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Partial Fractions

An algebraic fraction such as can be broken down into simpler parts called partial fractions so that it is in the form Once a fraction has been split into its constituents, it can be used in integration and binominal theorem.

Splitting Into Partial Fractions

Partial Fractions can be split up in two ways: substitution or equating coefficients. Substitution: This is used for general algebraic fractions with two or three factors, without a repeated denominator. 1. The first step in this process would be to make the algebraic fraction equal partial fractions with all possible denominators, A and B as constant numerators. 2. Multiply the numerator of A, by the denominator of B. Then make these equal to the numerator of the original expression. It will now be in the form of 3. Substitute in values of x that will make one of the brackets zero. Then use this to work out the value of A and B. Then replace them as the numerators and you have your partial fractions. Equating Coefficients: This follows the same first two steps as substitution, however sometimes, substitution will not work. In this case, you can equate the coefficients of x and the constants to work out A and B. 1. Follow the first two steps of substitution 2. Expand the brackets so that you end up with something in the form 3. Make the coefficient of x equal to (A+B)x. This gives you one simple equation. 4. Do the same thing for the constants (A-3B) and the constant on the end of the original expression. You now have two simple equations that can be solved using simultaneous equations. Both of these techniques can be used when the fraction has more than two factors (ie. use A, B and C) or one that has a repeated linear factor.

An algebraic fraction is improper when the degree of the numerator is equal to,

or larger than, the degree of the denominator. An improper fraction must be divided first to obtain a number and a proper fraction before it can be expressed as partial fractions

Co-ordinate Geometry
A parametric equation of a curve is one which does not give the relationship between x and y directly but rather uses a third variable, typically t, to do so. The third variable is known as the parameter. A simple example of a pair of parametric equations: x = 5t + 3 y = t2 + 2t

Converting to Cartesian
You need to be able to find the Cartesian equation of the curve from parametric equations, that is the equation that relates x and y directly. To do this you need to eliminate the parameter. The easiest way to do this is to rearrange on parametric equation to get the parameter as the subject and then substitute this into the other equation. A circle with an origin (a, b) has the parametric equations:

You can use the result to derive these. As before, is the parameter instead of t in the equations. You need to be able to recognise these as parametric equations of circles in the exam.

To find the area under a parametric curve, you integrate y and multiply it by the differential of the x equation.

To differentiate a set of parametric equations, differentiate them separately and divide the differential of y by the differential of x.

Binominal Expansion
The previous version of the binomial theorem only works when n is a positive integer. If n is any fraction, the binomial theorem becomes:

PROVIDING |x| < 1 Note that while the previous series stops, this one goes on forever. Providing |x| < 1, the terms will converge to zero at infinity where xr = 0 For the binomial expansion to work, the bracket must be in the form (1+ax)n. If it is not in this form, it must be factorised to have 1 as a term in the bracket. Example Expand in ascending powers of x, up to and including the term in x2. State the set of values for which the expansion is valid. [ ]

For the expansion to be valid, the modulus of the ax term in the bracket (1+ax) n must be less than one. The reason for this is that if the higher powered terms are going to be ignored then the terms (-6x)r must tend to zero very quickly. Therefore: | | | |

Partial Fractions can be used to give approximations of functions that can be split up into their quotients. Example Expand We can split this up, using partial fractions, into:

Now expand (1 + x)-1 and (5x + 2)-1 as described above and add the expansions together.

Implicit Differentiation
Normally, when differentiating, it is dealing with explicit functions of x, where a value of y is defined only in terms of x. However, some functions cannot be rearranged into this form, and we cannot express y solely in terms of x, therefore, we say y is given implicitly by x. Even so, given a value of x, a value for y can still be found, after a bit of work. e.g. y = 2x2 3x + 4 is expressed explicitly in terms of x. x2 + y2 6x + 2y = 0 is expressed implicitly.

In general, to differentiate an implicit function to find, we differentiate both sides of the equation with respect to x. This allows you differentiate without making y the subject first.

In order to differentiate both sides of the equation, you will end up having to differentiate a term in y with respect to x. To do this, you follow the rule

Basically this means you differentiate y as it were x, then add on

onto the end of

it. Effectively this is what you do when differentiating explicitly, but the y differentiates to 1, leaving only dy/dx. Another problem is differentiating something like 4xy2. This can be implicitly differentiated using the product rule, taking u = 4x and v = y2. Remembering to leave dy/dx after each y term that has been differentiated, it becomes

After differentiating each term in turn, you then need to rearrange the equation to find on its own. nb: the function y=ax differentiates to axln(a), and this can be shown through implicit differentiation by taking logs of both sides.

Parametric Differentiation
When a curve is described by parametric equations: 1. You differentiate x and y with respect to the parameter t. 2. Then you use the chain rule in the rearranged form

Differentiating a

This function describes growth and decay, and its derivative gives a measure of the rate of change of this growth/decay. Since , taking logs of both sides gives differentiation to differentiate : . Using implicit

This result needs to be learn, and is not given in the formula sheet.

Setting up Differential Equations

You can set up simple differential equations from information given in context. This may involve using connected rates of change, or ideas of proportion. e.g. Newtons Law of Cooling states that the rate of loss of temperature is proportional to the excess temperature of the body compared to its surroundings. Write an equation that expresses this law Let the temperature of the body be , and the time be t seconds. This means ( - o) is the difference in temperature. From the law, we can deduce Whenever there is a proportional relationship, a constant k can be used to replace the proportionality sign (-k if the relationship decreases). So in answer to the question, the equation that expresses this law is .

Connected Rates of Change can also be used when setting up differential equations. To do this, you would set up two normal equations. Differentiate each one seperatly and then connect them to find a third differential equation by using the chain rule/connected rates of change.

Connected Rates of Change

The gradient function of a curve measures the rate at which the curve increases or decreases. Many questions in mathematics involve finding rates at which they change. These can be connected using the chain rule. These types of questions involve differentiation. Usually they involve differentiating with respect to time.

The key to doing these problems is to identify three components and write them down mathematically: What you are given What is required What is the connection between the two items above. (Sometimes the chain rule must be used to establish a connection).

Example: A pebble is dropped into a pond and forms ripples. The radius of this increases by 3cm per minute. What is the rate of change of area when the ripple is 15cm in radius? We are given a relationship between radius and time, and area and radius. From this, we need to find a relationship between area and time, input values from the two relationships given, to find a value for the third relationship. From the second sentence, comparing radius to time is equal to an increase of 3:

Using the formula for the area of a circle: We now have two differential equations that can be used along with the chain rule to find the rate of change of area at 15cm.

Much of the integration outlined below relies on the reverse chain rule. When functions are differentiated using the chain rule, they are multiplied by the differential inside the bracket. Therefore when integrating, the reverse chain rule means that you must divide by the differential inside the bracket (ie perform the inverse operation). This technique only works for linear transformations such as . In general, the reverse chain rule for linear functions is: Using the reverse of the chain rule, the following generalisations can be found:

| |

Integration By Substitution
As the name of the method suggests, we proceed by making an algebraic substitution. The aim is to replace every expression involving x in the original problem with an expression involving u. Let u = part of the expression, usually the part in brackets or the denominator If necessary, express other parts of the function in terms of u Differentiate u to find Re-arrange to find dx in terms of du as we need du and dx if we are to integrate an expression in u, i.e we need to find du/dx dx = du Substitute the expression found above for dx, back into the original integral and integrate in terms of du It should now be reasonably easy to integrate u If necessary, use u=f(x) to change the values for the limits of integration Put your xs back in again at the end and finish up.

Example Suppose we wish to find We make the substitution .

The integral becomes The limits of integration have been explicitly written the variable given to emphasise that those limits were on the variable x and not u. We can write these as limits on u using the substitution . Clearly, when , and when . With the new limits, the function we need to integrate is:

Note that in this example there is no need to convert the answer given in terms of u back into one in terms of x because we had already converted the limits on x into limits on u.

Integration By Parts
Functions often arise as products of other functions, and we may be required to integrate these products. For example, we may be asked to determine Here, the integrand is the product of the functions and . A rule exists for integrating products of functions, the reverse of the product rule integration by parts. The formula is derived by rearranging the product rule and integrating both sides. .

Care must be taken over the choice of simpler to integrate than easy to integrate. and

. The aim is to ensure that it is to be

. So choose

to be easy to differentiate and

Generally, this means choose u to be the simpler of the two functions. The exception to this rule is when integrating . In this case, would have to equal u, as there is no standard integral, meaning it has to be differentiated instead as u. Sometimes it needs to be used twice within one expression as the second part of the formula will set up another equation that needs to be integrated by parts. Alternatively, if it gives the same answer as the original equation you are trying to integrate, move it to the other side of the equals sign, and use the fact that

When using integration by parts, decide which part will be which, the integrate so that you know u, v, du/dx and dv/dx Then plug them into the formula, and solve using limits where given.

Numerical Integration
The trapezium rule provides you with a way to estimate the value of an integral you cannot do. It involves splitting the area under the under up into trapeziums which are then totalled to give an estimate for the area. The trapezium rule is as follows:

Increasing the number of trapeziums will improve the accuracy of this method. The error can be worked out by finding the difference in the true value and the approximation, and dividing this by the true value.

Volumes of Revolution
We sometimes need to calculate the volume of a solid which can be obtained by rotating a curve about the x-axis. There is a straightforward technique which enables this to be done, using integration. Imagine that the part of a curve between the coordinates x = a, and x = b, is rotated about the x-axis through 360. The curve would then map out the surface of a solid as it rotated. Such solids are called solids of revolution. The formula to work out the volume of these solid is:

Sometimes, the equation of the curve may be given parametrically. You can integrate in terms of the parameter by changing the variable in a similar way to that used when integrating by substitution.

Differential Equations
In general a differential equation may have x and y terms on both sides, but if the equation is of a certain form , we can rearrange to have all terms including x on the right hand side and all terms including y on the left hand side. This is called separation of variables. This would leave us with

Both sides of the equation can now be integrated


is not a fraction, but can often be handled as if it were one.

Integrating both sides would normally give rise to a constant of integration on both sides, but convention has it that these are combined into one. When integrating gives an equation in the form of logs, the +C is often denoted by , which can then be manipulated algebraically like the other terms. A particular solution is found when certain conditions are assumed, called the starting conditions, and the constant of integration can be calculated.

A scalar has magnitude only. e.g. length or distance, speed, area, volumes. A vector has magnitude AND direction. e.g. velocity, acceleration, momentum. Moving from point A to B is called a translation, and the vector a translation vector. The length of the line in the diagram represents the magnitude of the vector and vectors are equal if the magnitude and direction are the same. Vectors are parallel if they have the same direction and are scalar multiples of the original vector. e.g. the vector 3b is parallel to the vector b. The vector 2b is 2 times the magnitude of b and in the opposite direction.

Adding two vectors means finding the shortcut of their journeys. This is the same as making one translation followed by another.

c = a + b


( ), then

( )

The modulus of a vector is another name for its magnitude. The modulus of vector a is written | | | The modulus for vector is written as |

You can calculate the length using Pythagorass theorem:

| |

|( )|

| |

Position Vectors
Position vectors are the vector equivalent of a set of co-ordinates. The position vector allows a translation vector to be fixed in space, using the origin as its fixed reference point. The position vectors of a point A, with co-ordinates (5, 2), is the vector which takes you from the origin to the point (5, 2). So the co-ordinates of point A are the same as the translation vector from point O to A.

position vector of (5, 2)

( )

Scalar Multiplication of Vectors

If ( ), and is a constant number, then ( ) ( )

The constant k is called a scalar because it scales up the length of the vector. If , then the two vectors will look like this:

Vectors are parallel if one is a scalar multiple of the other.


( ), and

( ), then a and c are parallel because

( )

Any vector parallel to the vector a may be written as a, where is a nonzero scalar.

The Unit Vectors

A unit vector is a vector with magnitude (or modulus) of 1. Any vector can be given as a multiple of

( )


( )

In 2-D the unit vectors are i and j. They are parallel to the x-axis and the y-axis, and in the direction of x increasing and y increasing respectively, where:

( ) and

( )

You can write a vector with Cartesian components as a column matrix: ( )

The modulus (or magnitude) of The distance between two points is


In 3-D the unit vectors are i, j and k. Cartesian coordinate axis in three dimensions are usually called the x, y and z axes, each being at right angles to each other. ( ) ( ) ( )

Any vector can be written in terms of i, j and k. ( )

The modulus (or magnitude) of The distance between two points is


Scalar (Dot) Product

This is where two vectors are multiplied together. One form of multiplication is the scalar product. The answer is interpreted as a single number, which is a scalar. This is also known as the DOT product, where a dot is used instead of a multiplication sign. The scalar product between two vectors a and b is defined as the size of a multiplied by the size of b and the cosine of the angle between them.

There are two methods that can be used to calculate the scalar product:


| || |

Where is the angle between a and b, and the two vectors are pointing away from their intersection.

f two vectors are perpendicular, the angle between them is | || | .

. This means that

The non-zero vectors a and b are perpendicular if and only if

Also, because

, | || |, and in particular | |

If a and b are parallel,

2. If

and ( ) ( )

, then

If p and q are parallel then q = 0, If p and q are perpendicular then q = 90,

and and


If p q = 0, then either | p | = 0, | q | = 0 or p and q are perpendicular

Vector Equations of Straight Lines

Suppose a traight likne passes through a given point A, with a position vector a, and is parallel to the given vector b. Only one such line is possible. Vectors an be used to describe straight lines, by giving one vector to show a point on the line, then another to show its gradient and the direction.

A vector equation of a straight line passing through the point A with position vector a , and parallel to vector b is

where t is a scalar parameter By taking different values of the paramater t, you can find the position vectors of points that lie on the straight line. The vector equation of a line that passes through two points A & B can be found. Here, we have two possible vectors that could be used as position vectors (a and b), and the vector as the direction vector. This can be denoted by . This means that the equation of the vector is . A vector equation of a straight line passing through the points A and B with position vectors a and b respectively, is An alternative form of the vector equation of a straight line is if and then ( ) ( ) ( )

Lines do not often intersect in 3-D, but if they do, you need to equate the x, y and z components, and use simultaneous equations to check that they are all equal. The values of x, y and z will show the coordinates at which they intersect. For this to work, they should have different parameters, and be in the 3 rd form shown above. Also, if a line meets in 2-D, but not in 3-D, it is called skew.