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General microbiology and immunology.

1. Rather often the cause of acquired immunodeficiencies is the infectious damage of organism which is characterized by causative agents reproduction directly in immune system cells and destruction of these cells. Choose such disease among given below. *A. AIDS B. Diphtheria C. Poliomyelitis D. Cholera E. Epidemic typhus 2. Gram-negative comma-shaped bacteria are revealed in the feces of a patient with diarrhea. What properties should be studied with a microscope first of all to receive additional information about the revealed microbes? A. Presence of spores B. Presence of capsule *C. Motility D. Presence of volutin inclusions E. Presence of glycogen inclusions 3. During a sanitary-bacteriological tap water investigation the following results were obtained: the total amount of bacteria in 1.0 ml is 80, coli index is 3. How should the results of the investigation be evaluated? A. Quality of water is doubtful *B. Water is eligible for drinking C. Quality of water is very doubtful D. Water is polluted E. Water is considerably polluted 4. Sanitary-bacteriological investigation of water by the method of membranous filters detects two red colonies on a membranous filter (Endo medium), through which 500 ml of the explored water has been passed. What are the coli index and coli titer of the explored water? *A. 4 and 250 B. 2 and 500 C. 250 and 4 D. 500 and 2 E. 250 and 2 5. A patient referred to a doctor on the second week of illness, which resembled of typhoid-paratyphoid disease by clinicoepidemiologic findings. The doctor decided to confirm the diagnosis by detecting specific antibodies. What preparation should be used for this purpose? A. Adsorbed monoreceptor serums B. Diagnostic serums C. Labeled serums D. Monoclonal antibodies *E. Diagnosticums 6. Profilactic vaccination of a students group was necessary because of a case of diphtheria. What preparation should be used to develop artificial active immunity? *A. Diphtheria toxoid B. Antidiphtheritic serum C. Specific immunoglobulin D. Vaccine DPT (triple vaccine) E. Inactivated vaccine 7. Immunofluorescence reaction is widely used for express-diagnostics of many bacterial and viral infections. Choose the type of the microscope needed for this reaction. A. Light microscope

B. Electron microscope *C. Fluorescence microscope D. Phase-contrast microscope E. Dark-field microscope 8. Microbiology examinations are carried out in the neonatal department of a maternity hospital because of the suspicion of a hospital infection. S.aureus from several children and some things was isolated. What properties of isolated cultures should be examined to determine the source of infection? A. Biochemical activity B. Chromogenesis C. Antigenic structure *D. Phage type E. Antibiotic sensitivity 9. A 1.5-year-old boy who hasnt been inoculated according to the schedule contacted with a patient with measles. For emergency specific prevention the child was given donor -globulin. What kind of immunity developed in this case? A. Natural *B. Passive C. Antitoxic D. Postvaccinal E. Local 10. The essential drawback of the microscopy method of investigation diagnostics is insufficient informativeness caused by morphologic similarity of many microorganisms. Which of the following can increase the informativeness? A. Radioimmunoassay B. Coombs test C. ELISA D. Opsonization reaction *E. Immunofluorescence testing 11. A patient with brucellosis has a positive Burnets intracutaneus allergy test. Which immune system factor can induce inflammatory reaction in the site of brucellin introduction? A. Ig A *B. Sensitized T-lymphocytes C. Ig E D. Ig G E. Ig D 12. Donor skin has been transplanted to a patient with extensive burn. In 4-5 days the skin transplantant adapted, but it became swollen and changed color on the eight day. Ten days later it started to reject. Which cells take pert in this process? *A. T-lymphocytes B. Erythrocytes C. Basophiles D. Eosinophils E. B-lymphocytes 13. Production of antibodies is one of the most important parts of immune response of an organism. Which type of cells actually secrets antibodies? A. T-lymphocytes *B. Plasma cells C. T-helpers D. Macrophages E. Microphages

14. When using treatment antitoxic serums a patient is always given precisely defined doses. In what unts is the activity of antitoxic antidiphtheric serum measured? *A. International B. Flocculation C. Antigenic D. Agglutination E. Neutralization 15. With the purpose of acceleration sugar-containing media were sterilized by live, nonpressurized steam in one day: during 30 minutes in the morning, in the evening, and in the afternoon. In what way should the media have been sterilized? A. During 1 hour B. During 15 min., three days in succession C. During 30 min., two days in succession *D. During 30 min., three days in succession E. During 15 sec., twice a day 16. Stool culture revealed S.zonnei. What additional researches should be carried out to determine the source of infection? A. Drugs susceptibility test *B. Phage typing test C. Precipitation test D. Complement-fixing reaction E. Neutralization reaction 17. After practical activity in a laboratory students must put in order and disinfect their working place. Choose the chemical agent, which should be used. A. Ether B. Chloric acid C. Formalin D. Chloroform *E. Chloramine 18. A child with the diagnosis of staphylococcal sepsis was admitted to a hospital. What nutrient medium should be used for patients blood inoculation to isolate the causative agent of this disease? A. Ploskirevs medium B. Meat peptone broth *C. Glucose peptone broth D. Buchins medium E. Yolk-salt agar 19. In a laboratory, researches on tetanus diagnostics were carried out. What method of sterilization should be used to destroy the isolated cultures of tetanus pathogens? *A. Autoclaving (steam under pressure) B. Boiling C. Tyndallization D. Dry E. Pasteurization 20. Furuncle pus smear showed spherical microbes arranged in a grape-like clusters. Name these microorganisms. *A. Staphylococci B. Diplococci C. Micrococci D. Streptococci

E. Tetracocci 21. A patient injured in an accident has been suspected of probable development of anaerobic wound infection (gas gangrene). What is the most appropriate treatment before making a specific laboratory diagnosis? A. Native plasma B. Toxoid C. Type specific immune serum *D. Polyvalent specific serum E. Placental -globulin 22. A 55-year-old patient is hospitalized to a surgical department with suspicion of sepsis. Choose the specimen which should be obtained for examination. A. Liquor *B. Blood C. Urine D. Pus E. Lymph node punctuate 23. Cases of suppurative postoperative complications caused by staphylococcus have increased in a surgical unit. Which test should be used to determine the source of infection? A. Drugs susceptibility test B. Serotyping test C. Aggression enzymes determination D. Toxin production *E. Phage typing 24. Bacteriological examination of the feces of a 38-year-old woman, who had been ill with typhoid fever 1.5 year ago, revealed Salmonella typhi. Name the form of the infectious process. *A. Bacteria carrying B. Secondary infection C. Reinfection D. Superinfection E. Recidivation 25. After vaccination of infants immunity to tuberculosis is preserved until there are live bacteria of vaccine strain in the body. Name this kind of immunity. A. Type specific B. Humoral *C. Non-sterile (infectious) D. Innate E. Crossed 26. A pregnant woman complained of itching and genital tracts discharges. Bacterioscopy of vaginal discharges smear showed big Gram-positive oval oblong cells which form pseudomycelium. What is the most plausible causative agent of the disease? A. Staphylococci *B. Fungi of Candida genus C. Streptococci D. Diplococci E. Sarcina 27. A doctor in charge of immunization program makes the list of preparations to prevent a season influenza epidemic. Which one of the following is the least allergenic and the most likely develop active specific immunity? *A. Subunit vaccine

B. Live vaccine C. Killed vaccine D. Donor -globulin E. -interferon 28. After inoculation of the feces specimen from a patient with typhoid fever onto Endo medium colonies of different size and color big red and medium colorless have grown. Name the functional type of this medium. A. Selective B. Enriched C. Special * D. Differential-diagnostic E. Universal (general purpose) 29. For prevention of the seasonal high of influenza in educational institutions doctors decided to carry out immunization of children and teenagers. Which preparation should be used for this purpose? A. Interferon B. Normal human immunoglobulin C. Remantadin D. Oxolin *E. Vaccine 30. Feces culture of a patient with typical clinical picture of shigellosis did not reveal shigella due to early treatment with antibiotics. But antishigellosis antibodies titer in PHAT in pair serums increased by four times. What does it mean? A. Vaccinal reaction. B. Excludes shigellosis diagnosis. C. The patient was ill with shigellosis before. D. Nonspecific reaction. *E. Confirms shigellosis diagnosis. 31. Vaginal dysbacteriosis of a pregnant woman is diagnosed. What preparation should be prescribed in this case? A. Bacteriophage. B. Antibiotic. C. Interferon. *D. Eubiotic. E. Polyvitamin. 32. Scheduled vaccination against measles has been carried out in a kindergarten. What method can be used to check up the development of postvaccinal immunity? A. Bacteriological. B. Virologic. *C. Serologic. D. Bacterioscopic. E. Allergic. 33. The staphylococcus, isolated from the nasopharynx of a nurse during hospital infection, differs from the strain, isolated from patients, by containing R-plasmid. What feature can the hospital strain acquire due to the conjugation with the strain isolated from the nurse? *A. Antibiotics resistance. B. Production of enterotoxin. C. Production of epidermolitic toxin. D. Coagulase production. E. Rough colonies formation.

34. Numerous vaccine preparations have been used to induce human active immunity. Which preparation is presented by live attenuated bacteria? A. APDT vaccine. *B. BCG vaccine. C. Salk's vaccine. D. TABTe vaccine. E. Hepatitis B vaccine. 35. Candidosis of the oral cavity of a child is diagnosed. What preparation should be used for treatment? A. Cifran. B. Gentamycin. C. Penicillin sodium salt. D. Tetracycline hydrochloride. *E. Nystatin. 36. Sanitary-bacteriological water research is carried out to assess drinking water eligibility. What numerical symbol characterizes the amount of E.coli in one liter? A. Perfringens titer. B. Coli titer. C. Coli phage titer. *D. Coli index. E. Total microbial amount. 37. S. aureus associated with S. epidermidis is isolated from numerous skin pustules of a 25-year-old patient. Sputum analysis detects Pneumocysts carinii; feces analysis detects cryptosporidia, Proteus vulgaris, and fungi of Candida genus. What disease is characterized by such multi pIe infection caused by opportunistic microorganisms? *A. AIDS. B. Diabetes mellitus. C. Sepsis. D. Dysbacteriosis. E. Drug agranulocytosis. 38. A child, who is recovering after measles, has developed pneumonia caused by opportunists. What is the most probable form of this infection? A. Reinfection. *B. Secondary infection. C. Superinfection. D. Persistence infection. E. Mixed infection. 39. The territory of the burial ground of cattle, which has not been used for more than 50 years, is planned for house building. However, soil examination has shown the presence of viable spores of an especially dangerous disease causative agent. Name the microorganism which could have been preserved in soil during such a long time. A. Yersinia pestis. B. Francisella tularensis. C. Brucella abortus. *D. Bacillus anthracis. E. Mycobacterium bovis. 40. A diagnosticum (processed with tannin sheep erythrocytes adsorbed by Vi-antigen of Salmonella typhi) has been used for serologic diagnostics of typhoid carrying. Choose the reaction, in which this diagnosticum will be used. A. Preci pitation. B. Hemagglutination.

C. Hemagglutination ihhibition reaction. *D. Indirect (passive) hemagglutination. E. Complement fixation test. 41. A patient with clinical symptoms of immunodeficiency with invariable quantity and functional activity of T and B-cells is found to have a molecular level defect. This defect is accompanied by the disorder of antigen-presenting function of immunocompetent cells. Name these cells. A. NK -cells. B. T- and B-Iymphocytes. *C. Macrophages. D. Fibroblasts, T- and B-Iymphocytes. E. B-Iymphocytes. 42. Acquired defect of immune system of a patient is diagnosed - a disorder of complement system activation by the classical pathway against the background of the sufficient content of system components. Defect of antibody production is suspected. Decrease in number of what antibodies can be expected first of all? A. IgM, IgA. B. IgA, IgG. C. IgD, IgG. D. IgE,IgG. *E. IgM, IgG. 43. There is a flu epidemic in a city. Which preparation could be recommended for the nonspecific prevention of the disease? *A. Remantadin. B. Influenza vaccine. C. Benzylpenicillin sodium salt. D. Antigrippal immunoglobulin. E. Antigrippal serum. 44. A patient, who has been taking antibiotics for a long time, has developed intestinal dysbacteriosis. What drugs should be prescribed for restoration of normal microflora? A. Sulfonamide. *B. Eubiotics. C. Interferon. D. Antimycotic. E. Nitrofurans. 45. To determine the toxigenicity of diphtheria causative agents isolated from patients, cultures are inoculated onto a Petri dish with nutrient agar on both sides of the centrally located filter paper strip sodden with antidiphtheric antitoxic serum. After cultures incubation in the agar between separate cultures and filter paper strip the sites of medium opacity are revealed. Which serological reaction has been carried out? *A. Precipitation in gel. B. Coombs reaction. C. Agglutination. D. Ring-precipitation. E. Opsonization. 46. After penetration into an organism bacteria are ingested by macrophages. What is the function of microphages in immunocompetent cells cooperation at the first stage of immune response? A. Activation of NK-cells. B. T -killers activation. *C. Processing and presentation of antigen to T-helpers. D. Antibodies production.

E. Processing and presentation of antigen to T -killers. 47. Serologic diagnostics of infectious diseases is based on specific antigen-antibody interaction. Name the serological reaction, which consists in microorganisms clumping under the influence of specific antibodies in the presence of electrolyte. A. Hemadsorption. B. Preci pitation. C. Complement fixation test. *D. Agglutination. E. Neutralization. 48. Serologic diagnostics of infectious diseases is based on specific antigen-antibody interaction. Name the serological reaction, during which highly refined antigens are adsorbed on erythrocytes. A. Neutralization. B. Precipitation. C. Complement fixation test D. Hemadsorption. *E. Indirect hemagglutination. 49. Serologic diagnostics of infectious diseases is based on specific antigen-antibody interaction. How is the antigen sedimentation from solution reaction under the influence of immune serum in the presence of electrolyte called? A. Neutralization. B. Agglutination. C. Complement fixation. D. Hemadsorption. *E. Precipitation. 50. Indirect immunofluorescence test has been used to detect toxoplasmas antibodies in the blood serum of a pregnant woman. At first, the fixed smear of toxoplasmas was processed with the investigated serum. With what should the specimen be processed at the following stage? *A. Luminescent serum against human immunoglobulins. B. Fluorescent solution. C. Human normal immunoglobulin. D. Diagnostic serum containing toxoplasmas antibodies. E. E. Serum containing fluorescent-labeled toxoplasmas antibodies. 51. A 54-year-old woman referred to a doctor with complaints of hen's eggs intolerance, which appeared recently. Antihistamines prescribed by the doctor slightly improved the status of the patient. What antibodies could provide the development of this reaction? A. IgA. *B. Ig E C. Ig D D. Ig G E. Ig M 52. A patient with symptoms of primary immunodeficiency is found to have a defect of antigen-presenting function of immunocompetent cells. The structure defect of what cells is possible? *A. Macrophages, monocytes. B. T-cells. C. B-cells. D.NK-cells. E. Plasma cells.

53. A 37-year-old woman periodically had infectious diseases of bacterial genesis during a year. Their clinical course was extremely prolonged, remissions were short-term. Hypogammaglobulinemia was revealed by examination. The functional defect of what cells might be the direct cause of the disease? A. Neutrophiles. B. Eosinophils. *C. B-cells. D. Macrophages. E. Basophiles. 54. Bloodstains are revealed on the clothes of a person accused of a murder. What test can prove that the blood is human? A. Neutralization. B. Immunofluorescence test. C. Complement fixation test. D. Agglutination. *E. Precipitation. 55. Pure culture of diphtheria corynebacteria is isolated from a patient. What serologic test should be used for detecting toxigenicity of the culture? A. Agglutination. *B. Precipitation in agar. C. Complement fixation test. D. Hemagglutination inhibition. E. Passive hemagglutination. 56. A patient is hospitalized with the previous diagnosis of hepatitis B. To diagnose the disease a serological reaction based on interaction of antigen and antibody, chemically linked to peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase, was carried out. Name this reaction. A. Complement fixation test. B. Radioimmunoassay. C. Immunofluorescence test. *D. Enzyme immunoassay. E. Immobilization. 57. A causative agent has been isolated from a patient with acute gastroenteritis. It should be identified by antigen structure. Which serological reaction should be used? A. Precipitation. B. Complement fixation test. C. Neutralization. *D. Agglutination. E. Opsonization. 58. A patient with a suspicion of the chronic form of gonorrhea was admitted to a hospital. Choose a twosystem serological reaction for detecting specific antibodies in the serum. *A. Complement fixation test. B. Neutralization. C. Agglutination. D. Radioimmunoassay. E. Enzyme immunoassay. 59. A patient with the previous diagnosis of botulism has been hospitalized. What serological reaction should be used to determine botulinum toxin in test specimens? A. Complement fixation test. B. Agglutination. *C. Neutralization. D. Precipitation.

E. Immunofluorescence test. 60. Sanitary-microbiologic drinking water research is being carried out in a bacteriological laboratory. Total microbial amount appeared to be nearly 100. What microorganisms were taken into account? A. Enteropathogenic bacteria and viruses. B. Coliform bacteria. C. Pathogenic for people and animals bacteria. D. Opportunistic microorganisms. *E. All bacteria, which have grown on nutrient medium. 61. Microbial amount of air in a hospital room appeared to be 1500 cells/ m3 What groups of microorganisms were taken into consideration? A. Bacteria and viruses - causative agents of respiratory infections. *B. All bacteria, which have grown in nutrient medium. C. Staphylococci and streptococci. D. Hospital infection causative agents. E. All pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria. 62. A patient recovered completely after Sonne shigellosis and was repeatedly infected by this causative agent. How is such form of infection called? A. Superinfection. B. Recidivation. *C. Reinfection. D. Persistent infection. E. Chronic infection. 63. Sputum examination by Price method revealed rod-shaped bacteria arranged in twisted ropes. Which substance leads to sticking of these bacteria and their above-mentioned growth? A. Tuberculin. *B. Cord-factor. C. Phosphatid. D. Tuberculostearic acid. E. PPD. 64. Immunological tests of a patient with clinical symptoms of immunodeficiency have been carried out. Significant decrease of cells, forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes, has been revealed. What conclusion should be made on the basis of analysis data? A. Decrease of complement system level. B. Decrease of B-cells level. C. Decrease of natural killers (NK-cells) level. *D. Decrease of T-cells level. E. Decrease of thrombocytes quantity. 65. A man referred to the reception ward of an infectious disease hospital, having received by mail an envelope with suspicious powder. The man was isolated, and the powder was sent to the laboratory for detecting the presence of anthrax causative agent's spores. Which is the fastest method of detecting these microorganisms? A. Isolation of pure culture. B. Complement fixation test. C. Preci pitation in gel. *D. Immunofluorescence test. E. Neutralization test. 66. Causative agent antigens can be revealed in blood of patients with different infectious diseases. What reaction should be used, taking into account that antigenemia level is low? *A. ELISA.

B. Agglutination test. C. Indirect hemagglutination test. D. Latex agglutination method. E. Immunoelectrophoresis. 67. Effective diagnostics of enteric bacteria carrying is based on detecting antibodies to certain bacteria antigens during indirect hemagglutination test. Name the standard preparation which should be used. A. Sheep erythrocytes and hemolytic serum. B. Antibodies against immunoglobulins of basic classes. C. Monoclonal antibodies. D. Monoreceptor diagnostic serum. *E. Erythrocytic diagnosticum (erythrocyte adsorbed by bacteria antigens). 68. Hemolytic serum against sheep erythrocytes is necessary for work in the laboratory, where serologic diagnostics of infectious diseases is carried out. Name the test, during which the serum is used. A. Viral hemagglutination test. B. Indirect hemagglutination test. C. Test for the diagnostics of newborns' diseases. D. Passive hemagglutination. *E. Complement fixation test. 69. Feces bacteriological examination of a patient with enteric infection revealed Shigella sonnei. Choose the serological reaction, which was used for the identification of the obtained pure culture. A. Complement fixation test. B. Precipitation. *C. Agglutination. D. Neutralization. E. Lysis test. 70. Students have been proposed to stain a mixture of bacteria by Gram's method and explain the mechanism of staining at a microbiology practical class. Name the morphological structures of bacteria that cause Gram-negative or Gram-positive staining of bacteria. A. CPM (cytoplasm membrane). *B. Cell wall. C. Capsule. D. Flagella. E. Cytoplasm. 71. To conduct syphilis serum diagnostics using the Wassermann test a laboratory doctor has prepared the following reagents: cardiolipidic antigen (ethanolic extract of lipids from a bull's cardiac muscle with cholesterol), hemolytic system, test serums, isotonic sodium chloride solution, and antigen of treponema destroyed by ultrasound. What another ingredient should be used for this test? *A. Complement. B. Live treponema. C. Sheep erythrocytes. D. Diagnostic precipitating serum. E. Diagnostic antiglobulin serum. 72. Microscopy of the sputum of a patient with an acute form of pulmonary tuberculosis is carried out to detect the causative agent of this disease. What method of staining is the most rational in this case? A. Gram's. *B. Ziehl-Neelsen's. C. Burri -Gins'. D. Romanowsky- Giemsa. E. Neisser.

73. A patient has acute gonorrhea diagnosed. It is known, that the patient was ill with gonorrhea before, but was cured completely. Name the form of this infection. A. Secondary infection. B. Superinfection. C. Recidivation. *D. Reinfection. E. Autoinfection. 74. Control of instrument sterilization in autoclave was carried out with the help of a biologic method. What bacteria are the most rational to use as test-microorganisms? *A. Spore forming. B. Capsule forming. C. Acid-fast. D. Pathogenic. E. Thermophilic. 75. A microorganism, isolated from a 5-year-old child's nasopharynx, is identical to Corynebacterium diphtheriae by morphological and biochemical properties, but doesn't form exotoxin. What process can make this microorganism toxigenetic? A. Chromosome mutation. B. Cultivation on telurite medium. C. Passage through the organism of sensitive animals. D. D. Cultivation in the presence of antitoxic serum. *E. Phage conversion. 76. A patient with viral hepatitis A was admitted to an infectious hospital. What antibodies will be synthesized first in response to this virus reproduction? A. IgA. B. IgG. *C. IgM. D. IgD. E. IgE.

Special microbiology
77. Pure culture of cocci-like microorganisms of urethral discharge was isolated from a patient with chronic urethritis. The culture fermented only glucose to acid in the standard Hiss' medium. Name the species of these microorganisms. *A. Neisseria gonorrheae. B. Neisseria meningitidis. C. Staphylococcus au reus. D. Streptococcus pyogenes. E. Enterococcus faecalis. 78. Microscopy of the smear of vaginal discharges of a woman with chronic colpovaginitis revealed round and oval budding cells 3-6 micrometers in size. Name the fungal disease, which can be caused by these microorganisms. A. Epidermophytium. B. Coccidiosis. *C. Candidosis. D. Microsporia. E. Cryptococcosis. 79. Microscopy of the blood smear stained by Romanovsky-Giemsa showed thin, bluish-violet filaments with 5-7 large cu r1s 10-30 micrometers and more long. What disease can be characterized by such microscopic picture?

A. Leishmaniasis. B. Syphilis. C. Leptospirosis. D. Toxoplasmosis. *E. Relapsing fever. 80. Microscopy of the specimen of a regional lymph node punctate stained by Romanowsky-Giemsa showed thin microorganisms with 12-14 regular curls and pointed ends of light rose color 10-13 micrometers long. What disease could this agent cause? A. Relapsing fever. B. Toxoplasmosis. C. Leptospirosis. *D. Syphilis. E. Leishmaniasis. 81. Sputum of a patient with tuberculosis was delivered to a laboratory. What method of staining should be used for detecting causative agents of tuberculosis? A. Gram's. *B. Ziehl-Neelsen's. C. Burri - Gins'. D. Romanowsky-Giemsa. E. Neisser. 82. A patient with typhoid fever suspected was administered blood culture. It is rational because during the first week of enteric fever the following phenomenon is observed: A. Toxinemia. *B. Bacteremia. C. Septicemia. D. Septicopyemia. E. Viremia. 83. In the feces of a patient with acute gastroenteritis there were revealed motile, slightly curved Gramnegative rods, which grow onto alkaline 1 % peptone water in the form of tender bluish pellicle. What microorganisms have such properties? A. Spirilla. B. Spirochetes. C. Clostridia. D. Bacilli. *E. Vibrios. 84. During a scheduled examination milkmaids had a Burnet's intracutaneus allergy test. This test is used to detect hypersensitivity to: *A. Brucellin. B. Tuberculin. C. Old tuberculin. D. Tularin. E. Antraxin. 85. Microscopy of the sputum of a patient with croupous pneumonia revealed numerous Gram-positive lanceolate diplococci surrounded by a capsule. Name the most likely causative agent. A. Chlamidia pneumoniae. B. Klebsiella pneumoniae. *C. Streptococcus pneumoniae. D. Staphylococcus aureus. E. Escherichia coli.

86. A patient complained of nausea, liquid blood-streaked stool with mucus, fever, general weakness. He was hospitalized to the infectious department of a hospital. A doctor suspected shigellosis. What method of laboratory diagnostics should be administered to confirm this diagnosis? *A. Bacteriological. B. Serologic. C. Mycological. D. Microscopic. E. Test on laboratory animals. 87. A patient was admitted to a clinic in grave condition, fever, heavy breathing. Preliminary diagnosis of diphtheria croup was made by the microscopy of throat specimen. What method of staining was used? A. Peshkov's. B. Ziehl-Neelsen's. C. Burri-Gins'. *D. Neisser's. E. Ozheshko's. 88. A patient was hospitalized to an infectious department on the 8th day of the disease complaining of headache, general weakness. Blood was taken for serological examination. Widal's reaction of agglutination appeared to be positive in dilution 1 :200 with O-diagnosticum Salmonella typhi. What diagnosis can be made? A. Cholera. B. Shigellosis. *C. Typhoid fever. D. Leptospirosis. E. Tuberculosis. 89. Pure culture of bacteria isolated from a patient with symptoms of colitis was identified as Shigella genus according to morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties. Which test should be used for serological identification of this culture? A. Inhibition of hemagglutination. B. Complement fixation test. C. Indirect hemagglutination. D. Precipitation. *E. Agglutination with diagnostic serums. 90. An extract of cattle0breading raw material was delivered to a laboratory from the area, where cases of anthrax among animal were noted. What serological reaction should be used for detecting anthrax causative agent antigens un the investigated specimen? *A. Termoprecipitation B. Complement fixation test C. Inderect hemagglutination D. Radioimmunoassay E. Precipitation in agar 91. Pure culture was isolated from a patient with typhoid fever suspected. The culture was identified as S. Typhi by morphologic, cultural and biochemical characteristics. What investigation should be used for final identification of the causative agent? A. Serodiagnosis *SeroidentificationB. C. Allergic diagnostics D. Antibiotic-sensitivity test E. Phage typing

92. A 12-year-old boy with food poisoning suspected was hospitalized. Feces culture on Endo medium revealed numerous colorless colonies. Name the microorganism, which can be excluded from the number of possible causative agents of this disease/ A. Pseudomonas aeruginosa B. Salmonella enteritidis C. Proteus vulgaris *D. Escherichia coli E. Yersinia enterocolitica 93. A 6-year-old child with active tubercular process suspected had a diagnostic Mantoux test carried out. What immunobiological preparation was injected? A. APDT vaccine B. BCG vaccine *C. Tuberculin D. Tularin E. ADT vaccine 94. After eating canned mushrooms patient has bulbar paralysis, diplopia, aphonia. Botulism was previously diagnosed. What test should be used to detect the toxin type? *A. Neutralization B. Agglutination C. Precipitation D. Complement fixation test E. Immunofluorescence test 95. As a result of feces inoculation onto 1% alkaline peptone water after 24 hours incubation with 37C temperature a growth in the form of tendish pellicle was revealed. Microscopically revealed Gram-negative curved rods. What disease could these microorganisms cause? A. Shigellosis B. Plague C. Typhoid fever D. Paratyphoid fever *E. Cholera 96. Bacteriologycal examination of urethral discharge revealed Gram-negative bacteria of coffee beans shape, which fermented glucose to acid and which found in leukocytes. To what causative agents can they be refered? A. Syphilis. *B. Gonorrhea. C. Venereal lymphogranulomatosis. D. Soft chancre. E. Leptospirosis. 97. After complex examination of a patient lepra was diagnosed. Name the in allergic test, which should be used to confirm the diagnosis. A. Dick's. B. Mantoux. *C. Mitsudas test D. Coombs'. E. Schick's. 98. A 34-year-old patient complained carbuncle on his face. Examination revealed a painless thin edema of subcutaneous fatty tissue with a black scar in the center, and vesicular eruption on the periphery. Microbiologic examination revealed nonmotile carpel-forming streptobacilli. What microorganisms are the causative agents of is disease? *A. Bacillus anthracis.

B. Staphylococcus aureus. C. Bacillus anthracoides. D. Bacillus subtilis. E. Bacillus megaterium. 99. Children had Mantoux test done a kindergarten. What preparation was used? *A. Tuberculin. B. Brucellin. C. Tularin. D. Antraxin. E. Toxoplasmin. 100. A patient is hospitalized to an infectious department with cholera suspected. What basic method of research is necessary to use for the confirmation of the diagnosis? A. Immunological. *B. Bacteriological. C. Biological. D. Serologic. E. Allergic. 101. Widal's test is used for the serologic diagnostics of typhoid fever. What mechanism of antigens and antibodies interaction underlies it? A. Hemolysis. B. Precipitation. C. Bacteriolysis. *D. Agglutination. E. Bacteria immobilization. 102. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was obtained from a sick child with diphtheria suspected. What research is necessary to be carried out to be convinced that this microbe causes diphtheria? A. Agglutination test. B. Staining by Burri-Giens' method. C. Inoculation on blood agar. D. Infecting a rabbit. *E. Determining of toxigenicity. 103. A child was hospitalized to a clinic. On the mucous membrane of cheeks, palate, and tongue there was revealed white and yellowish fur typical of candidiasis. What material should be taken for examination? *A. White exudates (plaques) from different sites of oral cavity. B. Hair and nails. C. Blood. D. Mucus from nasopharynx. E. Urine. 104. From the blood of a patient there was obtained the culture of typhoid fever pathogen. What cultural properties are characteristic of this pathogen? A. Hemolysis on blood agar. B. Formation of red colonies with metallic luster on Endo medium. C. Formation of colorless colonies on bismuth-sulfite agar medium. *D. Formation of colorless colonies on Endo medium. E. Formation of a gentle pellicle on alkaline peptone water. 105. Pus from urethra was inoculated onto special nutrient medium. Tender bluish colonies grew. Microscopical examination revealed Gram-negative bean-shaped diplococci. What disease do they cause? A. Syphilis. B. Chlamidiosis.

*C. Gonorrhea. D. Tularemia. E. Myeloidosis. 106. In a laboratory for the examination of animal skins the precipitation test is used (Askoly test). The result is: in some minutes after adding of the immune serum with skin extract an albescent ring formed. What does this result indicate? *A. Presence of bacillus anthracis antigens. B. . Presence of clostridium perfringens toxin. C. Presence of brucellosis causative agent. D. Presence of escherichia surface antigen. E. Presence of salmonella Vi-antigen. 107. There is registered an outbreak of food poisoning connected with eating confectionery products, which were kepi: at room temperature and for preparation of which duck's eggs were used. What microorganisms could have caused this disease? A. Vibrio cholerae. B. E.coli. C. Staphylococci. D. Legionella. *E. Salmonella. 108. Among the children of a boarding school there are cases of angina. Microscopy of tonsil smears stained by Neisser method revealed yellow rods with dark-brown terminal granules arranged in the form of V, W, and X letters. What infection can be suspected in this case? A. Infectious mononucleosis. *B. Diphtheria. C. Listeriosis. D. Tonsillitis. E. Scarlet fever. 109. The sputum of a patient with . tuberculosis was delivered to a bacteriological laboratory. What staining method should be used for microscopic examination of the smears for revealing tuberculosis mycobacteria? A. Zdrodovsky's. B. Burri's. *C. Ziehl-Neelsen's. D. Gram's. E. Romanovsky-Giemsa. 110. A jerked fish of domestic preparation which caused serious food poisoning was examined in a bacteriological laboratory. Microscopy of the culture isolated on Kitt-Tarozzi medium revealed microorganisms akin to a tennis-racket. What diagnosis is possible? *A. Botulism. B. Salmonellosis. C. Cholera. D. Shigellosis. E. Typhoid fever. 111. Cholecystic infection was caused by microorganisms of spherical oblong form situated in pairs or short chains. On the basis of biological properties the bacteria were referred to group D streptococci. What is their name? A. -hemolytic streptococci. B. -hemolytic streptococci. C. Pyogenic streptococci. *D. Enterococci.

E. Pneumococci. 112. Feces of a child with enteritis are resuspended in isotonic solution of sodium chloride, and a suspension drop is applied onto selective medium: 10 % milk-salt or yolk-salt agar. What microorganisms are supposed to be isolated? A. E. coli. *B. Staphylococci. C. Streptococci. D. Klebsiella. E. Enterococci. 113. A pediatrician examining a 3-month-old child has noticed that the mucous membrane of the oral cavity and the tongue are covered with dense whitish fur. In the material taken from the site of affection a bacteriologist has revealed yeast. What mycosis will he suspect in this case? A. Actinomycosis. B. Favus. C. Epidermophytia. *D. Candidiasis. E. Trichophytosis. 114. During the swing of flu epidemic a milkmaid referred to a doctor with complaints of high body temperature, general weakness, absence of appetite, pain in joints. During 10 days she has been having selftreatment for flu. The infectiologist suspected brucellosis. Using what reaction is it possible to diagnose brucellosis? *A. Wright's. B. Wassermann test. C. Coombs test. D. Widal's test. E. Ouchterlony test. 115. Gram-positive diplococci were revealed during the examination of a patient's sputum. Which microorganism is the most likely to cause the disease? A. Legionella pneumophila. B. Neisseria meningitidis. C. Klebsiella pneumoniae. D. Mycoplasma pneumoniae. *E. Streptococcus pneumoniae. 116. In a kindergarten children and personnel were examined with the purpose of detecting meningococcal carriers. What method of microbiological research should be used? A. Allergic. *B. Bacteriological. C. Bacterioscopic. D. Biological. E. Serologic. 117. Centrifuge urine of a patient with renal tuberculosis suspected was used to prepare a smear. What method of staining should be used for pathogen detecting? A. Loeffler's. B. Burri. C. Gram's. *D. Ziehl-Neelsen's. E. Romanovsky-Giemsa. 118. Feces of a patient with cholera were delivered to a laboratory of extremely dangerous infections. What method of microbiological diagnostics is to be used to confirm or deny the diagnosis?

A. Virological. B. Allergic. C. Bacterioscopic. D. Biological. *E. Bacteriological. 119. During a biological test in touch smears from the organs of an animal streptobacteria surrounded with a capsule were revealed. It gives the basis to diagnose: A. Tularemia. *B. Anthrax. C. Plague. D. Brucellosis. E. Croupous pneumonia. 120. To an infectious clinic a patient with preliminary diagnosed epidemic relapsing fever is hospitalized. What material, taken from the patient, is it necessary to exam first of all? *A. Blood. B. Urine. C. Spinal fluid. D. Feces. E. Nasopharynx swab. 121. A patient (has been feeling ill during 3 days) was hospitalized to an infectious clinic with typhoid fever preliminary diagnosed. What method should be used to confirm the diagnosis? *A. Hemoculture. B. Coproculture. C. Urine culture. D. Biliculture. E. Roseola culture. 122. A. 28-year-old patient with moderate intoxication and bloody diarrhea is hospitalized. Stool culture revealed curved Gram-negative bacteria - microaerophils, catalase-positive, urease-positive, without spores and capsules, motile. Which bacteria are characterized by these properties? A. Proteus mirabilis. B. Escherichia coli. C. Haemophilus influenzae. *D. Helicobacter pylori. E. Salmonella typhi. 123. In the sputum smear stained by Ziehl-Neelsen's method are revealed single or grouping red acid-fast rods. On nutrient media first growth signs appear in 14 days. What species do the microorganisms belong to? A. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. *B. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. C. Histoplasma dubrosii. D. Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. E. Coxiella burnettii. 124. The scraping of albescent fur from oral cavity mucous membranes was sent to a laboratory. The material was inoculated onto Sabouraud's medium. Sour cream-like colonies' growth was revealed. Bacterioscopic method has shown short budding strings. What group of infections can we refer this disease to? *A. Mycosis. B. Spirochetosis. C. Rickettsiosis. D. Mycoplasmosis.

E. Chlamidiosis. 125. A bacteriologist using a bacterioscopic test of nasopharynx mucus has revealed Gram-negative cocci that resemble coffee beans and are located in pairs or tetrads. Which microorganism was isolated by the bacteriologist? A. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. B. Hemophilus ifluenzae. C. Streptococcus pneumoniae. D. Moraxella lacunata. *E. Neisseria meningitidis. 126. A patient with an infectious disease has positive skin-allergic Burnet's test. What diagnosis was confirmed by this test? A. Q fever. B. Tularemia. C. Typhoid fever. D. Salmonellosis. *E. Brucellosis. 127. From the vomit mass of a patient there were isolated very motile, slightly curved, Gram-negative rods which react positively with Inaba's diagnostic serum. What symptoms, most probably, will appear with the treatment absent? A. Endotoxic shock. B. Bacteremia. *C. Fluid loss. D. Skin rash. E. Ulcerous damages of intestine. 128. Antitoxic serums are used for the prophylaxis and treatment of: A. Gonorrhea. B. Whooping cough. C. Shigellosis. *D. Diphtheria. E. Tuberculosis. 129. Examining a 6-year-olf child a doctor has noticed on pharyngeal tonsils a grayish "pseudomembrane". Attempt to remove it causes moderate bleeding. Bacterioscopy of tonsils swabs has shown Gram-positive club-shaped bacteria. What symptoms can appear within the next few days without specific treatment? A. Very strong attack-like cough. B. Lungs edema. *C. Toxic affection of the cardiac muscle, liver, kidneys. D. Papular rash on skin. E. Intermittent fever. 130. A 2-year-old boy was not given APDT vaccine according to schedule. On his pharyngeal tonsils there were revealed microorganisms, which by morphological and biochemical properties are identical to Corynebacterium diphtheriae. But precipitation test in gel with antitoxic serum has been negative. What form of infectious process can this agent cause without urgent treatment? *A. Asymptomatic bacteria carrying. B. Easy nontoxic form of disease. C. Toxic complicated form of disease. D. Chronic disease with the damage of internal organs. E. Persistent infection.

131. A 12-year-old boy after angina has rheumatic damage of heart. Every successive streptococcal infection worsens the condition of the patient. What preparation is expedient to use for the prevention of complications? A. Streptococcic toxoid. *B. Benzylpenicillin sodium salt. C. Streptococcic bacteriophage. D. Donor y-globulin. E. Autovaccine. 132. A doctor has suspected scarlet fever of a 2-year-old child with catarrh and skin rash. A small quantity of serum against streptococci erythrogenic toxin has been injected intracutaneously. In the place of injection the rash disappeared. What do reaction results indicate? A. The whole doze of serum can be injected intravenously. B. The child is hypersensitive to erythrogenic toxin. C. The disease has been caused by a nonhemolytic streptococcus. *D. The clinical diagnosis has proved to be true. E. Immune system of the child is considerably impaired. 133. An ophthalmologist has suspected blennorrhea (gonococcal conjunctivitis) of a sick child with purulent keratoconjunctivitis. What methods of laboratory diagnostics should be used for the confirmation of the diagnosis? A. Microscopic and serologic. B. Serologic and allergic. C. Biological and phage typing. D. Biological and allergic. *E. Microscopic and bacteriological. 134. A doctor has diagnosed meningococcal nasopharyngitis of a child with nasopharyngitis. What method of laboratory diagnostics is the most rational for diagnosis confirmation? A. Serologic. B. Biological. *C. Bacteriological. D. Microscopic. E. Allergic. 135. From a child with cerebrospinal meningitis there was obtained muddy spinal fluid with numerous leukocytes. Which test should be used for express-diagnostics of the disease? A. Complement fixation test. B. Agglutination *C. Immunofluorescence test. D. Hemagglutination. E. Neutralization. 136. A woman with complaints characteristic of inflammatory process in vagina has referred to a gynecologist. Which protozoa can it be caused by? *A. Trichomonas vaginalis. B. Toxoplasma gondii. C. Plasmodium malariae. D. Entamoeba coli. E. Lamblia intestinalis. 137. During bacterioscopic examination of the purulent discharge from the uterus there were revealed Gram-negative bean-like diplococci situated in leukocytes and out of them. Which microorganism is the causative agent of the purulent inflammation of the uterus? A. Chlamidia trachomatis. *B. :Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

C. HaemophiIus vaginalis. D. Trichomonas vaginalis. E. Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. 138. A patient with complaints of repeated diarrhea and vomiting, pain in muscles of legs, general weakness, and vertigo is hospitalized to an infectious department. After examination a doctor has previously diagnosed cholera. Which method of investigation of the specimen from the patient should be used for express-diagnostics? *A. Immunofluorescence test. B. Agglutination test. C. Bacteriological. D. Allergic. E. Biological. 139. A patient with a periodically repeating fever is hospitalized to an infectious department. In blood specimen (a thick drop), stained by RomanovskyGiemsa method, spiral microorganisms with sharp ends of blue-violet color are revealed. Which disease is caused by this agent? *A. Relapsing fever. B. Typhoid fever. C. Malaria. D. Epidemic typhus. E. Leptospirosis. 140. A patient with typhoid fever suspected has been admitted to an infectious hospital on the 3rd day of disease. What method of microbiological diagnostics should be used? A. Coproculture. *B. Hemoculture. C. Urine culture. D. Spinal fluid culture. E. Myeloculture. 141. A patient with syphilis suspected has arrived to a hospital. What method should be used for detecting the causative agent in hard chancre? A. Microscopy of material stained by Gram's method. B Isolation of pure culture. *C. Using dark-field microscopy D. Wassermann test. E. Agglutination test. 142. Blood of a patient with typhoid fever has been sent to a laboratory for detecting antibodies. Which serological reaction should be used? A. Hemagglutination inhibition. B. Precipitation. C. Complement binding. D. Passive hemagglutination. *E. Agglutination. 143. A doctor has suggested a patient to make bacteriological analysis to detect the causative agent of gastric ulcer'. What microorganisms can be isolated? A. Salmonellae. B. Listeria. C. Leptospires. *D. Helicobacter pylori. E. Shigellae.

144. A child has brucellosis diagnosed. The child didn't have any contacts with sick animals. How could the infection get into the organism? A. Via dirty hands. B. Via dirty vegetables and fruit. C. Via water. *D. Via unpasteurized milk. E. During injections. 145. A 16-year-old patient from the countryside has a negative Mantoux test. What should the doctor do? *A. To give BCG injection. B. To repeat the reaction in a month. C. To carry out tuberculosis serodiagnosis. D. To quarantine the young man from the collective urgently. E. To conduct the accelerated tuberculosis diagnostics by Price method. 146. The causative agent of tetanus produces exotoxin with different biological action effects. What clinical symptoms can this toxin cause? A. Disorders of vision. *B. Lackjaw. C. Diarrhea. D. Skin rash. E. Nausea. 147. On the mucous membrane of cheeks and tongue of a child albescent stains were revealed. In the prepared smears Gram-positive oval yeast-like cells are found. What causative agent is this? A. Corynebacterium diphtheriae. B. Staphylococci. *C. Fungi of Candida genus. D. Actinomycetes. E. Fusobacteria. 148. Microscopical examination of the sputum of a patient with acute pneumonia preliminary diagnosed has shown chaotically located microorganisms of ovoid form up to 2 microns long, more intensively stained on the poles. What the most probable diagnosis can be made on the basis of this data? *A. Pneumonic plague. B. Streptococcal pneumonia. C. Staphylococcal pneumonia. D. Klebsiella pneumonia. E. Diphtheria. 149. During fibrogastroscopy there was taken mucosa biopsy material in the site of the ulcer of a patient with stomach ulcer. In the Gram-stained touch smear there were revealed Gram-negative curved microorganisms. With the rest biopsy material urease test had been made. This test was positive. What bacteria have been revealed? A. Campylobacter jejuni B. Spirilla minor C. Shigella flexneri D. Treponema pallidum *E. Helicobacter pylori 150. A patient with complaints of a three days' fever, general weakness, insomnia, deterioration of appetite referred to a doctor. The doctor has suspected typhoid fever. What method of laboratory diagnostics is the most rational for confirmation of the diagnosis? A. Myeloculture B. Coproculture C. Urine culture

D. Spinal fluid culture. *E. Hemoculture 151. A 7-year-old boy has been diagnosed a cholera-like disease (vomiting profuse diarrhea). The feces of the patient were inoculated onto Endo medium, and homotypic crimson colonies with metallic sheen have grown. Which microorganism is the most likely to be the causative agent of the disease? A. Shigella sonnei. B. Salmonella enteritidis C. Yersinia enterocolitica *D. Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic type. E. Vibrio cholerae.
152. A patient with an avulsed wound of shin caused by a rabid animal bite was delivered to a hospital. What vaccine is necessary to introduce for prevention of rabies development? A. ADT vaccine. B. APDT vaccine *C. Antirabic vaccine D.BCG. E. TABTe.

153. During the bacteriological examination of gastric washings of a patient with food poisoning pure culture of bacteria with such properties was isolated: Gram-negative motile rods which form colorless colonies on Endo medium. Which microorganism species is the most likely to be the cause of the disease? *A. Salmonella. B. Shigella C. Yersinia D. Escherichia E. Citrobaeter 154. A girl of 7 with high temperature, complaints of pain in throat and general weakness has been hospitalized to the infectious department. The doctor has suspected diphtheria and has given the instruction to take material from the fauces for isolation of the pure culture of the pathogen. Which point is the most important for confirmation of the diagnosis diphtheria? A. Detecting volutin granules in the causative agent *B. Toxigenicity test. C. Cystinase test D. Hemolytic activity of the causative agent. E. Phage typing. 155. A 30-year-old patient's Wassermann test is positive (++++). What infectious disease diagnostics is this test used for? A. Brucellosis. *B. Syphilis. C. Tuberculosis. D. Poliomyelitis. E. Influenza. 156. To check cattle-breeding raw material (leather, wool) for the presence of anthrax agent soluble thermostable antigen in water-salt extract from raw material is prepared. What reaction may be used for this purpose? A. Neutralization. B. Precipitation in agar. C. Agglutination. D. Indirect hemagglutination. *E. Ring precipitation.

157. In the pediatric department of an infectious clinic a boy had diphtheria diagnosed. Which preparation should be injected first of all? *A. Diphtheritic antitoxin. B. Diphtheritic anatoxin. C. APDT. D. ADT. E. TABTe. 158. In the smear from the tonsils of a patient with diphtheria suspected there have been revealed blue rods with thickenings on the ends. What method of staining has been used? *A. Loeffler's. B. Burri's. C. Gins'. D. Gram's. E. Neisser's. 159. At a maternity hospital immunization of newborn children against tuberculosis has been carried out. What vaccine has been used? A. Tetanus toxoid. B. Diphtheritic toxoid. C. BCG. D. TABTe. *E. APDT. 160. At school medical inspection of pupils has been carried out. The purpose was to select children for revaccination against tuberculosis. Which test has been used? A. Burnet's. B. Schick's. C. Skin test with tularin. *D. Mantoux. E. Anthraxin skin test. 161. A sick woman has gonorrhea diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms. Which method is the most rational for confirmation of the diagnosis? A. Precipitation test. B. Infection of laboratory animals. C. Test with bacteriophage. D. Hemagglutination test. *E. Microscopy of pathological material. 162. A laboratory assistant has taken blood serum from a patient with preliminary diagnosed syphilis for the immune reaction based on detecting antibodies, which inhibit the motility of treponemes and lead to their death. What test has been used for diagnostics? A. Complement fixation. *B. Immobilization. C. Agglutination. D. Precipitation. E. Neutralization. 163. A bacteriological laboratory conducts a research of canned meat for the presence of botulinum toxin. An extract from the researched material with antitoxic antibotulinic serum of A, B, E types was injected to the experimental group of mice. An extract without antitoxic serum was injected to the control group. What serologic test has been used? A. Complement fixation. B. Precipitation. *C. Neutralization.

D. Opsonophagocytic. E. Double immune diffusion. 164. A student, having eaten meat, tinned in domestic conditions, has symptoms of food poisoning, caused by Clostridium botulinum: diplopia, dysphrasia, respiratory paralysis. What caused such symptoms of botulism? A. Enterotoxin secretion. B. C. botulinum invasion into intestinal epithelium. *C. Neurotoxin action. D. Endotoxic shock. E. Activation of adenylate cyclase. 165. A patient was hospitalized on the 5th day of illness with jaundice signs, pain in muscles, rigor, nose bleeding. A bacteriologist used dark-field microscopy. In the patient's blood there have been revealed motile spiral microorganisms. Name the causative agent. A. Bartonella bacilloformis. B. Borrelia duttoni. C. Calymmatobacterium granuloma *D. Leptospira interrogans. E. Rickettsia mooseri. 166. Feces of a restaurant cook with-out any clinical symptoms of disease are examined with the help of bacteriological methods. On bismuth-sulfite agar little black colonies with metallic sheen have grown. What microorganisms can it be? *A. Salmonellae. B. Shigellae. C. Escherichiae. D. Staphylococci. E. Streptococci. 167. Urethral purulent discharge is inoculated onto special nutrient medium. There have grown tender bluish colonies. Microscopy has shown Gram-negative bean-shaped diplococci. What disease do they cause? A. Chlamidiosis. *B. Gonorrhea. C. Syphilis. D. Tularemia. E. Toxoplasmosis. 168. It is necessary to carry out specific active prophylaxis of diphtheria of children in a kindergarten. What preparation should be used for this purpose? *A. Toxoid. B. Antibiotics. C. Probiotics. D. Corpuscular vaccine. E. Immune serum. 169. Jerked fish, being the cause of food poisoning, has been delivered to a bacteriological laboratory. The sample was cultured under anaerobic condition. After inoculation into Kitt-Tarozzi medium a bacteriologist has revealed microorganisms akin to a tennis-racket. What disease do they cause? A. Typhoid fever. B. Salmonellosis. C. Dysentery. D. Staphylococcal toxic infection. *E. Botulism.

170. Identification of food toxical infection causative agent has shown that according to biochemical properties it belongs to Salmonella genus. What property of the causative agent testifies its specific belonging? A. Pathogenicity for laboratory animals. B. Phagotype. C. Culture properties. *D. Antigenic structure. E. Morphologic and staining properties. 171. In a mountain settlement mass death of rodents was observed. Simultaneously the inhabitants of this area were ill. The illness was accompanied by the fast rise of body temperature up to 40 C, apparent intoxication, increase of inguinal lymph nodes. In the touch smears of cadaveric material Gram-negative bipolarly stained ovoid rods were revealed. What microorganisms are the causative agents of this infectious disease? A. Staphylococci. *B. Causative agents of plague. C. Causative agents of tularemia. D. Causative agents of anthrax. E. Clostridia. 172. In a kindergarten vaccination against pertussis is planned. Which preparation is used for the immunization? A. Type specific serum. B. BCG vaccine. *C. APDT vaccine. D. Normal -globulin. E. ADT vaccine. 173. In the endemic region of leptospirosis the population is ill with this dangerous illness. What source of the infection is the most dangerous? *A. Rodents. B. Dairy products. C. Cattle. D. Meat products. E. Ticks. 174. Inspection of school dining-room staff for typhoid carrying has been carried out. There were revealed antibodies to Vi-antigen in the blood serum of the cook. Which test has been used? A. Complement fixation test. B. Widal's test. *C. Indirect hemagglutination test. D. Enzyme immunoassay. E. Immunofluorescence test.

General and special virology

175. High -sensitivity methods are used for checking the presence of virus hepatitis B antigens in donors' blood. Which test should be used? *A. Solid-phase enzyme immunoassay. B. Immunoelectrophoresis. C. Indirect hemagglutination. D. Complement fixation. E. Indirect immunofluorescence. 176. From a patient with acute intestinal infection enterovirus was obtained. To detect the serotype of the virus diagnostic serums were used. Which antibodies must the serums contain?

A. To proteins of supercapsid. *B. To proteins of capsid. C. To non-structural virus proteins. D. To virus enzymes. E. To virus hemagglutinin. 177. During the outbreak of acute respiratory infection express-diagnostics method is used for diagnosing the flu. The method is based on detecting a specific virus antigen in the researched material (nasopharynx swab). Which serological reaction is used for this purpose? *A. Immunoelectrophoresis. B. Complement fixation. C. Agglutinations. D. Precipitation. E. Opsonization. 178. Influenza virus contains internal antigens - nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase (P1, P2, P3), matrix protein (M), and surface antigens - hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). Which of them play the basic role in the creation of the immunity to influenza infection? *A. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. B. Nucleoprotein antigens. C. Matrix protein. D. Polymerase proteins. E. Neuraminidase and nucleoprotein. 179. A 20-year-old patient has AIDS diagnosed. What cells populations are the most sensitive to the human immunodeficiency virus? A. B-Iymphocytes. B. Hepatocytes. C. Endotheliocytes. D. Epitheliocytes. *E. T-helpers. 180. A 6-year-old boy has moderate rise of the body temperature and enlarged parotid glands. From the patient's saliva a virus was isolated. This virus can replicate in chicken embryos and tissue cultures, has hemagglutination properties, and causes symplasts formation in cells culture. Which organ is the most likely to be affected with the infection caused by this virus? *A. Sex glands. B. Liver. C. Lungs. D. Pharyngeal tonsils. E. Brain. 181. The first vaccination against poliomyelitis should be done at 3 month's age with the use of Sabin vaccine. What class of immunoglobulins does not take part in postvaccinal immunity formation in this case? A. IgG. *B. IgE. C. IgA secretory. D. IgM. E. IgA serumal. 182. It is known that human immunodeficiency virus belongs to Retroviridae family. What basic feature characterizes this family? A. Simple viruses, which affect only human beings. B. Contain RNA of negative polarity. *C. Presence of reverse transcriptase enzyme.

D. Nucleic acid does not integrate into the genome of the host. E. DNA-containing viruses which cause chronic infections. 183. A human corpse is sent to a department of morbid anatomy from an infectious hospital. The preliminary diagnosis is influenza. What researches are the most rational for confirmation of this diagnosis? A. Antibodies detecting during complement fixation test. B. Electron microscopic detecting of viruses. C. Detecting intracellular inclusions using light microscopy. D. Detecting high antibody titers during hemagglutination inhibition test. *E. Isolation and serologic identification of virus. 184. Infecting of chicken embryos is the basic method of influenza virus isolation. Before introducing the researched material (nasopharynx swab) into a chicken embryo a sample should be preliminary decontaminated with: A. Formalin. B. Alcohol. C. Eagle's solution. *D. Streptomycin and penicillin. E. Ether. 185. The causative agent of hepatitis D (delta-agent) is a defective virus. It can replicate only in cells already infected with one of the viruses. With which one? A. Human immunodeficiency. B. Hepatitis A. C. Hepatitis E. D. Epstein-Barr. *E. Hepatitis B. 186. During checking the donors' blood at a hemotransfusion station antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus have been revealed in the serum. What method is recommended for the confirmation of HIV-infection diagnosis? A. Complement fixation test. B. Electron microscopy. *C. Western blotting (immunoblotting). D. Immunofluorescence test. E. Radioimmunoassay. 187. A patient has been bitten by a dog. The dog was caught, and it was established that the animal is ill with rabies. What vaccine is to be used for specific prevention of rabies of this patient? *A. Live B. Toxoid C. Chemical. D. Recombinant. E. Synthetic. 188. In a settlement there is registered an outbreak of hepatitis associated with water factor. What virus could induce this outbreak? A. Hepatitis G. B. Hepatitis C. C. Hepatitis D. *D. Hepatitis A. E. Hepatitis B.

189. In a specialized clinic a patient has been prescribed a combination of preparations, which inhibit HIV reproduction. To what group do the preparations, which are obligatory used in complex antiviral treatment, belong? A. Interleukin. B. Broad spectrum antibiotics. *C. Nucleosides analogs. D. Nystatin. E. Biseptol. 190. A student was hospitalized to an infectious department at the beginning of the disease. Infectious mononucleosis was suspected. Which result confirmed the diagnosis of this student on the day of hospitalization? A. Detecting antibodies to cytomegalovirus. B. Detecting IgM-antibodies to herpes simplex virus. C. Detecting 4-time quantity increase of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus D. Detecting of herpes simplex virus *E. Detecting IgM antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus. 191. A patient with a very grave course of hepatitis B has been administered the examination for detecting the possible concomitant agent, which complicates the course of the basic disease. What agent is this? *A. Delta-virus. B. Hepatitis C virus. C. Hepatitis G virus. D. Hepatitis E virus. E. HBs-antigen. 192. During an operative intervention a patient had blood transfusion. In his blood the presence of the following causative agent should be checked: *A. Hepatitis B virus. B. Hepatitis A virus. C. Hepatitis E virus. D. Enteroviruses. E. Adenoviruses. 193. During the microscopy of the cellular monolayer infected by the virus-containing material from a patient a laboratory doctor has diagnosed a respiratory syncytial virus infection. What changes are caused by this virus in cell culture? *A. Symplasts formation. B. Cluster-shaped destruction of monolayer. C. Complete destruction of cellular monolayer. D .Appearance of Negri bodies. E. Cells proliferation. 194. At a neonatal unit the children's morbidity with respiratory virus infections caused by different groups of viruses has sharply increased. To prevent the spread of infection it was recommended to prescribe human leukocytic interferon. How should it be introduced? A. Via inhalation. B. Subcutaneously. *C. Through nasal meatuses. D. Orally. E. Intramuscularly. 195. A hunter has referred for medical aid concerning the bites of hands by a wounded fox. What basic aid should be given to him for the specific prevention of rabies? A. Washing of the wound with soap solution. B. Surgical treatment of the wound.

C. Introduction of antibiotics. *D. Introduction of rabies vaccine. E. Treatment of the wound with alcoholic iodine solution. 196. HBs-antigen has been revealed during enzyme immunoassay in serum. What infection can be diagnosed by this antigen detecting? A. Syphilis. B. Virus hepatitis A. C. AIDS. D. Tuberculosis. *E. Virus hepatitis B. 197. During immunoblot analysis protein gp120 has been revealed in blood serum. What infection can be diagnosed by this antigen detecting? A. Virus hepatitis B. *B. HIV-infection. C. Tuberculosis. D. Syphilis. E. Poliomyelitis. 198. For poliomyelitis serologic diagnostics paired serum samples of a patient are being examined. What should be used as antigen during virus neutralization test? A. Antigens of virus capsid proteins. B. Viral complement-fixing antigens. C. Antigens inactivated by formalin. D. Antigens-hemagglutinins. *E. Live viruses. 199. Human immunodeficiency virus, having on its surface antigens gp41 and gp120, interacts with the target cells of an organism. Which human lymphocytes marker can be complementary connected with gp120 of the virus? *A. CD 4. B. CD 3. C. CD 8. D. CD 19. E. CD 28. 200. Blood serum examination of a patient with signs of immunodeficiency has shown antibodies to proteins gp120 and gp41. Which disease is confirmed by this result? A. Poliomyelitis. B. HLTV-1-infection. *C. HIV-infection. D. HBV-infection. E. ECHO-virus infection.