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RECYCLING CENTRE

AD1 DESIGN REPORT

TOMMY JAE WUK SHIN 1027539

AD1 BRIEF
Future Christchurch Camia Young with Jordan Saunders When looking at the history of architecture in Christchurch there are three primary factors that stand out as influential the latest styles imported from abroad, available construction technologies, and accessibility of materials. A Christchurch faces the task of rebuilding, these same three factors will influence the citys architecture, but because we live in a different age, the global trends, technologies and access to materials have changed. Because materials are at the core of innovation, the students started their research by choosing a locally available resource. They became familiar with its properties and developed a rigorous formal investigation using their chosen resources as the basis. Following on the students developed an architectural response derived from their research and explored this through the use of computer aided design techniques.

PROJECT DESCRIPTION A straight forward definition of what it means to act sustainably triggered this design project that is: take what we need to live now without jeopardizing the potential for people in the future to meet their needs. Construction materials demand a great deal from our natural resources. The rate at which the world is using raw materials, such as cement, steel and wood, is increasing globally and in New Zealand. The consequence of this process of manufacturing natural resources and turning them into construction materials causes significant pollution and energy use. I found that one of the possible ways to reduce the overall energy consumption and pollution is to look at the life span of construction materials. There is a one-way life cycle of most building materials in New Zealand, first they are extracted as raw materials, then manufactured into building materials, then used for a building, but once the building no longer serves a purpose, the building is demolished and the materials often end up in a landfill. This one-way life cycle has several consequences including filling landfills and triggering further natural resource extraction. I discovered through my research that construction and demolition waste is responsible for more than a quarter of the total waste in landfills in the world. To address this problem my proposed building uses recycled construction materials. Through this proposal I aim to end the one-way life cycle of construction materials and turn it instead into a loop by adopting recycling and reuse methods. By adopting this proposal and using these building methods, it would reduce energy use by reducing the demand for new materials made from raw resources, it would reduce the waste in landfills by reusing and recycling construction materials, and ultimately it would save natural resources for future generations. Christchurch will soon be in a major rebuilding process, but currently there is a great deal of demolition in progress. This proposal is very appropriate for this situation, where there is a massive amount of material waste created due to the on going demolition. Through this proposal I aim to show how recycled materials could be used in future buildings. The program for the building is a recycling centre which includes education, administration and a recycling plant. The building is designed as a showcase for the use of material waste and aims to promote recycling materials. A key driver for this project is to minimize impact on the environment through the proposed architecture. A range of demolished construction materials were used in this proposed building including concrete debris and recycled timber. The overall architectural response and experience is to expose and promote the many ways of recycling different materials.

RESEARCH: CONCRETE&ENVIRONMENT

Page 5

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

Page 18

DESIGN PROPOSAL

Page 39

ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE

Page 49

GLOSSARY AND REFERENCE

Page 69

TABLE OF CONTENT

RESEARCH: CONCRETE&ENVIRONMENT

RESEARCH: CONCRETE&ENVIRONMENT

CONCRETE | RECYCLING CENTRE

Tommy Jae Wuk Shin

6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T

Definition:

The word Concrete comes from the latin word concretus (meaning compact or condensed), the perfect passive participle of concrescere, from con. (together) and crescere (to grow).

RESEARCH: CONCRETE&ENVIRONMENT

CONCRETE | RECYCLING CENTRE

Tommy Jae Wuk Shin

6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T
What is Concrete?
Concrete is a mixture of cement, water, aggregate (fine and coarse) and admixture. +
Water Cement

CONCRETE AND ITS COMPONENT

+
Aggregates

+
(Admixture)

=
Concrete

Chemical Substance

Binder

Filler

Accelerator

H20
Proportions:
100%
W:C ratio 0.50- Exposed to freezing & thawning. 0.45- Sulphate Conditions 14-21% Higher Quality concrete. 7-15% Smoother surface, easy to place however, resuting concrete will shrink & be less economical Difficult to place, rough & porous 60-80% Keep Cost Low

Quantity depends on type of Admixture

6-8%

Water (W)

Cement (C)

Aggregates

Air

Proportions Graph

Process of Mixing:
Water

+
Cement

=
Paste Paste

+
Aggregates

=
Synthetic Conglomerate

+
Admixtures

Chemical Reaction Hydration Process of hardening and gaining stength

added to the concrete to give it certain charachteristics not obtainable with plain concrete mixes.

Variables affecting Concrete Strength:

Strength of concrete

Quality of paste

Ratio of Water:Cement (W:C)

Workability

Less Water results in a stronger concrete mix. Less water is achievable if there is proper curing, placing & consolidating.

Ability of fresh (plastic) concrete mix to fill the form/mould properly with the desired work (vibration) and without reducing the concretes quality.Timimg is critical

RESEARCH: CONCRETE&ENVIRONMENT

T O M M Y

N C | RECYCLING CENTRE R E T CONCRETE


M OTommy N A

F Jae Wuk Shin A R

CEMENT

What is Cement?

Cement is a material component of concrete. It is classified the chemically active component, but its reactivity is only brought into effect when mixed with water.This reaction is called hydration Cement is a mixture of proportioned and finely interground mixture of portland cement clinker and a small amount of certain substances such as lime, magnesia, (Gypsum)calcium sulphate, etc.

+
Fine Cement Clinker

+
Substances

=
Cement

Chemical Composition:

Portland cement clinker is made up of four major compounds: Tricalcium Silicate (C3S), Dicalcium Silicate (C2S), Tricalcium Aluminate (C3A) and Tetra Calcium Aluminate (C4AF). A small quantity of other substances such as Lime (CaO), Magnesia (MgO), Calcium Sulphate (CaSO4), Silica (SiO2 ), Alumina (Al2O3), Iron Oxide (Fe2O3), Sulphur Trioxide (SO3), Alkaliks (Na2O + K2O) are also added.

Major Compounds of Cement Clinker:


C 3S

Percentage of Cement Composition:


(%) 100 80 60

Percentage by Weight in Cement:


(%) 100 80 60 40 20 Compounds 0 Compounds

C 2S

C3 A

C4AF

+ Added Substances:
CaO SO3

+ +

MgO

CaSO4

SiO2

Al2O3

Fe2O3

40 20 0

Na2O + K2O

Performance of Compounds:

The Silicates C3S and C2S are the main components responsible for the strength of the cement. C3A is the least stable, where cement containing more than 10 % is prone to Sulphate attack which, causes an overall loss in strength. C4AF is of less importance than the other componets. It does not have a significant effect on the behaviour. However, it can increase the rate of hydration of the silicates. The added substances CaO, MgO and CaSO4 should not exist in excess quantities as they may expand on hydration or react with other substances in the aggregate and cause the concrete to disintegrate. These compounds affect the speed and time of hydration, as well as the strength developmen of the concrete.

Cement Hydration:
a a b

Unhydrated cement particles Cement Gel C 3S C2S C 3A

Speed of Hydration
Quick Slow Very Quick Very Slow C 2S C 3S

Time of Hydration/ Strength Development


7 days Develops early Strength Slow 1 Day 7 days + Contributes to development in strength after 7 days After 24 hours Contribution to Strength is almost 0

Capilary Pores and Cavities c d c a)Immediatley after mixing b)Reaction around particles - ealry stiffening c)Formation of skeletal Structure- first hardening d)Gel infiling - later hardening

C4AF

C 3A

C4AF

Insignificant time of hydration and strength development. More than 10% C3A makes cement prone to CaSO4 attack.

RESEARCH: CONCRETE&ENVIRONMENT

CONCRETE | RECYCLING CENTRE

Tommy Jae Wuk Shin

6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T
Concrete & living
Concrete is the second most consumed substance on earth, after water.

CONCRETE AND ENVIRONMENT

#1

#2

Average consumption of concrete is about 1 ton per year per every living human being.

1t

/ Year

Ingredients of finished concrete

As with any building product, production of concrete and its ingredients does require energy that in turn results in the generation of carbon dioxide.

6%
Air

18%
Water

Aggregate

66%

Cement

10%

Typical composition of hydraulic cement concrete

Sustainability & New Zealand

The importance of sustainable development is currently dominating headlines, and as a concept is frequently defined as the practice of meeting present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The quest for sustainability has been compared with New Zealands nuclear free stance in the 1980s, and politicians have been enthusiastically pledging their support to make New Zealand the first nation to be truly sustainable. There is no question that sustainable development has been adopted as the philosophy to direct New Zealands way forward, and as a means to find solutions that provide the best economic, social and environmental outcomes.

RESEARCH: CONCRETE&ENVIRONMENT

T O M M Y

CONCRETE | RECYCLING CENTRE M O N A

Tommy Jae Wuk Shin A H F A R

6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T
CO2 emissions during concrete manufacture

CO2 EMISSIONS DURING CONCRETE PRODUCTION

The basic constituents of concrete are cement, water and aggregates. During the manufacturing of concrete, considerable amount of carbon dioxide emissions occurs.

Carbon Dioxide Emissions

Admixtures Production Diesel Fuel Fine Aggregates Production

LPG Fuel

Cement Production Unexploited Resources Fly Ash Processing

Transport of Raw Materials to Concrete Batching Plants

Concrete Production

Transport of Concrete to Construction Site

Placement (Pumpin g) of Concrete on Site

One Cubic Meter of Concrete in Structure

GGBFS Processing

Electricity

Coarse Aggregates Production

Explosives

Carbon dioxide within concrete production diagram

RESEARCH: CONCRETE&ENVIRONMENT

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T O M M Y

CONCRETE | RECYCLING CENTRE M O N A

Tommy Jae Wuk ShinA H F A R

6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T
Main CO2 contributer among concrete ingredients

CO2 EMISSIONS AND CONCRETE

Water, sand, aggregates and other ingredients make up about 90% of the concrete mixture by weight. The process of mining sand and gravel, crushing stone, combining the materials in a concrete plant and transporting concrete to the construction site requires very little energy and therefore only emits a relatively small amount of carbon dioxide. The amount of caonbon dioxide embodied in concrete are mainly from cement production.

from manufacturing aggregates

20%

from manufacturing cement

80%

Proportion of the total carbon dioxide emission embeded within finished concrete

The cement industry is responsible for 5% of total global carbon dioxide emission.

14%
Other sectors

5%
Manufacturing Cement

17%

5%
Road transport Energy Industry

18%

6%
Heat and Power Non-road transport

35%

Global carbon dioxide emission by sectors

Difference between concrete & cement

The primary difference between concrete and cement is that concrete is a composite material made of water, aggregate, and cement. Cement is a very fine powder made of limestone and other minerals, which absorbs water and acts as a binder to hold the concrete together. While cement is a construction material in its own right, concrete cannot be made without cement. The two terms often are incorrectly used interchangeably, but concrete and cement are distinctly separate products.

RESEARCH: CONCRETE&ENVIRONMENT

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T O M M Y

CONCRETE | RECYCLING CENTRE M O N A

Tommy Jae Wuk A R A H F Shin

2006 low

2015 high low

2030 high low

2050 high

Production (Mt cement)

commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur.

Consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

4 000

Other OECD Europe OECD Paci c China India Economies in transition Other developing Asia

3 000

6.0 C O N C R E T enim ad minim veniam, quis O N M E N T Ut E & E N V I R


Production (Mt cement) Production (Mt cement)

2 000

Production (Mt cement)

Production (Mt cement) Production (Mt cement)

Production (Mt cement)

Production (Mt cement)

Production (Mt cement) Production (Mt cement)

Production (Mt cement)

300 200

300 200 100 0 2006 2015 2030 2050

300 200 100

300 200 100 2030 2050

2006 300 300


200 200 100 100

300 200

2015 high low

2030 300 300


200 200

300 200

2050 low high

Production (Mt cement)

Production (Mt cement)

nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea European This map and figures show Global cement commodo consequat.Union 25 aute estimated cement productionDuis for production & future irure dolor2030 and 2050, 2006, 2015, in reprehenderit in trend voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur.
400 100 0 2006 2015 2030 2050

1 000
Canada and United States Other OECD Europe Other OECD Europe OECD Paci c in transition Economies Economies in transition
400 400 400

Latin America

Canada and United States


400

OECD Paci c
400

European Union 25
400

0 0 Regional cement production: 2050 2006 2015 2030 2006 2015

2006, 2015, 2030 and 2050

0 0 Regional0cement production: 2006 2015 2030 2030 2050 2006 2006 2015 2015 2030 2050

2006, 2015, 2030 and 2050

Production (Mt cement)

Consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla Economies in transition Other OECD Europe Latin America pariatur. OECD Paci c
Production (Mt cement) Production (Mt cement) Production (Mt cement) 400 300 200 400 400 300 200 100 0 2030 2006 2015 2050 Production (Mt cement) 400 300 200 100 2006 0 2015 2006 2015 300 200 100 0 2050 2006 2030

Other OECD Europe


Production (Mt cement) 400 300 200 100 0 2006 2015

Production (Mt cement)

Economies in transition European Union 25 Canada and United States 400


Production (Mt cement) Production (Mt cement) 400 300 200 100 2050 0 2006 300 200 100 0 2030 400 300 200 100 2050 0 2006 2015 2030 2050

100

2030

2006

2015

2030

2030

2015

2030

2050

2006

2015

2030

2050

2015

2050

2050 high demand scenario low demand scenario

high demand scenario

Production (Mt cement)

cement production: 15, 2030 and 2050

Other OECD Europe


Production (Mt cement) 400 300 200 100 0 2006 2015 2030 2050
5 000

Economies in transition
Production (Mt cement) 400 300 200 100

Latin America
Production (Mt cement) 400 300 200 100 0 2006 2015 2030 2050

Africa & Middle East


800

ement production: 5, 2030 and 2050

Regional cement production: 2006, 2015, 2030 and 2050

Global cement production: 0 2006,2015 20302030 and 2050 2015, 2050 2006
high demand scenario low demand scenario Canada and United Stat es European Union 25 Other OECD Europe OECD Paci c China India Economies in transition Other developing Asia

600

180 160 140 120 10 0 80 60 40 20 0

180 160 140 120 10 0 80 60 40 20 0

Africa and Middle East

LatinLatin Am
400 300 200 100

400 400

400

low

high
00

100 5 000 2050 4 000

100 100

100 0 high demand scenario2030 2050 2006 2015 2015 2030 2030 2006 2006 2015 2050 2050 low demand scenario

China and United States Canada


European Union 25
1 800

Other OECD Europe OECD Paci c


1 600 China

3 000

India 2 000
1 400

Economies in transition Other developing Asia

1 000

Latin America Africa and Middle East 0 2006 low 2015 high low 2030 high low 2050 high
1 000 1 200

Latin America
Production (Mt cement) 400 300 200 100 0
400 600 800

180 160 140 120 10 0 80 60 40 20 0

400

300

200

100

0 200

high d

low de

200

India
800

low demand scenario

2006

2015

2030

2050

600

Production (Mt cement)

400

200

2006

2015

2030

2050

Other developing Asia


800

high demand scenario low demand scenario


400

European Union 25
Production (Mt cement) 400
Production (Mt cement)

Canada and United States


Production (Mt cement)
400

600

OECD Paci c
Production (Mt cement) 400 300 200 100 0

Production (Mt cement)

Production (Mt cement)

etur adipisicing elit, sed od tempor incididunt ut dolore magna aliqua.

4 000

400 300

3 000

300 200

Production (Mt cement)

Production (Mt cement)

Africa and Middle East 0 2006 low 2015 high low 2030 high low 2050 high

Production (Mt cement)

ad minim veniam, quis exercitation ullamco si ut aliquip ex ea o consequat. Duis aute or in reprehenderit in e velit esse cillum dolore nulla pariatur.

2 000

European Union 25
400 300 200 100 0 2006 2015 2030

200

Canada and United States


100
2006 2015 2030

200 200 100


0 0

OECD Paci c
400

1 000

Latin America

400 2050 300 200 100 0

2006

2015

2030

2050

20062006 2015 2015 2030 2030 2050 2050

2006

300 200 100 0

RESEARCH: CONCRETE&ENVIRONMENT

2050 12

2006

2015

2030

2050

T O M M Y

2006

CONCRETE | RECYCLING CENTRE C M O N A


2015 2030 2050

180 160 140 120 10 R E T E 80 Tommy Jae Wuk Shin


2015 2030 2050

F A R A H

6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T
Global cement productin trend
Unit: million tons

Global cement production trend


3060 2860

2810 2610 2350 2190 2020 1660 1750 1850

1185

1291 1123

1370

1445

1493

1547

1540

1600

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

(Sourec: U.S geological survey)

Regional cement production & CO2


Unit: million tons
420
372

Regional cement production & CO2 emission in 1994


Cement volume CO2 volume

180 129 150 105


120

105

111

95

88

78

101

80

97

71

62

60

41

33

China

Europe

OECD Paci c

Other Asia

Middle East

North America

EE/FSU

Latin America

India

Africa

(Source:Cambureau)

RESEARCH: CONCRETE&ENVIRONMENT

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CONCRETE C R | RECYCLING CENTRE E T E M O N A

Tommy Jae Wuk R A H F A Shin

6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T
New Zealand cement production trend
Unit: thousand tons

New Zealand cement production trend


1200 1080
950 1100 1120 1050

1200

1200

974

976

900
800

950

960

950

950

1000

576

579

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

(Sourec: IPCC/USGS)

NZ cement market sectors


New Zealand cement market sectors in 1994

7%
Masonry

10%
Precast 2% Pipes and tiles

19%
Merchant bags

62%
Ready mixed concrete

RESEARCH: CONCRETE&ENVIRONMENT

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CONCRETE C R | RECYCLING CENTRE E T E M O N A

Tommy Jae Wuk R A H F A Shin

6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T
Embodied CO2 from cement production

EMBODIED CO2 FROM CEMENT PRODUCTION

Cement manufacturing releases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere both directly when calcium carbonate is heated, producing lime and carbon dioxide, and also indirectly through the use of energy if its production involves the emission of carbon dioxide. The cement industry produces about 5% of global man-made carbon dioxide emissions, of which 50% is from the chemical process, and 40% from burning fuel. The amount of carbon dioxide emitted by the cement industry is nearly 900 kg of carbon dioxide for every 1000 kg of cement produced.

Typical manufacturing process of concrete


9 8
Blending

10 the cement silo


Cement grinding

Storing in

Golden bay cement plant, which is located at Portland near Whangarei, produced 522,169tons (approximately 55% of national production in 1993)

7 6

Cooling and storing

5 4
Quarries

Clinker production in the rotary kiln Precalcining

Preheating

3 2 Crushing

Prehomogenization and raw meal grinding

Holcim cement plant, which is located near Westport, produced 402,000 tons (approximately 43% of national production in 1993)

Quarrying raw materials

RESEARCH: CONCRETE&ENVIRONMENT

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CONCRETE C R | RECYCLING CENTRE E T E M O N A

Tommy Jae Wuk R A H F A Shin

6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T
Reduction of CO2

REDUCTION OF CO2 EMISSION

The primary options for reducing the quantity of carbon dioxide generated during cement manufacturing process are to use alternatives to fossil fuels, change the raw ingredients used in manufacture and intergrind additional materials with the clinker.

Using byproducts such as fly ash, blast furnace slag and silica fume to supplement a portion of the cement used in concrete. These industrial products, which would otherwise end up in landfills, are called supplementary cementitious materials or SCMs for short. The use of SCMs in concrete work in combination with portland cement to improve strength and durability in addition to reducing the carbon dioxide embodied in concrete by as much as 70%, with typical value ranging between 15 and 40%.

Fly ash is the waste byproduct of burning coal in electrical power plants. Generally, 15% to 20% of burned coal takes the form of fly ash. At one time, most fly ash was landfilled, but today a significant portion is used in concrete.

Blast furnace slag is the waste byproduct of iron manufacture. After quenching and grinding, the blast furnace slag takes on much higher value as a supplementary cementitious material for concrete. Blast furnace slag is used as a partial replacement for cement to impart added strength and durability to concrete.

Silica fume is a waste byproduct of processing quartz into silicon or ferro-silocon metals in an electric arc furnace. Silica fume consists of superfine, spherical particles that when combined with cement significantly increases strength and durability of concrete. It is used for some high-rise buildings to produce concretes which exceed 140MPa compressive strength and in bridge and parking garage construction to help keep chlorides from deicing salts from corroding steel reinforcement.

RESEARCH: CONCRETE&ENVIRONMENT

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CONCRETE C R | RECYCLING CENTRE E T E M O N A

Tommy Jae Wuk R A H F A Shin

SUMMARY OF RESEARCH PHASE

6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T

Global cement production trend


Unit: million tons

6%
Air from manufacturing aggregates

20%

3060

2810 2610

2860

18%
Water

Heat and power


2020 1660 1750 1850

35%

2350 2190

#1

1t
Non-road transport

1185

1291 1123

1370

1445

1493

1547

1540

1600

6%

Aggregate

66%

1t
#2 per year

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

from manufacturing cement

80%

produce

Road transport

18%

Energy industry

5%

New Zealand cement production trend


Unit: thousand tons

1t

1200

1200

1200

Manufacturing
900
950

17%

1080 974
976 950

1100

1120 1050

960

950

950

1000

Cement
576 579

5%

800

Cement

10%

Other sectors

14%

Typical composition of hydraulic cement concrete

Concrete is the second most consumed substance on earth, after water.

Average consumption of concrete is about 1 ton per year per every living human being.

Proportion of the total carbon dioxide emission embeded within finished concrete.

Carbon dioxide emission from cement production. 1 ton of cement production emits 1 ton of carbon dioxide.

Global carbon dioxide emission by sectors

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

CONCRETE AND THE ENVIRONMENT

CEMENT PRODUCTION TREND IN NEW ZEALAND

RESEARCH: CONCRETE&ENVIRONMENT

C
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T O M M Y

M O N A F A R A H CONCRETE | RECYCLING CENTRE

Tommy Jae Wuk Shin

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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CONCRETE | RECYCLING CENTRE

Tommy Jae Wuk Shin

9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Reason for recycling

REASON AND BENEFITS OF RECYCLING

The life cycle of a buliding used to be a one-way street. Building materials were extracted and used to manufacture building products, and once the building reached the end of its useful life and was demolished, the materials were buried in a landfill or incinerated. Societal and economic factors require that todays building life cycle be circular, with the loop completed to the largest extent possible by reusing demolition materials to manufacture new products.

Resource extration

Resource extration

Disposal

Manufacturing

Recycling

Manufacturing

Demolition

Construction

Demolition

Construction

Use/Occupancy

Use/Occupancy

Existing one way building life cycle Some key benefits of recycling concrete include:

Desired closed loop building life cycle

Substitution for virgin resources and reduction in associated environmental costs of natural resource exploitation Reduced transportation costs: concrete can often be recycled on demolition or construction sites or close to urban areas where it will be reused Reduced disposal costs as landfi ll taxes and tip fees can be avoided Good performance for some applications due to good compaction and density properties (for example, as road sub-base) In some instances, employment opportunities arise in the recycling industry that would not otherwise exist in other sectors

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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CONCRETE C R | RECYCLING CENTRE E T E M O N A

Tommy Jae Wuk R A H F A Shin

9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Myths and reality about concrete recycling

FACTS OF CONCRETE RECYCLING

Myths Concrete cannot be recycled

Reality Although concrete is not broken down into its constituent parts, it can be recovered and crushed for reuse as aggregate (for use in ready-mix concrete or other applications) or it can be recycled through the cement manufacturing process in controlled amounts, either as an alternative raw material to produce clinker or as an additional component when grinding clinker, gypsum and other additives to cement.

Recycled concrete aggregate cannot be used for structural concrete

It is generally accepted that about 20% (or more) of aggregate content can be replaced by recycled concrete for structural applications.

Although some concrete can be recycled it is not possible to achieve high rate Concrete can be 100% made by recycling old concrete

Countries such as the Netherlands and Japan achieve near complete recovery of waste concrete.

Current technology means that recovered concrete can be used as aggregate in new concrete but (1) new cement is always needed and (2) in most applications only a portion of recycled aggregate content can be used (regulations often limit content as do physical properties, particularly for structural concrete).

Recycling concrete will reduce greenhouse gases and the carbon footprint Recycling concrete into low-grade aggregate is down-cycling and is environmentally not the best solution

Most greenhouse gas emissions from concrete production occur during the production of cement. Less-significant savings may be made if transportation needs for aggregates can be reduced by recycling.

A full lifecycle assessment should be undertaken. Sometimes low-grade use is the most sustainable solution as it diverts other resources from the project and uses minimal energy in processing. That is not to say more refined uses might not also suit a situation.

Recycled aggregate is more expensive

This depends on local conditions (including transportation costs).

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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C R | RECYCLING CENTRE E T E CONCRETE


M O N A

Tommy Jae Wuk Shin

F A R A H

9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Truth and rationale of concrete recycling

TRUTH AND RATIONALE OF CONCRETE RECYCLING

Truth Cement cannot be recycled

Rationale Once cement clinker is made, the process is irreversible. No commercially viable processes exist to recycle cement.

Demolition concrete is inert

Compared to other wastes, concrete is relatively inert and does not usually require special treatment.

Recycled concrete can be better than virgin aggregates for some applications

The physical properties of coarse aggregates made from crushed demolition concrete make it the preferred material for applications such as road base and sub-base. This is because recycled aggregates often have better compaction properties and require less cement for sub-base uses. Furthermore, it is generally cheaper to obtain than virgin material.

Using recycled aggregate reduces land-use impact

By using recycled aggregates in place of virgin materials (1) less landfill is generated and (2) fewer natural resources are extracted.

Recycling all construction and demolition waste (C&DW) will not meet market needs for aggregate

Even near complete recovery of concrete from C&DW will only supply about 20% of total aggregate needs in the developed world.

Figures are not complete for recovery rates

Data are often not available. When data are available different methods of counting make cross-country comparisons difficult.

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Concrete recycling process

CONCRETE RECYCLING PROCESS

Mobile sorters and crushers are often installed on construction sites to allow on-site processing. In other situations, specific processing sites are established, which are usually able to produce higher quality aggregate. Sometimes machines incorporate air knives to remove lighter materials such as wood, joint sealants and plastics. Magnet and mechanical processes are used to extract steel, which is then recycled.

Recyling process types For direct reuse without treatment

Mobile treatment on-site and use material on-site

Stationary treatment at centralized treatment plant and sale of different products to different construction companies

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Mobile recycling facility
Demolition Feeder Presieve, 15mm Jaw breaker Crushed aggregate Simple base material e.g. simple roads, parking lot

TYPES OF RECYCLING FACILITY

Soil and fine grains

Simple filling e.g. landscaping

Flowchart of simple mobile recycling facility

(Source: Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit)

Stationary recycling facility

Demolition Entrance control Stockpile Sieve, 15 mm Jaw breaker Manual crushing


of oversized parts

discharge < 60 mm

Magnetic sep. Picking belt Sieve, 22 mm Product 1


0/15 mm

Iron scrap
Non-ferrous metal Waste

Product 2
22/60 mm

Product 3
0/22mm

Engineering fill

Civil engineering e.g. sub-base

Civil engineering e.g. sub-base

Landfill

Recycling industry

(Source: Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit)

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Guiding principles of construction & demolition waste management

GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF CONSTURCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE MANAGEMENT

Avoidance

Reuse

Door frames, pipes, windows, beams and etc

Increasing sustainability Recycling Aggregate, steel, wood and etc

Landfill

Sustainability ranking of recycling method

Transportation to plant

Energy (fossil fuel and electricity)

Delivery to destination

Reuse original form on site Reuse original form on the other site Mobile recycling and use it on site Mobile recycling and use it on the other site

Treatment plant recycling

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Recycled concrete applications
(after mobile or plant treatment)

1.Concrete road 2.Bituminous road 3.Hydraulically bound road 4.Ground improvement 5.Earthworks - Embankments 6.Earthworks - Cuttings 7.Shallow foundation

8.Deep foundation 9.Utilities 10.Utilities - reinstatement in roads 11.Concrete sub-structure 12.Concrete structure 13.Building - industrial 14.Building - residential
(Source: WRAP)

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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Tommy Jae Wuk R A H F A Shin

9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Recycled concrete applications
(after mobile or plant treatment)

Building - industrial

5. Blinding concrete
Product Notes Unreinforced concrete RCA may be used to replace up to 100% of the coarse aggregate.

6. Slab
Product Notes Reinforced concrete RCA may be used to replace 20% of the coarse aggregate.

7. Fill to foundations
Product Notes Granular material A wide range of recycled and secondary materials may be appropriate, such as RCA and RA, to replace 100% of the material.

8. Precast concrete drainage pipes and manhole units 1. Precast concrete staircase
Product Notes Reinforced concrete RCA may be used where properties and performance have been established by the manufacturer. Recyclied material allowed in the coarse aggregate is 20%. Product Notes Concrete pipes and manhole units RCA may be used where properties and performance have been established by the manufacturer.

9. General industrial floor


Product Notes Reinforced concrete RCA may be used to replace 20% of the coarse aggregate.

2. Heavy duty industrial floor


Product Notes Reinforced concrete RCA may be used to replace 20% of the coarse aggregate.

10. Concrete column


Product Notes Reinforced concrete RCA may be used to replace 20% of the coarse aggregate.

3. Wall
Product Notes Reinforced concrete RCA may be used to replace 20% of the coarse aggregate.

11. Precast concrete structural beam


Product Notes Concrete beam RCA may be used where properties and performance have been established by the manufacturer.

4. Foundations
Product Notes Reinforced concrete RCA may be used to replace 20% of the coarse aggregate. Product Notes

12. Concrete floor for light foot and trolley traffic


Reinforced concrete RCA may be used to replace 20% of the coarse aggregate.
(Source: WRAP)

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Concrete reuse applications

CONCRETE REUSE APPLICATIONS

Sculpture

Sculpture

Landscape

Landscape

Plantation

Sculpture

Furniture

Furniture

Furniture

Furniture

Furniture

Construction (filling)

Construction (embeding)

Construction (embeding)

Construction (embeding)

Construction (embeding)

Landscape

Landscape

Landscape

Landscape

Landscape

Landscape

Landscape

Landscape

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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Tommy Jae Wuk R A H F A Shin

9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Concrete reuse applications
(Gabion wall)

CONCRETE REUSE APPLICATIONS (GABION WALLS)

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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Tommy Jae Wuk R A H F A Shin

9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Concrete reuse applications
(Architecture with gabion system)

PRECEDENCE OF GABION WALL SYSTEM

Domus winery

Villanueva public library

Furniture

ETC

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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9.0 R E C Y C L I N G

CONCRETE REUSE APPLICATIONS (HESCO SYSTEM)

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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Tommy Jae Wuk R A H F A Shin

9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Concrete reuse application case studies
Resin + RCA

CONCRETE REUSE APPLICATION CASE STUDY

Note

Resin can bind raw RCA (recycled concrete aggregate) and create space between aggregates at the same time. By creating space, light can penetrate through. This has a potential to be used as partition wall.

Mixed in gap

Note

By filling gap with RCA, it creates visual contrast between finished concrete and RCA.

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Concrete reuse application case studies
Gabion

Note

Gabions are cages,cylinders, or boxes filled with soil, sand or aggregates. Gabions have been used in various applications. This has a potential to be used as wall (e.g Dominus estate winery by Herzog & De Meuron). Benefits of gabion system are

Monolithic : distributes forces across the wall Flexible : can deform and still maintain its function Permeable : high voids prevent hydrostatic pressure development Durable : advanced coating technology to achieve design life Versatile : easy to shape to match the local site conditions Environmentally friendly : built using stone and aggregate that can form part of the ecosystem.

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Concrete reuse application case studies
Use demolished concrete pieces as part of concrete

Note

Demolished concrete pieces can be used for another concrete structure such as wall. By placing raw demolished concrete within new concrete construction, it creates contrast between old and new. Also it displays how the recycled concrete can be reused in new structure.

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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Tommy Jae Wuk R A H F A Shin

9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Considered design for future reuse
Considering recycling at the time a building is designed improves the chances of closed loop constructoin as introduced earlier.

CONSIDERED DESIGN FOR FUTURE REUSE

Resource extration

Disposal

Recycling

Manufacturing

The benefits are two-fold: eventual C&DW is minimized and the demand for new materials for a future project is reduced. Designs should consider ways to maximize possibilities for reuse, or at least possibilities for recycling of the structure and its components. As a first step, designs that allow for eventual adaptation or renovation of a structure can allow partial replacements that lengthen the ultimate life of the building. Keeping components separate or separable is key for component reuse or recycling. Evaluation of any possible contamination issues is also relevant. One of the most important characteristics of concrete is its durability. The best design for deconstruction for concrete is to allow for on-site reuse: concrete can be an ideal building material as buildings made with concrete can be adapted and renovated for future use for many decades.

Demolition

Construction

Use/Occupancy

In situ and pre-cast concrete materials both play a role in design for future reuse plans. In situ concrete is sometimes mistakenly believed to have few reuse or recovery possibilities. However, buildings with post-tensioned slabs can be reused and altered as required. If the building is demolished, having a record or tag on the concrete detailing its components may aid in possible future recycling. Sometimes designs note that this is downcycling as the recycled concrete aggregate is used for projects such as road sub-base. However, as noted elsewhere, the best overall environmental solution does not necessarily require refined reprocessing and a closed loop material use can still be achieved.

Pre-cast designs should consider the use of precast slabs that can be dismantled and reused. It may be that fillers such as polystyrene should not be used to avoid hampering later recycling efforts.

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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Tommy Jae Wuk R A H F A Shin

9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Building structure involving recycled concrete
Paving system

BUILDING STRUCTURE INVOLVING RECYCLED CONCRETE

Recycled concrete (within soil)

Recycled concrete (within cement)

Foundation system

In-situ concrete foundation

Gabion foundation

Wall system

In-situ concrete wall

Precast concrete wall

Gabion wall

Roof system

In-situ concrete roof

Precast concrete roof

Concrete debris within concrete

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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Tommy Jae Wuk R A H F A Shin

9.0 R E C Y C L I N G
Conclusion

CONCLUSION

Throughout this research, it was found that recycling concrete has two main advantages. Firstly, it reduces the use of new virgin aggregate and the associated environmental costs of exploitation and transportation. Secondly, it reduces unnecessary landfill of valuable materials that can be recovered and redeployed. There is, however, no appreciable impact on reducing the carbon footprint apart from emissions reductions from transportation. The main source of carbon emissions in concrete is in cement production. The cement content in concrete cannot be viably separated and reused or recycled into new cement and thus carbon reduction cannot be achieved by recycling concrete. Therefore it is required for us to avoid cement use when possible.

Proposal to achieve carbon reduction within the context of this research (when design) Making considered design for future recycle and reuse of its parts Try to avoid using cement whenever possible Try to recycled concrete whenever possible Try to avoid in-situ concrete to keep components separate so each components can be reused or recycled (e.g modular system) Proposal to achieve carbon reduction within the context of this research (when recycling) Try to recycle and reuse material on site Try to avoid using cement whenever possible When using recycled concrete the best option is to use it without any treatment and the least desired option is to use recycling plant treated concrete aggregates. However it is still better for environment than using virgin aggregates.

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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0.0 S I T E

C O N T E X T

SUMMARY OF MATERIAL INVESTIGATION PHASE

Resource extration

Resource extration

Disposal

Manufacturing

Recycle / Reuse

Manufacturing

Reuse/recycle material during construction

Close the loop of material life cycle

Demolition

Construction

Demolition

Construction

Minimizing pollution

Prevent filling landfill

Use/Occupancy

Use/Occupancy

Increase future raw material availability

Prevent Carbon dioxide emission

Existing one way building life cycle LIFE CYCLE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

Desired closed loop building life cycle BENEFITS OF REUSE/RECYCLING MATERIAL

This project relies on recycled construction materials, and aim s to close the loop of construction waste by reusing and recycling otherwise wasted material.

Less environmental impact

Avoidance

Sustainability ranking of recycling method

Transportation to plant

Energy (fossil fuel and electricity)

Delivery to destination

Reuse

Door frames, pipes, windows, beams and etc

Recycling More environmental impact

Aggregate, steel, wood and etc

Guiding principles of construction & demolition waste management

1. Reuse original form on site 2. Reuse original form on the other site 3. Mobile plant recycling and use it on site 4. Mobile plant recycling and use it on the other site

Landfill

5. Treatment plant recycling

This diagram explains how to treat construction and demolition waste so as to have less impact on environment. The idea is that there is embodied energy within all materials which is measure by the use of fossil fuel during its operation process. By recycling construction waste the embodied energy of a material can be use

CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE TREATMENT

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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10.0 E N D

DERIVED PROPOSAL

N O T E

O F
Research phase

T O M M Y

S H I N
Investigation phase Considered design for environment is one of the key topics in this era. Christchurch earthquake triggered heavy volume of destruction and construction. Traditionally life cycle of construction is not looped as heavy volume of demolished and finished materials end up filling land fill. Proposal and arguement It is essential to promote environmentally friendly design within the context of Christchurch as there are never seen before volume of construction and demolition is happening at the moment. Create architecture using construction and demolition waste whenever possible. Promote the potential of recycling and reusing by creating educational centre and recycling plant. By reusing construction and demolision waste, this will create good contribution for environment. It also close the loop of construction materials life cycle.

Summary of the research and arguement

1 ton of concrete is consumed by every human being on earth every year. 2nd most consumed substance in the world is concrete. Water is the only substance that has been consumed more than concrete. 5% of the total global carbon emission comes from cement manufacturing. Cement is crucial element of finished concrete.

MATERIAL INVESTIGATION: RECYCLING

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DESIGN PROPOSAL

DESIGN PROPOSAL

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Tommy Jae Wuk Shin

SITE RELATIONSHIP AND CONTEXT

Site Relationships

The challenge was to find a site, which could accomodate all of the group members (Farah, Mona and Tommy) proposed programs. Residential, public and industrial programs were chosen to be placed within close range to create synergy between each programs users.
Map Of Choosen Sites: Zoomed up map Of Choosen Sites: Key:
Monas Site- Residential/Accomodation/Retail Farahs Site- Temporary Contemporary Art gallery Tommys Site- Recycle/Reuse Concrete Plant/ Education Main Streets Public Space Retail Train Stations/ Access Railway Track Hagley Park Industrial Area Residential Four Major Avenues of Christchurch CBD

Bubble Diagram Showing relationships between chosen sites and site features:

Shopping Centre

Residential

Christchurch Train Station

Hagley Park

Train Stop

Bicycle Parking/ Promotes cycling

Gathering of People

Pedestrian Way

Public Seating

Cars

8 Lanes Cafes/Restauraunts Moorhouse Avenue (1/4 Major avenues)- Accesible

Performances

Industrial Zone

8 Lanes Blenheim Road- Accesible Railway

DESIGN PROPOSAL

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9.0 R E C Y C L I N G

SITE DECISION

Claimed area: Benefit:

8275 m2 (approximately) Site is located close by major road and rail way. The generated possible heavy volume of traffic including loading trucks for plant and visitors can use primary, secondary roads and rail way. By using main roads and railway, heavy volume of traffic and related matters can be avoided within residential area.

0 10

100m

DESIGN PROPOSAL

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SITE STUDY (TRAFFIC)

C O N T E X T
(Traffic)

Site study

Proposed site

Major road

Train station & rail

Surrounded transportation system

DESIGN PROPOSAL

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0.0 S I T E

SITE STUDY (ZONE)

C O N T E X T
(Zone)

Site study

Proposed site

Green zone

Residential zone

Commercial zone

Industrial zone

Proposed site & surrounded zoning

DESIGN PROPOSAL

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0.0 S I T E

C O N T E X T

PROGRAM BAR
1. Exhibition - 800m2

PROGRAM RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM

12

2. Seminar space - 100 m2 3. Seminar space - 300 m2 4. Experience space - 400 m2


7

5. Cafeteria - 150 m2 6. Lobby - 200 m2 7. Library - 150 m2 8. Office - 350 m2 9. Storage - 2000 m2

5 6 4 3 2 1

10

11

13

PROGRAM AND ITS PROPOTION ON SITE

14

10. Plant space - 500 m2

11. Loading space - 500 m2

12. Parking (Educational) - 500 m2

13. Parking (Plant) - 325 m2 14. Parking (Visitor) - 2000 m2

Total claimed area - 8275 m2

DESIGN PROPOSAL

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0.0 S I T E

C O N T E X T
OVERLAP SPACE DEVELOPMENT DIAGRAM

OVERLAP SPACE DEVELOPMENT DIAGRAM

Type A

Type B

Type C

DESIGN PROPOSAL

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0.0 S I T E

PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT

C O N T E X T
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT

E+A E E+P E+A+P

A E A+P P E+P

E+A E+A+P

A A+P P

Each strip represents a recycling method, they are joined together to create overlap and integrated relationship. Yellow = Concrete Debris Embeded Lime Mortar Wall Red = Recycled Timber Blue = Recycled Concrete Gabion Wall

THREE MBIUS STRIPS

There are three distinct programs and an overlap space. Yellow = Educatoinal space Red = Administration space Blue = Plant space Green = Overlap and hybrid space

THREE DIFFERENT PROGRAMS

Each strip is assigned a program and a material. The overlap area creates a hybrid space which can be used for a range of different programs including exhibitions, events and storage. The architectural response and experience is explored through the use of different materials and programs. E = Educational space A = Administration space P = Plant space

PROGRAM AND MATERIAL

E = Seminar space, Library, Cafeteria, Lobby A = Office (Entrance and Lobby) P = Plant, Loading Zone, Storage E+P = Hybrid Space E+A+P = Hybrid Space E+A = Lounge For Office Staff A+P = Office

PROGRAM ARRANGEMENT

MATERIAL CONCEPT DIAGRAM


Yellow = Concrete Debris Embeded Lime Mortar Wall Red = Recycled Timber Blue = Recycled Concrete Gabion Wall

DESIGN PROPOSAL

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0.0 S I T E

OVERLAP SPACE EXPLORATION

C O N T E X T

mobius straps for each programs

Administraion strap

Plant strap

Education strap

Interaction between programs

Interaction between education and aministration

Interaction between administration and plant

Interaction between education and plant

Lobby Cafeteria Library

Office +admin Office +admin Hybrid Storage Education Plant Office +admin Hybrid space

Plant Loading zone Seminar space

Program organization

Program organization

Program organization

Program organization

DESIGN PROPOSAL

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6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T

EMBEDED DEBRIS EXPLORATIONAL STUDY

Large size aggregate embeded

Large + small size aggregate embeded

Medium size aggregate embeded

Small size aggregate embeded

DESIGN PROPOSAL

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ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE

ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE

49

CONCRETE | RECYCLING CENTRE

Tommy Jae Wuk Shin

PERSPECTIVE VIEW EXTERIOR

ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE

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Tommy Jae Wuk Shin

6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T

PLAN

5 3 4
UP

Section

10

PLAN LEVEL 1
0 1 10m

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Seminar space Library Secondary reading space Cafe Cafe (outdoor) Entrance for staffs Plant Loading lane Storage Hybrid space

Gabion wall Concrete debris embeded lime mortar wall Cross laminated recycle timber wall

ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE

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6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T

PLAN

11

12

13 14

Section

16 15

PLAN LEVEL 2
0 1 10m

11 12 13 14 15 16

Lounge (kitchen for staffs) Lounge (TV for staffs) Waiting space Office Manager space Meeting space Gabion wall Concrete debris embeded lime mortar wall Cross laminated recycle timber wall

ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE

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6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T

SECTION

Detail 01

Detail 02

Detail 03

SECTION
0 1 10m

ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE

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SECTION RENDER VIEW (EVENT SETTING FOR HYBRID SPACE)

ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE

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6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T

HYBRID SPACE PLAN VARIATION

HYBRID SPACE PLAN VARIATIONS

Event hall

Exhibition

Function room

Gabion wall Concrete debris embeded lime mortar wall Cross laminated recycle timber wall

ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE

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6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T

DETAIL

CLT lintel 200mm thick

200mm thick CLT lintel

Retained used window

Reinforcement rod

1000mm Wall containing retained concrete debris and lime mortar

Reinforcement mesh

Detail 01 Concrete debris embeded lime mortar wall


1 : 20

ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE

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6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T

DETAIL

300 mm CLT wall panel

Concrete foundation floor containing recycled aggregate

Slab rebar

Base point sole bracket

Link

Pile

Detail 02 CLT wall panel joint


1 : 20

ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE

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6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T

DETAIL

Anchor connector

Metal plate connector

Waterproof membrane

CLT roof panel 300 mm 500 x 500 mm LVL column

Gabion wall containing reused concrete debris 1000mm thick

Detail 03 Gabion wall CLT roof panel


1 : 20

ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE

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6.0 C O N C R E T E & E N V I R O N M E N T

MATERIAL PALETTE

Material

Description
Used timbers - Recycle into CLT panels - Recycle into LVL columns - Minimal transportation (locally available) -Prevent further raw material excavation

Applications
Gabion system

Precedence

Applied location on plan

Actual application

Surrounding wall of plant space


Concrete debris - Reuse into gabion system - Reuse into wall (with lime mortar) - Minimal transportation (locally available) -Prevent further raw material excavation

CLT and LVL structural system and recycled timber cladding

Surrounding wall of office space Concrete debris embeded lime mortar wall system

Used windows and doors - Reuse into another windows - Reuse into another doors - Minimal transportation (locally available)

Surrounding wall of educational space


Empty glass bottles - Reuse into bottle wall - Minimal transportation (locally available)

Concrete floor using recycling aggregate

Foundation floor area


Crushed concrete aggregate - Recycle into concrete - Minimal transportation (locally available) -Prevent further raw material excavation

Openings using used windows and doors

Every opening in the building


Lime mortar - Replacing cement - Carbon neutral - Absorb carbon dioxide

Bottle wall

Cafe area and office entrance area

ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE

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ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECT

NATURAL LIGHT AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECT WITHIN DESIGN

4
9am

4
12pm

4
3pm

Proposed building has its emphasis on sustainability and environment as explained earlier in this report especially the aspect of material use. (please refer to material palette on page 59). Following is succinct explaination of included design aspect on thermal mass and natural light. As shown in sun shade diagram, spaces for public use (educational and hybrid space) have access to natural light during day time. (north facing) To obtain thermal mass, the thickness of gabion wall and concrete debris lime mortal wall were decided to be 1000 mm. (Please refer this to plan drawings and detail drawings in Architectural response chapter) Proposed building was designed for one service wall as all the programs that require service wall on level 1 and 2 were intentionally located surrounding this service wall. It can be seen on plan drawing where toilets and kitchens are located around this service wall on level 1 and 2.

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PERSPECTIVE VIEW WITH CONTEXT

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CAFE AREA

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SECONDARY READING SPACE

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HYBRID SPACE (EXHIBITION)

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STORAGE

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LOADING LANE

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ENTRANCE FOR STAFF

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CAFE AND SECONDARY READING SPACE

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GLOSSARY AND REFERENCE

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Glossary
Fly Ash

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S H I N

One of the residues generated in combustion, and comprises the fine particles that rise with the flue gases. Ash which does not rise is termed bottom ash. In an indusgtrial context, fly ash usually refers to ash produced during combustion of coal.

GGBFS

Ground granulated blast-furnace slag is obtained by quenching molten iron slag (a by-product of iron and steel-making) from blast furnace in water or stream, to produce a glassy, granular product that is then dried and ground into a fine powder.

Ready mixed concrete Merchant bags

Type of concrete that is manufactured in a factory or batching plant and delivered to work site by truck mounted transit mixers.

Manufactured cement product, which is in powder form. Merchant bag is to carry and sell manufactured cement powder.

Clinker

In the manufacture of Portland cement, clinker is lumps or nodules, usually 3-25 mm in diameter, produced by sintering limestone and alumino-silicate (clay) during the cement kiln stage.

C&DW

Construction and demolition waste

RCA

Recycled concrete aggregate

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References

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CCANZ. Annual report. 2011. CEMBUREAU. Building a future, with cement and concrete. 2007. CEMBUREAU. Sustainable cement production. 2007. Cement & concrete association of New Zealand. Concrete3 economic, social, environmental. 2007. Holcim. Annual review. 2010. International Energy Agency. Biofuels roadmap. 2011. International energy agency. Cement technology roadmap 2009. 2009. International energy agency. Energy technology transitions for industry. 2009. International energy agency. Tracking industrial energy efficiency and co2 emissions. 2007. International Energy Agency and World business council for sustainable development. Cement Technology Roadmap 2009. Isaacs, Nigel. "Cementing history." Build. no. June/July (2008): 88-89. Jaques, Roman. Environmental impact associated with New Zealand cement manufacture. BRANZ, 1998. NRMCA (National Ready Mixed Concrete Association). Concrete CO2 fact sheet. 2008. USGS. 2010 Mineral yearbook. 2010. World Business Council for Sustainable Development. The cement sustainability initiative. 2009. Worrell, Ernst, Lynn Price, Nathan Martin, Chris Hendriks, and Ozawa Meida. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Global Cement Industry. WRAP, Accessed March 23, 2012. http://aggregain.wrap.org.uk.

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