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About the research India: A world leader Artillery today, for mountain war tomorrow Training and technology Future Artillery India 2012

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About Defence IQ

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Future Artillery India 2012 26 28 June www.futureartilleryindia.com

About the research


This information pack has been collated from exclusive content from www.defenceiq.com as well as data from a report of the future artillery market, which surveyed 120 senior executives and professionals within the artillery domain. The analysis of the survey data has been supplemented with proprietary interviews and desktop research.

Topics examined include; which capabilities the military will prioritise as it increasingly embarks on urban, complex and dispersed operations, how militaries can achieve greater precision, the changing nature of training scenarios as well as looking into which regions are being targeted as emerging growth markets.
Figure 1 shows that the US and UK make up a significant portion of total respondents. However, the emerging BRIC nations are also well represented with India and Brazil accounting for 14% of all respondents. Answers were sourced from nations all over the globe including Russia, UAE, Singapore, Germany, Israel and Australia. In all, respondents were derived from 35 nations.

FIGURE 1: Overview of respondent by nationality

USA
21% 35%

UK India

Brazil
Netherlands Argentina
15%

Turkey Australia

2% 2% 3%

8% 3% 5% 6%

France Other

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Future Artillery India 2012 26 28 June www.futureartilleryindia.com

India: A world leader


The market with the most growth potential in the artillery space over the next ten years is India according to 72% of respondents. Together with China it stands out as a key target market for the future; however with even China lagging 14% behind, there can be no doubt where respondents expect to gain the most traction over the next decade: India.

FIGURE 2: Summary of key global growth markets 2012 - 2022


0% India China Pakistan USA Israel Brazil Other Middle East Turkey UAE Europe (East) Other Asia-Pacific Russia Saudi Arabia Africa Europe (West) Other South America Australia South Africa 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%

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Future Artillery India 2012 26 28 June www.futureartilleryindia.com

While Chinas ambitions and wealth are undoubtedly accelerating, the question remains how to penetrate this market and take advantage of the countrys growing economy and military might. China is arguably a bigger market than India and before conducting this survey we may have expected the results for India and China to have been the other way around. However, respondents have clearly shown that while China may spend more money on defence over the next ten years, India is a far more accessible market and the one in which industry can gain the most traction. This may change once the EU and US embargos are lifted however, but it remains to be seen when and if this will come into effect.
The positioning of Pakistan as the region offering the third highest potential for growth over the next ten years is interesting. That India, China and Pakistan make up the top three is also rather telling. Tensions in the region are high with India wedged in between its two fierce rivals. The results from Figure 2 indicate this tension is unlikely to ease in the medium term.

FIGURE 3: Analysis of key capabilities for India to prioritise


Air-land integration Capability to intercept rockets, mortar and artillery Digital targeting Interoperability with other systems and Coalition forces Forward Observer technological advances Futuristic weaponry i.e. electronic powered artillery Precision of munitions 15% 22% 44% 26% 50% 12% 56% 33% 73% 49% 24% 23% 24% 20% 36% 53% 22% 52% 54% 41% 42% 48% 35% 22% 23% 34% 37% 16%

Range 5% Transportability and mobility of artillery 7% Cost! Capability shouldnt be prioritised, cost should

Low priority

Medium priority

High priority

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Future Artillery India 2012 26 28 June www.futureartilleryindia.com

Just looking at the Indian respondents (which Figure 1 shows is 8% of the total), they all indicated that cost was either a low or medium priority, which is perhaps surprising considering Indias renown for squeezing value out of its equipment, often favouring the cheaper tenders its presented with. This suggests one of two things; either artillery procurement is a priority for India and will be acquired regardless of cost, or artillery system expenditure is considered to be relatively low-level and spiraling outlays are not a common occurrence. How important is Indias acquisition of artillery in the context of its major security and defence infrastructure upgrade? In November 2011 A.K. Anthony, the Indian Defence Minister, made a statement to Parliament outlining both the reason for the countrys notorious lack of new gun acquisition, and its near obsession with staying on top of military technology developments as it continues to highlight concerns over bordering rival powers. "Arms and equipment including gun systems in the Indian artillery are available in adequate quantity, said Anthony. [However] modernisation of artillery, which entails replacement of the equipment of older technology, is an on-going process and is being given priority to ensure that the artillery remains equipped with modern weapons systems," he said. The answer really depends on how the tense relationship with China and Pakistan plays out. Respondents were quick to point out that border security is a critical concern for India as it continues to brace against pressure from East and West.

The IED will be the focal point for any future conflicts; the IED is the artillery of the 21st Century.
Lieutenant General Michael Barbero, Joint IED Defeat Organisation, U.S. DoD

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Future Artillery India 2012 26 28 June www.futureartilleryindia.com

Although the country recently announced that it will buy 126 Rafale Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft from Frances Dassault, this expenditure will certainly not be over and above its Land and Sea requirements. India is not an expeditionary force, but it does have vast borders and hostile neighbours. Border security is Indias primary issue; acquiring the appropriate artillery systems, and plenty of them, will continue to be a high priority over the next decade. Over the last 12 months the Indian armed forces has floated tenders for 1,580 155mm 53 calibre towed guns, 100 further 155mm 52 calibre tracked guns, 180 155mm 52 calibre wheeled and self-propelled guns, and 145 155mm 39 calibre ultra-light howitzers, running into a total cost of several billion pounds.

Regardless of any other weaponry, if youve got a lot of artillery you dont need to worry about not having an affect.
Brigadier Ben Barry, Senior Fellow for Land Warfare, The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS)

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Future Artillery India 2012 26 28 June www.futureartilleryindia.com

Artillery today for mountain war tomorrow


An article by Brigadier Gurmeet Kanwal (Ret.), former Director of the Centre for Land Warfare Studies, New Delhi.

Despite the lessons learnt during the Kargil conflict about the battle winning role played by firepower in modern wars, modernisation plans for the Indian Regiment of Artillery have been stagnating for too long.
The last major acquisition of towed gunhowitzers was that of about 400 pieces of 39-calibre 155mm FH-77B howitzers with a range of 30 km from Bofors of Sweden in the mid-1980s. Though the Ministry of Defence (MoD) has issued several global tenders to revive longdelayed plans to modernise the Indian artillery, for one reason or the other, the acquisition process has not made much headway. Since the Bofors 155mm Howitzer was introduced into service, the indigenously designed and manufactured 105 mm Indian Field Gun (IFG) and its light version, the Light Field Gun (LFG), have also joined the list of guns and howitzers heading for obsolescence. Approximately 180 pieces of 130mm M46 Russian medium guns have been up-gunned to 155mm calibre with

Brig. Gurmeet Kanwal (Ret.)

ordnance supplied by Soltam of Israel. The new barrel length of 45calibres has enhanced the range of the gun to about 40 km with extended range ammunition.

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Future Artillery India 2012 26 28 June www.futureartilleryindia.com

The probability of the next conventional war breaking out in the mountains is far higher than that of a war in the plains. With this in view, the artillery recently conceptualised a requirement for an ultra light-weight towed howitzer of 155mm calibre for employment in the mountains. In January 2008, the MoD had floated a Request for Proposal (RfP) for 145 pieces of ultra-light 155mm towed howitzers for use by the Indian Armys mountain formations. 145 howitzers will equip seven medium artillery regiments and will cost approximately Rs 3,000 crore. This howitzer, manufactured by BAE Systems, has been trail evaluated and is likely to be acquired through the direct Foreign Military Sales (FMS) route from the US government.
The MoD has floated a global tender for the purchase of 180 wheeled selfpropelled 155mm guns for around Rs 4,700 crore for employment by mechanised forces in the plains and semi-desert sectors. An RfP has also been issued for 400 155mm towed artillery guns for the artillery, to be followed by the indigenous manufacture of another 1,100 howitzers, in a project worth approximately Rs 8,000 crore. The RfP was originally issued to eight prospective bidders including BAE, General Dynamics, Nexter (France), Rheinmetall (Germany) and Samsung (South Korea).

Indigenous efforts to manufacture 155mm howitzers include that by the Ordnance Factories Board to produce a 45-calibre 155mm howitzer based on the designs for which Transfer of Technology (ToT) was obtained from Bofors in the 1980s, but not utilised. It has been reported that the Defence Acquisition Council has approved a proposal for the OFB to manufacture 414 howitzers of 45-calibre provided the prototypes successfully meet the armys GSQR in user trials. Meanwhile, the DRDO has embarked on its own venture to design and develop a 155mm howitzer in partnership with a private sector company. Bharat Forge is one company that is known to be interested in the indigenous design and development of modern artillery systems. There has been notable progress on the rocket artillery front. A contract for the acquisition of three regiments of the 12tube, 300mm Smerch multi-barrel rocket launcher (MBRL) system with 90 km range has been signed with Russias Rosoboron export. This weapon system is a major boost for the long-range firepower capabilities of the army. Extended range (ER) rockets are being introduced for the 122 mm Grad MBRL that has been in service for over three decades. The ER rockets will enhance the weapon systems range from 22 to about 40 km. A contract worth Rs 5,000

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Future Artillery India 2012 26 28 June www.futureartilleryindia.com

crore has also been signed for two regiments of the 12-tube Pinaka MBRL weapon system, developed by the DRDO, Larsen and Toubro and the Tatas. The 214mm Pinaka rockets will have an approximate range of 37 km. Two more regiments of Pinaka MBRL are likely to be added later. Efforts are also underway to add ballistic as well as cruise missiles to the artillery arsenal. Two regiments of the BrahMos supersonic cruise missile (Mach 2.8 to 3.0), with a precision strike capability, very high kill energy and range of 290 km, have been inducted into the army. Block-I and Block-II versions of the missile have successfully completed trials. It is a versatile missile that can be launched from TATRA mobile launchers and silos on land, aircraft and ships and, perhaps in future, also from submarines. 50 BrahMos missiles are expected to be produced every year. These terrain hugging missiles are virtually immune to counter measures due to their high speed and very low radar cross section and are far superior to sub-sonic cruise missiles like Pakistans Babur. Two more regiments of BrahMos are likely to be inducted into service, including one

specially designed for effective target engagement in the mountains.

Counter-bombardment capability is also being upgraded, but at a slow pace. At least about 40 to 50 weapon locating radars (WLRs) are required for effective counter-bombardment, especially in the plains, but only a dozen have been procured so far. In addition to the 12 ANTPQ 37 Firefinder WLRs acquired from Raytheon, USA, under a 2002 contract worth US $200 million, Bharat Electronics Limited is reported to be assembling 28 WLRs. The modernisation plans of tube artillery alone are likely to cost approximately Rs 15,000 crore. The Shakti project for command and control systems for the artillery, earlier called Artillery Combat Command and Control System (ACCCS), has successfully completed user trials and is now being fielded extensively. Gradually it will be fielded up to the corps level and the two artillery divisions will be equipped with it. Despite the increasing obsolescence of artillery guns, mortars and rocket launchers, it has not been possible to conclude contracts for their replacement. The failure to modernise the Indian artillery is likely to have adverse repercussions for national security. If there is any field of defence procurement in which the government must make haste, it is this one.

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Training and technology


Although Figure 3 shows that cost shouldnt be prioritised over capability, the fact remains that the economic black hole will significantly affect defence equipment procurement over the next decade, inclusive of artillery. In Figure 4 exactly half of all respondents expect budget restrictions to be the critical factor that may dog artillery advancement in the future, with the possible increased focus on air power the next most significant factor (21%). With just 10%, the change in warfighting strategies is not considered to be a threat to future artillery. Although warzones are becoming more urban, respondents indicated that the role of artillery will not significantly change through to 2022 and will still be a vital component of military arsenals.

FIGURE 4: Analysis of the most significant threat to future artillery advancement

Budget restrictions Focus on Air Power Increased prevalence and impact of the cyber threat against precision weapons Significant change in warfighting strategies - i.e. COIN Other 0% 10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

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Future Artillery India 2012 26 28 June www.futureartilleryindia.com

Precision munitions and artillery capabilities rely on a fully functional and efficient forward observer resource to ensure accurate target location and operational mission planning. How can FO management and efficiency be improved over the next decade? 35% of respondents indicated that advances in geographical location equipment will be the most important factor for FOs in the future, closely followed by network-centric systems with 32%. The role of the FO has become an increasingly important one recently and will continue to heighten in significance for military operations as communications and other C4I technologies improve. However, as these systems become increasingly complex and network-centric, the cyber threat becomes decidedly more apparent too. Training will need to expand its reach in order to combat the cyber threat in future, which is a point a significant number of respondents were adamant upon.

FIGURE 5: Summary of most significant factors for Forward Observer improvement


35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

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Future Artillery India 2012 26 28 June www.futureartilleryindia.com

Over half of all respondents (51%) said that immersive training and simulation would be the most effective form of training over the next decade, pushing new mobile technologies into second place (with 23%) and live exercises into third (21%). While training is often a balance between the classroom, simulation and live exercises, Major Tom Ellis, the training development advisor for the Royal Artillery, told Defence IQ that nothing is ever going to take away the requirement of live training. Ellis agrees with the 51% of respondents in that simulation is a very effective training tool because it is available any time. However, it is perhaps surprising that the 21% who identified live exercises as the most effective training method wasnt higher since Ellis affirms that you must have a sound underpinning knowledge of the equipment; you cannot learn everything in a simulator. Looking at Figure 6 it is likely that the answers have been provided in the context of the economic climate foremost in respondents' thoughts since simulated training has significant cost benefits over live exercises.

FIGURE 6: Summary of the most effective factor to improve artillery training programmes
Joint excercises with coalition forces 60%

40%

20% Mobile technology i.e.use of iPads and smartphones

Live excercises

0%

Immersive training and simulation

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Future Artillery India 2012 26 28 June www.futureartilleryindia.com

As India embarks upon the largest artillery modernisation drive in its history, Defence IQs Future Artillery India conference brings together key military and industry stakeholders to examine Indias current modernisation strategy. Now in its second year, Future Artillery India 2012 provides delegates with the rare opportunity to connect with the newly appointed Director General Artillery, Lieutenant General Anjan Mukherjee, in addition to the decision making unit responsible for future artillery procurement in India. The 2012 Speaker Faculty Features:
Lieutenant General Anjan Mukherjee, Director General, Directorate Artillery, Indian Army
Major General Vikas Joshi, Additional Director General Directorate Artillery, Indian Army Lieutenant General J.P. Singh (Retd), Former Deputy Chief of Army Staff Indian Army Lieutenant General Vinod Nayanar (Retd), Former Director General Directorate Artillery, Indian Army

Whats new for 2012?

Confirmed participation from Directorate Weapons & Equipment, Directorate Perspective Planning, Directorate Financial Planning, Directorate Electrical Mechanical Engineers, Electronics & Radar Department Establishment & Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory
1st opportunity to connect with the newly appointed Director General, Directorate Artillery, Lieutenant General Anjan Mukherjee. Former Director General Financial Planning, Lieutenant General Mukherjee will be giving the opening keynote address, outlining his strategic plans for artillery procurement over the next decade A whole day dedicated to discussing Indian ISTAR requirements, capabilities and operational performance with Indian Subject Matter Experts and Contract Signatories For more information, or to register, visit www.futureartilleryindia.com, email futureartillery@iqpc.co.uk, or call +44 (0) 20 7368 9737
Future Artillery India 2012 26 28 June www.futureartilleryindia.com

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About Defence IQ
Defence IQ is an authoritative news source for high quality and exclusive commentary and analysis on global defence and military-related topics. Sourcing interviews and insights directly from senior military and industry professionals on air defence, cyber warfare, armoured vehicles, naval defence, land defence and many more topics, Defence IQ is a unique multimedia platform to discuss and learn about the latest developments within the defence sector. So join over 55,000 defence professionals to access all the exclusive video interviews, podcasts, articles and whitepapers that are available and updated on a daily basis. Join today for free by signing up on our website: www.DefenceIQ.com Connect with us through social media too, just follow the links below:

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Disclaimer
This report is provided for information purposes only. This report may not be reproduced, published or distributed by an recipient for any purpose. The company accepts no responsibility whatsoever for any direct or indirect losses arising from the use of this report or its contents.

About the author


Andrew Elwell is the editor of Defence IQ. He has previously worked as a survivability specialist for a provider of ballistic and blast armour systems. Andrew holds a BA in History and American Studies from the University of Nottingham. He can be reached on andrew.elwell@iqpc.co.uk.

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Future Artillery India 2012 26 28 June www.futureartilleryindia.com