, 556 editorial commentaries, 1114, 878, 89, 113 Eisenstein, Sergei, 132, 232 Eisler, Hanns, 217 electronic music, 189213 Elgar, Edward Third Symphony (sketches), 16 empty staves, 89, 227 Entwurf, 47 eps les, 77 erasures, 11, 30, 139 see also deletions errors, 1112, 152 Cage on, 212 in classication, 39 in published editions, 152, 234 transcription and, 1112, 226 erste Niederschrift, 47 esquisse, 44 ethics, 133 see also privacy exercises, 1625 experimentation, 133, 232 extroversive/introversive art, 232 facsimiles, 11, 12, 88 as adaptations, 85 transcriptions needed to complement, 8990 see also under publication of sketches and under publication of works fair copies, 513, 889, 227 relationships to sketches/drafts, 8, 23, 27, 44, 51, 1356, 185 terms for in other languages, 51 Falla, Manuel de, 215 Fanning, David, 102, 106, 229 Fassung letzter Hand, 53 Feldman, Morton Intersection, 199, 236 Ferneyhough, Brian, 17688 compositional methods, 17988 poems, 236 sketchbooks, 177, 178 sketches, 176, 17788 Bone Alphabet, 177 Carceri dInvenzione, 181 La Chute dIcare, 181 Etudes Transcendentales, 184 Lemma-Icon-Epigram, 181, 236 String Trio, 176, 181, 185 Terrain, 179 Trittico per Gertrude Stein, 179 Palimpsests (poem), 236 bril, 33, 223 les, digital, 76, 778 formats, 778

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Index
lms conservation issues, 33 using in preference to original sources, 367 Finale (notation program), 177, 181 atbed scanners, 75 Fondazione Giorgio Cini, 217 Forte, Allen, 151, 164 fragments, 1516, 133 frequency multiplication (multiplication sonore), 1513, 234 function, 147, 1512, 159, 233 gatherings, 1036, 108 Gillies, Malcolm, 231 gloves, 37, 39 graphic libraries, 823 Grier, James, 229 groups (in serialism), 1501 gua charts, 2056 G lke, Peter, 15, 16 u Gurewitsch, Matthew, 221 Haas, Georg Friedrich, 149, 234 Hba, Alos, 164 a Halm, August, 6, 55 handling, 379 handwriting, 30, 10813, 1234, 142, 229 Hauer, Josef Matthias, 164 Henry, Pierre, 192 Henze, Hans Werner pagination of sketches and drafts, 223 Symphony No. 6, 9 hermeneutics, 7, 54 Hertzka, Emil, 95 hexads, 2056 Hill, Richard, 164 Hiller, Lejaren, 203 Hilmar, Ernst, 102 Hilmar, Rosemary, 102 Hindemith, Paul, 219 compositional methods, 7, 8, 9, 15 publication of sketches in complete edition, 1011 sketches, 1214 Concerto for Woodwinds, Harp and Orchestra, 12, 13 Sonata for Four French Horns, 1214 Sonata for piano, Op. 17, 15 Hobsbawm, Eric, 15 holograph, meaning of, 513 humidity, 334 Hyde, Martha, 55 I Ching, 237 use in compositional processes, 191 see also Williams [re]Mix[er] and under Cage image manipulation, 78, 80, 110, 113 imprecision, 177, 200 improvisation, 114, 115, 116, 184 index of pitch structures, 8, 1625, 1689 information, sources of, 1723, 301, 224 Ingarden, Roman, 53 Institut de Recherche et de Coordination Acoustique/Musique (IRCAM), 176, 181 institutions housing musical sketches, see archives instrumentation/orchestration, 135 see also under Stravinsky instruments, composing with/without, 8 see also piano Internet, 17, 37, 73, 834 introversive/extroversive art, 232 inventories, 18, 1920, 41, 224 process of making, and access issues, 36 see also catalogues IRCAM (Institut de Recherche et de Coordination Acoustique/Musique), 176, 181 isomorphism, 147, 148, 153, 159 Ives, Charles, 10, 222 Universe Symphony sketches, 211, 213 Jahn, Otto, 54 Jancek, Leo, 218 a s Jenny, Laurent, 56 John Cage Trust, 197, 199, 2001, 218 Johnson, Douglas, 4, 221 Johnston, Ben, 194 Jone, Hildegard, 227 jpeg les, 77 Jung, Carl, Gustav, 232 Kandinsky, Wassily, Carter compared to, 168 Kaufmann, Harald, 220 Kerman, Joseph, 45, 132 Kobrin, Ed, 203 Kodly, Zoltn, 218 a a Bart k and, 127 o Kostelanetz, Richard, 189 Krenek, Ernst, 216, 228 Kuhn, Laura, 200 Kurtg, Gy rgy, 10, 44, 45, 567, 225 a o and open work concept, 45 unnished works, 567 Grabstein f r Stephan, 567 u ` Hommage a R. Sch., 567 Kafka-Fragmente, Leoparden, 45, 46, 224 Ofcium breve, 10 Sorok Sirokay Zsuzsinak, 45 Kurth, Ernst, 6 language, thought and, 85 languages and language competence, 34, 1214, 257, 30, 110 terms for sketches etc. in other languages, 44, 47, 51, 53, 224 Leibowitz, Ren, 164 e libraries, see archives

249

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250
Ligeti, Gy rgy, 44, 45, 132 o compositional methods, 478, 51, 225 Aventures, 53 Lux aeterna, 225 M traszentimrei dalok, 53 a Nouvelles Aventures, 53 Requiem, 45, 47, 51, 52, 225 Sppal, dobbal n diheged vel, Tanc Dal, 47, 48, 49, 51, a u 53 Variations concertantes (unnished), 4751 Ligeti, Veronika, 53 light as conservation issue, 34, 35 issues concerning in photography/reproduction, 75, 79 Lindberg, Magnus, 132 linen, 33 Lisp (programming language), 181 lists researchers, 30 as sketches, 8 see also catalogues literature and literary criticism, 1, 53, 56 see also text concept loans, 40 Loetscher, Hugo, 22 Luening, Otto, 192 Machaut, Guillaume de Kurtg and, 57 a Ligeti and, 225 Maderna, Bruno, 23 magnetic tape conservation issues, 33 music for, 64, 189213 Mahler, Gustav, 216 Symphony No. 10 (sketches), 15 Malipiero, Gian Francesco, 217 manuscript paper, 103, 226, 230 homemade, 233 see also paper and staves/staff lines manuscripts counting of sheets of paper/pages, 69, 226 guide for cataloguing, 226 proper handling, 379 see also sketches and sources Marston, Nicholas, 224 Martino, Donald, 164 Martinu, Bohuslav, 215 meaning, 7 meditation, 162 memory, 178, 181 Mendelssohn, Felix, 54 Messiaen, Olivier, 192 Metzger, Heinz-Klaus, 220 Meyer, Felix, 90, 227, 228 microlms, 17, 23, 2930, 31 see also working copies

Index
Mies, Paul, 6 Milhaud, Darius, 216 Minsky, Marvin, 177 mise au net, 51 Mosch, Ulrich, 9, 223, 234 Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 54, 230 multiplication sonore (frequency multiplication), 1513, 234 musical notation, 856, 1345 and ambiguity/imprecision, 177 empty staves, 227 spelling of pitches, 235 see also agogic indications, staves/staff lines and typesetting musical sketches, see sketches musical work(s) concept of, 1, 6, 578, 133 concept of work in progress, 132 cooperative/collaborative, 1516, 1934, 203, 224 individualism and, 1516, 54 parameters and primary/secondary aspects, 89, 45, 1312, 1345 programmes/content descriptions, 8 recycling, 10 relationship of score to, 53 relationship of sketches to, see under sketches see also open work concept music paper, see manuscript paper music-writing software, see computer-assisted composition/sketching musique concr`te, 64, 189213 e use of term, 191 Newbould, Brian, 15, 222 Niederschrift, erste, 47 Nielson, Carl, 216 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 6 Nono, Luigi, 215 collaborative work, 71, 224 compositional methods, 55, 61, 64, 69, 701 paper type providing information, 6970 sketchbooks, 657, 69 versions of works, 68 writing implements, 70 Da un diario italiano (unnished), 65 Diario polacco 58, 68 La fabbrica illuminata, 613, 64, 65, 71 Variazioni canoniche sulla serie dellopus 41 di Arnold Schoenberg, 613, 645 see also Archivio Luigi Nono Nono, Nuria Schoenberg, 226 notation, see musical notation notepads, cataloguing, 657 Nottebohm, Gustav, 545 numbers Berg and, 7 see also I Ching and Random Funnel

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Index
open work-concept and open forms, 5, 45, 556, 58, 132 orchestration, see instrumentation order, 2930, 39, 223 see also chronology Orff, Carl, 219 Osmond-Smith, David, 16, 30 ownership, 36, 40 packaging, 35, 38, 224 paper, 30, 33 ageing process and conservation issues, 325, 37, 111 colour, 103 and dating, 9, 6970, 91 description of in cataloguing, 6970 reuse, 22 size and format, 7, 90, 103 standards for packaging, 35, 224 variety used for sketching, 445, 6970, 178, 224, 233 see also manuscript paper particella, Particell, 48, 224 see also short score passive conservation, 223 see also conservation issues pastings, 30 PatchWork, 176, 177, 178, 179, 1815 Paul Sacher Foundation, 18, 23, 44, 56, 93, 131, 142, 219, 225 and computer-generated material, 187 counting of manuscript holdings, 226 home page, 18, 19 Pavese, Cesare, 63 pc-sets, 151 Pears, Peter, 216 pens/pencils, see writing implements performers/performance, 232 chance/variance, 177, 200 impact of graphic aspects of scores, 227 Perkins, David, 43 Perle, George, 164 Peterson, Peter, 102, 106, 229 Petrassi, Goffredo, 21718 Ptzner, Hans, 7, 8 philology, 910, 53, 55, 56 photography and photographic reproductions (including photocopies), 17, 23, 29, 31, 75 conservation issues, 33 manipulation, 78, 80 as step to digitisation, 75, 767 see also working copies piano, composing at, 8, 10, 114, 115, 116 piano score, 224 pitch-class theory, 151 pitch combinations, cataloguing, 8, 1625, 1689 Poe, Edgar Allen, 85 poietic perspective, 133 Post-its, 45 postmodern perspectives, 5, 56, 578 pre-compositional strategies, see under compositional technique/process preconceptions, 31 preservation see conservation issues; see also completeness/incompleteness under sketches preventive conservation, 32, 42, 223 see also conservation issues prima stesura, 47 printers copy, 88 printing, 867 as adaptation, 85 see also publication of sketches, publication of works and typesetting privacy, 133, 162 Project for Music for Magnetic Tape, 189, 1934, 236 publication of sketches, 1012 in facsimile, 11, 12, 131, 231 in transcription, 1112, 889 as works, 232 see also editorial commentaries publication of works, 53, 1857 computerisation and, 1857 empty staves, 227 in facsimile, 53, 889, 1857, 233 impact of graphic aspects of scores, 227 see also printing publishers, as source of information, 1718, 31 questionnaires, 41 Random Funnel, 179, 181, 183, 185 see also PatchWork Ravel, Maurice, Bart k and, 127 o reconstruction(s), 1516, 53, 233 see also under compositional technique/process recorded sounds, 202, 20712 backwards, 2378 recordings, 31 conservation issues, 33 recycling, 10 Reger, Max, 7, 10, 133, 218 Reinschrift, 51, 53 reproductions, see digitisation, photography, transcription(s) and working copies research, 402 cooperation in, 110 dening purpose of, 17, 3940 estimating time needed for, 1819 music-theoretical see analysis see also sources resolution, 76 restoration, 32, 35 see also conservation issues Reu, Roland concept of text, 86, 226 on transcription, 89 Richards, Mary Caroline, 194

251

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252
Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai, 135 Rota, Nino, 217 Rouse, Mikel, 200 Sacher, Paul, see Paul Sacher Foundation sampling, 76 see also digitisation Satie, Erik, 214 scanning, 75, 76, 778 see also digitisation Scelsi, Giacinto, 132, 217 Schaeffer, Pierre, 191, 192 schemata, 8 Schenker, Heinrich, 6, 55 Schiff, David, 176 schizzo, 44 Schleiermacher, Friedrich, 54, 225 Schoenberg, Arnold, 10, 55, 215 Carter and, 164 compositional methods, 67, 8 paper used for sketches, 90 precision of notation, 134 printed scores, 227 publication of sketches in complete edition, 10, 11 on thought and notation, 101 Ode on Napoleon Buonaparte, Op. 41, 614 Suite, Op. 25, 55 Schreker, Franz, 219 Schubert, Franz Symphony No. 10 (sketches), 15 Schumann, Robert, 54 secondary sources, see external evidence under chronology Second Viennese School, see Viennese School serial music, 67, 8, 14660 broadening of conceptions, 15960 see also twelve-tone composition serial/row tables, 55, 14750, 1512, 156, 1589 short score, 23, 48, 136, 139, 145, 224 Shrefer, Anne, 228 Sibelius, Jean, 132, 232 signs, 4, 857, 226 see also musical notation; see also verbal elements under sketches sketchbooks, 102 cataloguing, 657 gatherings, 1036, 108 page numbering in, 107, 178 reconstructing, 1028 sketches and analysis, 4, 1334, 1467, 1615 aspects normally missing, 89, 45 benets of studying, 4, 51, 548, 225 and complete editions, 1011 completeness/incompleteness, 9, 115, 145, 176, 1878 completions and works based on by other composers, see completions composers attitudes to, 9

Index
as a compositional principle/idea, 5 computer-assisted, see computer-assisted composition/sketching documentation concerning, see catalogues and inventories drafts and, 9, 20, 44, 4751 ethical problems concerning, see ethics nished work required to understand, 14 history of study of, 1, 536 importance of location on page, 89 individuality, 90 literary, 1 meaningless or incomprehensible marks on, 10, 87 nature of notation/signs in, 4, 10, 857, 226 as private documents, 10, 45, 224 publication of, see publication of sketches purposes, 10, 114 quantity of, 567, 59 relationship to a work or work project, 57, 89, 11, 45, 545, 578, 133, 176 terminology concerning, and denitional problems, see under terminology terms for in other languages, 44 typology of, 11416, 1289, 224 unnished, 1516, 61, 65, 68, 133 variety of material on which written, 44, 69, 1778, 224, 233 verbal elements and annotations, 7, 8, 1214, 257, 29, 45, 48, 10813, 134 in the visual arts, 1, 5, 37 see also chronology, sources and transcription(s) sketching as an autonomous process, 5 as a continuing activity, 44 preparation for performance as, 232 sketch studies, 1011, 128, 142, 1467 and analysis, 67, 556 and different aspects of music, 1312 limitations, 122, 130, 1612 Skizze, 44 Somfai, Lszl , 55 a o sources availability, 37 conservation issues, 325, 74, 187, 223 continuing need to examine, 8990 incompleteness, 223 locating and nding information about, 1723, 301, 36, 224 see also archives, manuscripts and working copies; see also external evidence under chronology speed of writing, effects, 124, 226 staves/staff lines, 867, 144, 227, 233 see also manuscript paper Steiger, Rand, 179 Stein, Erwin, 227 Stein, Leonard, 217 stemmata, 53, 55

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Index
stesura, prima, 47 Stockhausen, Karlheinz, 8, 23, 146, 1501, 15960, 220 compositional methods, 1569 sketches, 1569, 235 Gesang der J nglinge, 156, 235 u Gruppen, 160 Kontakte, 160 Kreuzspiel, 156 Zeitmae, 153, 1569, 235 storage, 35, 38, 224 see also archives and conservation issues Strauss, Richard, 8, 219 Stravigor, 233 Stravinsky, Igor, 131, 231 agogic indications, 134, 136, 139, 144, 145 Boulez and, 151 compositional methods, 8, 23, 131, 132, 1359 on his own process, 131 and instrumentation/orchestration, 13442, 144, 145 music compared to lm, 132, 232 sketches, 133, 13545 Taruskin and, 221 work by Wuorinen based on sketches by, 16 Berceuses du chat, 135 Lhistoire du soldat, 135, 139 Les noces, 135 Pribaoutki, 132, 135, 136, 13942 Ragtime, 132, 13545 Le sacre du printemps, 151 Stravinsky, Vera, 16 Stuckenschmidt, Hans-Heinz, 220 systems Boulez and, 160 Ferneyhough on, 177 Szkely, Zoltn, 127 e a Szervnszky, Endre, 10 a Szymanowski, Karol, 218 Bart k and, 130, 231 o tables, 8, 147, 1512, 169 tape, see magnetic tape Taruskin, Richard, 221 technology for databases, 723 for digitisation, 7481 see also computers temperature, 335 terminology, 513, 229 concerning sketches, 20, 434, 45, 51, 114 concerning technology, 76 in other languages, 44, 47, 51, 53, 224 text concept, 856, 226 Thomas, Christiane, 223 Thompson, Michael, 204, 205 Thomson, Virgil, 191 thought, language/notation and, 85, 101 tiff les, 77 time estimation, 1819 titles, 678 tone rows, 67, 169 Toop, Richard, 188 tracing, 756 transcription(s), 1112, 85, 8690 as adaptations, 85 commentaries on, see editorial commentaries of computer-generated material, 187 of doubtful passages, 100, 113 facsimiles needed to complement, 8990, 100 handwritten, 889 limitations, 8990 of multiple sketches, 98100 supplementary information on, 878, 93 treatment of alterations, 11 treatment of erasures, 11 treatment of errors, 1112, 226 see also handwriting translation, 34 transcription and, 85 of verbal elements of sketches, 1214 transliteration, 226 Tudor, David, 193, 217 and Austin, 211 and Cage, 189, 193, 194, 237 twelve-tone composition, 67, 169 typesetting, 134, 1857 see also Coda Finale Urtext, 53 Ussachevsky, Vladimir, 192 Valry, Paul, 56 e verbal elements and annotations, see under sketches; see also handwriting Viennese School, 67, 134 see also individual composers visual arts, 1, 5, 37 Walton, William, 217, 220 watermarks, 9, 30 Watt, Jay, 194 Weber, Max, 134 Webern, Anton compositional methods, 6, 114 cross-reference signs, 91, 95, 227 fair copies, 90, 227 Kurtgs use of music by, 10 a notations which may indicate deletions, 100, 228 paper used for sketches, 901 precision of notation, 134 published facsimiles of sketches, 90, 226 row tables, 90 Schoenberg and, 10 sketchbooks, 91, 228 sketches, 90101

253

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254
Webern, Anton (cont.) Concerto, Op. 24, 227 F nf Canons nach lateinischen Texten, Op. 16, 90101, u 227, 228 Kinderst ck (M. 266), 90101, 227, 228 u Klavierst ck (M. 277), 228 u String Quartet, Op. 28, 227 Weill, Kurt, 218 Whittall, Arnold, 1334 Widmungsexemplar, 53 Wightman, Alistair, 231 Williams, Paul, 189, 193 Williams [re]Mix[er], 191, 203, 2046, 20910 Wolff, Christian For Magnetic Tape, 192, 236

Index
wood pulp, 33 working copies, 17, 23, 2931, 36, 1967, 223 and conservation issues, 367 problems and benets of, 30, 37 see also digitisation work(s) of art, concept of, 1, 6, 1323 see also musical work(s) writing implements and dating, 9, 70, 1234, 224 to produce staff lines, 233 researchers, 38 Wuorinen, Charles A Reliquary for Igor Stravinsky, 16 Yun, Isang, 217

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