Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10




V.RAMMOHAN. (Reg.No.211-07-31-9614-2131) National Institute of Construction Management & Research



Page - 1 Page - 1 Page - 1

Page - 2

Page - 3 Page - 6 Page - 7 Page - 8

I. NAME OF PROJECT: Augmentation of Chlorination facility at Nuclear Fuel complex, Hyderabad. II. SCOPE OF WORK:

The project consists of construction of an industrial building with R.C. portal structure admeasuring 50 M x 18.75 M x 21.25/ 15.5 M. The building should have asbestos-free, fiber reinforced cement sheet roofing with supporting pre-cast R.C. purlins.

III. IMPORTANT DETAILS OF CONTRACT, COST, TIME, TYPE, ETC.: The Contract is of item-rate based and was awarded after processing through competitive bidding in the Public Tender under CPWD works procedure. The estimated cost of the project was Rs.4.08 Crores and the completed cost of the project was Rs.4.75 Crores. The stipulated duration of the project was 12 months but the final completion period of the project was 24 months. In this Contract, payment for work done is made on the basis of the quantities of work actually executed and measured, materials supplied and used by the contractor on the project, each such quantity being multiplied by the Contractors corresponding unit rate given in his tender for that item. In this type of contract, reasonable variations in the tender quantities of the work do not make any substantial difference to the Contractor as he gets payment for the actual work at rates specified in the tender. For Contractor to submit this item-rate tender, he was provided with general specifications, designs and drawings together with estimates of quantities so has to enable him to assess the magnitude, character and difficulty of the work and the probable cost at which he can execute it. The Contractor would be entitled to claim an adjustment in his compensation if the actual work proves to be considerably different in specifications, quality and quantity from the data presented to him at the time of invitation to tender. The main satisfaction is that he gets unit rates for the quantities actually executed. The only uncertainty to the employer in such contracts is that he will not be in a position to know the actual cost of the job till its completion. But he has an advantage of an earlier start of the work pending, complete detailing of entire work, along with the progress of construction. At the same time both the Employer and the Contractor will have to keep the detailed accounts of materials, equipment and work for purpose of making interim payments, and for Employer to watch the progress

of expenditure. Even in item-rate tenders, all items are not priced such as those for site clearance, dewatering, shoring, grading and clearing of site after completion of foundations, etc.

IV. IMPORTANT POINTS FROM CONTRACTORS POINT OF VIEW TO BE MONITORED / RESOLVED: 1. The building is situated amidst the intensive working-plant area with restricted physical and administrative accessibility. 2. The exposure conditions are severe because of the chlorine fumes released by the adjacent facilities and thus precautions were to be exercised for protecting the health of construction labour under the guidelines of OHSAS 18001 - 2007. 3. The height of the building is 21.25M. at ridge level and 15.5M. at eves level with an intermediate mezzanine at 5.6M. Lvl. A close monitoring of the manpower was required as per safety precautions stipulated under OHSAS 18001 2007. 4. The building is spanned over a large width of 18.75M. without any intermediate supports. 5. M-35 grade of concrete with due anti-corrosive painting for the reinforcement and concrete surfaces was implemented for the structure for corrosion resistance and corrosion monitoring sensors were embedded at required points. 6. A 10T. Capacity electrically operated crane was to be installed at eves level for the major length of the building with implementation of adequate safety guideline during construction and for post-construction for operational and maintenance. 7. UPVC framed windows and FRP louvers were to be installed for openings to have the protection from Chlorine fumes.


Organisation Chart from the Employer (Department)

Chief Executive Head of Civil Engineering Division Project Engineer Site Engineer Supervisor Supervisor

Chief Executive: The Chief Executive gives the directive and is the final authority for approvals for the Project for all the issues related to technical and financial matters. He also has the power to sanction the financial approval for the resolved discrepancies, etc. which is amounting to the excess cost of the project than the estimated cost. Head of Civil Engineering Division: The Head of Civil Engineering Division directs the Project Engineer to initiate the Project. The Head (CED) releases the approval letters to the Contractor and Project Engineer to commence the work. He is the final authority to approve and sign on the measurements for final bills, etc. subsequent to the verification of the Project Engineer. He has the power to resolve any interim discrepancies during the progress of the work. Project Engineer: Project Engineer is the main coordinator for the project between the Employer and the Contractor. He is the person who does the planning of Schedule of Work Progress and monitors the periodical progress of the work. He is involved in all the technical/ review meetings with the Contractor during the execution of the Project. Contractor should address any discrepancy arises during

the execution of the Project to the Project Engineer only with due coordination of the Site Engineer from the Department. Site Engineer: Site Engineer is the person deputed on the site for close monitoring of the progress of the project. He communicates all the technical information to the representatives of the Contractor working directly on site. He receives instructions from the Project Engineer and executes the project under his guidance with the help of supervisors assisting him. He is responsible for timely recording of the measurements of the works and calculating the quantities of items for running bills and final bills. He coordinates with all concerned Divisions of the Department like Safety, Utilities, etc. for obtaining the permits and the smooth coordination of the Site Execution of the Project. He is the person responsible for the follow up with Contractor for daily progress of the work. Supervisor: Supervisor is the person monitors every activity of the site very closely and helps Site Engineer in monitoring the Quality of Construction. He helps the Site Engineer in checking the technical aspects of the Construction, taking the measurements of the items after the completion of the work, etc. He has to keep the first hand information of all the activities that are taking place in the site and keep a close watch on the Construction labour employed by the Contractor for the implementation of the Safety Guide Lines, Quality Norms, etc.

Organisation Chart of the Contractor


Project Engineer

Site Engineer

Site Engineer

Safety Engineer





Chairman: The Chairman of the Company is the Proprietor and reserves all the final rights of the activities of the Company. He is the decision making authority in participation for the tenders and quoting the rates for the concerned works. He does make the policy decision in a broader perspective for the activities and the growth of the Company. Project Engineer: Project Engineer is the Key Coordinator between the Client and the Management of the Company. He coordinates regularly with the Project Engineer from the Department (Employer / Client) for all the activities pertaining to the progress of the Project. He is the person who communicates all the matters to the client on behalf of the Contractor through their Project Engineer. He is the sole responsible person for the progress and quality of construction of the Project. He has to make periodical schedules and plan for the resources like material and man-power.

Site Engineer:

Site Engineer is the person deputed at Site for having a close monitoring of overall activities of the Project and take all the precautionary measures for avoiding delay or hindrance to the work. He does monitor the progress of the Project to proceed as per the schedule with committed Quality. Safety Engineer: Safety Engineer is responsible for the safe progress of the construction as per the guidelines of OHSAS 18001. He has to monitor day to day activities to go in compliance with safety norms. He has to educate the Construction labour and all others concerned in this aspect and should exercise the precautionary measures to avoid the accidents. He should monitor the usage of Personal Protective Equipment by the construction personnel and should make the first-aid kit available at site all the time. He should also make the arrangements for the exit in case of the emergency. Supervisors: Supervisor receives the instructions from the Site Engineer and implements the same in the site execution through the construction labour. He controls the construction labour and checks the progress of the work directly and makes note of the daily progress and deviations and brings to the notice of Site Engineer. He helps the Site Engineer in recording the measurements for the preparation of the bills of quantities. He works as a communicator between the Site Engineer and the labour.

VI. METHOD FOLLOWED FOR ADMINISTER AND MONITOR: Contractor carried out the work as per the drawings, bills of quantities and specifications in consideration of a payment to be made: entirely on measurements taken as the work proceeds, and at the unit prices tendered by the contractor in the bill of quantities. The work was monitored by the Department through periodical Bar-Charts and review meetings for progress, stock control, man-power deployment, etc.

Bills of quantities were prepared, giving, as accurately as possible, the quantities of each item of work to be executed and the contractor enters the unit rate against each item of work. The

basis of agreement is thus the unit rate of each item, certain reasonable variations in the quantities being accepted by both parties. The Project Engineer of the Contractor was preparing the bills periodically and submitting the same to the Project Engineer of the Department. The Site Engineer (Department) either accompanied the Site Engineer (Contractor) while the measurements were being taken or checked the measurements and quantities afterwards in consultation with the Project Engineer (Department). If no discrepancy found, the bills were recommended by the Project Engineer (Dept.) for the payment. The amount recommended by the Project Engineer (Dept.) was the cost of the work less the retention money and the cost of materials supplied to the contractor from the department if any. If any item which was not included in the bill of quantities, occurs during the execution, it was usually constructed by a combination of other items already in the bill, otherwise it was paid for as an Extra Item at a specially analyzed rate. VII. RECOMMENDATIONS/ CONCLUSION: 1. The allotted time for the project is inadequate due to its location and working environment surrounding the site. This has resulted in taking the subsequent approvals of periodical extensions of time. This has caused some inconvenience at times during the progress of the work. This embarrassment could be avoided if the time period could be assessed reasonably. 2. There was a considerable delay in handing over the site to contractor due to the delay in obtaining the Safety-Clearance from the Safety Engineering Division of the Department. This could have been planned well in advance and avoided the delay. 3. The scope of the project was enhanced during the execution amounting to extra expenditure and time-duration of the project which could have been foreseen much in advance by the users. 4. Specifications of certain items were changed, for example the Asbestos roofing sheets, PVC windows were substituted by the alternative materials during the progress of the work which could not be envisaged during the preparation of the Tender Documents. This resulted in working out Extra Items and extra duration of time for the project.


Construction Contracts and Contracting -- compiled by SODE, NICMAR. Contract Management in Civil Works Projects by V.A.Prakash , NICMAR Publication. Reference articles from Internet.