You are on page 1of 32

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

1 Quadratic Equations in One Unknown


10 x = 1.666 666 (2)


(2) (1) ,

Activity 1.1 (p. 28)


1.

x
x2
x
6
y

4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3
16 9 4 1 0 1 4 9
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
6 0 4 6 6 4 0 6

2.

3.

3, 2

x = 3 or

Let x = 0.1 2 ,
i.e. x = 0.121 212 (1)
100 x = 12.121 212 (2)
(2) (1) , 99 x = 12
12
x =
99
4
=
33
4
0.1 2 =
33

4.

Let x = 0.1 23 ,
i.e.
x = 0.123 123
1000 x = 123.123 123

(2) (1) ,

x=2

The quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 can be solved


graphically by reading the x-intercepts of the graph of
y = ax2 + bx + c.

Let x = 0.8 ,
i.e. x = 0.888 888 (1)
10 x = 8.888 888 (2)
(2) (1) , 9 x = 8
8
x=
9
8

0.8 =
9

1.

Let x = 0.16 ,

2.

999 x = 123
123
x=
999
41
=
333
41
0.1 23 =
333

Quadratic equation
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

5x2 = 6 x
x2 4 = 5x
3x2 = 4
8x = x2
2 x(3 x) = 0
(1 + x)(1 x) + 3x = 2

General form
ax2 + bx + c = 0
5x2 + x 6 = 0
x2 5x 4 = 0
3x2 + 0x 4 = 0
x2 8x + 0 = 0
x2 3x + 2 = 0
x2 3x + 1 = 0

p.8
1.

(a)

x2 10x + 16 = 0
(x 2)(x 8) = 0
x 2 = 0 or x 8 = 0
x = 2 or
x =8

(b) 2x2 + 13x + 15 = 0

(1)
(2)

p.6

Follow-up Exercise
p. 3

9 x = 1.5
90 x = 15
15
x =
90
1
=
6
1

0.16 =
6

3.

x2 + x 6 = 0
4.
( x + 3)( x 2) = 0
x + 3 = 0 or x 2 = 0

5.

x = 0.166 666 (1)

i.e.

Activity

Value of
a b c
5 1 6
1 5 4
3 0 4
1 8 0
1 3 2
1 3 1

1
(2x + 3)(x + 5) = 0
2x + 3 = 0
or x + 5 = 0
3
x=
or
x = 5
2
(c)

2.

(a)

(b)

x = 1 or

1.

4 x 25 = 0
( 2 x + 5)(2 x 5) = 0

(a)

1
=0
4
x + 1 = 0 or 4 x 1 = 0
( x + 1)(4 x 1) = 0

The required equation is 4 x 2 + 3 x 1 = 0.


2
1
x=
or
x=
(b)
3
2
2
1
x = 0 or x + = 0
3
2
3x 2 = 0 or 2 x + 1 = 0

(3 x 2)(2 x + 1) = 0
6x 2 x 2 = 0

The required equation is 6x2 x 2 = 0.


2.

(a)

2x + 5 = 0

or 2 x 5 = 0
5
5
x=
or
x=
2
2

2 x 2 15 x 8 = 0
( 2 x + 1)( x 8) = 0
2x + 1 = 0
or x 8 = 0
1
x=
or
x=8
2

(b) The roots of the required equation are

x ( x + 2) = 15
x 2 + 2 x = 15

(c)

i.e. 2 and

x + 2 x 15 = 0
( x + 5)( x 3) = 0
x+5= 0
or x 3 = 0
x = 5 or
x=3
2

x 2 4x + 3 = 0
( x 1)( x 3) = 0
x 1 = 0 or x 3 = 0
x = 1 or
x=3
Alternative Solution
( x + 1)( x 3) = 2( x 3)
( x + 1)( x 3) 2( x 3) = 0
( x 3)[( x + 1) 2] = 0
( x 3)( x 1) = 0
x3= 0
or
x 1 = 0
x=3
or
x =1

p.10

3.

(a)

x=

1
8

1
=0
8
x + 2 = 0 or 8 x 1 = 0
( x + 2)(8 x 1) = 0

8 x 2 + 15 x 2 = 0
The required equation is 8x2 + 15x 2 = 0.

x+2=0

x 2 2x 3 = 2x 6

1
1
1 and

8
2

1
.
8

x = 2 or

( x + 1)( x 3) = 2( x 3)
(d)

1
4

4 x 2 + 3x 1 = 0

12 x 2 + x 6 = 0
( 4 x + 3)(3x 2) = 0
4x + 3 = 0
or 3 x 2 = 0
3
2
x=
or
x=
4
3

x=

x + 1 = 0 or x

3x 2 5 x 2 = 0
(3 x + 1)( x 2) = 0
3x + 1 = 0
or x 2 = 0
1
x=
or
x=2
3

4 x 2 = 25

Quadratic Equations in One Unknown

or

4 x 2 13 x 12 = 0
( 4 x + 3)( x 4) = 0
4x + 3 = 0
or x 4 = 0
3
x=
or
x=4
4

3
(b) The roots of the required equation are 4 and
2
4
3
, i.e. and 2.
2
8
3
x = or
x =2
8
3

x + =0
or
x 2 = 0
8

8x + 3 = 0 or
x2=0
(8 x + 3)( x 2) = 0
8 x 2 13x 6 = 0
The required equation is 8x2 13x 6 0.

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

(a)

(b)

2.

(a)

( x + 1) 2 = 9
x + 1 = 3
x = 1 + 3 or
= 2
or

1 3
4

( 2 x 3) 2 =
2x 3 =
2x = 3 + 2
5
x =
2

32
1
2

4
2
or
or

(a)

1
1
1
x + = x
3
6
6

8.

x2 +

5
5
5
x + = x +
2
4
4

p. 16

x2 8x 9 = 0
x2 8x = 9
2

x2 = 5
5 or 2

1.

(a)

8
8
x2 8x + = 9 +
2
2
( x 4) 2 = 25

x 4 = 5
x = 45

x + 1 = 6
4

1
x+
= 6
4

x = 9 or 1

2 x 5x 3 = 0
5
3
x2 x = 0
2
2
5
3
x2 x =
2
2
2

( x 3) 2 = 8
x3= 8

x = 3+ 8

5
3 5
5
x x+ = +
2
4
2 4

or 3 8

= 5.83 (cor. to 2. d.p.) or 0.17 (cor. to 2 d.p.)


5
2
(b) ( x + 2) =
4
5
x+2=
4
x+2=

x2

1
1
x = + 6 or 6
4
4
3.

7.

(b)

1
1
1
x + = x
2
4
4

( x 2) 2 = 5
x = 2+

x2

p.13
1.

6.

(b)

5
2

5
5
or 2
2
2
= 0.88 (cor. to 2 d.p.) or 3.12 (cor. to 2 d.p.)

5
49

x =
4
16

5
7
x =
4
4
5 7
x=
4 4
= 3 or

x = 2 +

1
2

x2 + 7x 1 = 0
x2 + 7x = 1
7 2
x 2 + 7 x + = 1 +
2

p. 15
2

18
x 2 + 18 x + = ( x + 9) 2
2

1.

2.

12
x 2 12 x + = ( x 6) 2
2

3.

7
7

x2 + 7x + = x +
2
2

4.

8
x 2 + 8 x + = ( x + 4) 2
2

5.

9
9
x 2 9 x + = x
2
2

7
2

2.

(a)

x + 7 = 53
2
4

x+

7
53
=
2
2
7
53
x =
2
2
7 + 53
7 53
=
or
2
2

(b)

3x 2 6 x 2 = 0
2
x2 2x
= 0
3
2
x2 2x =
3
2
2
2
2 2
x 2 2 x + =
+
3 2
2
5
( x 1) 2 =
3
5
x 1 =
3
5
x = 1+
or 1
3

4.

Using the quadratic formula,


x =
=

b 2 4ac
2a

82 4(1)( 3)
2(1)

8 52
2
8 2 13
=
2
= 4 + 13 or 4 13
5
3

4x = x 2 + 3
x + 4x 3 = 0

5.

Using the quadratic formula,


Using the quadratic formula,

x=
=

x =

b b 2 4ac
2a

4 42 4(1)(32)
2(1)

4 144
2
4 12
=
2
= 4 or 8

x =
=

b 2 4ac
2a

( 5)

1.

( 5) 2 4( 2)( 2)
2( 2 )

5 9
4
53
=
4
1
= 2 or
2
=

3x 2 = 10 x + 8

3.

3x 2 + 10 x 8 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,

x=
=

b 2 4ac
2a
4 2 4(1)( 3)
2(1)

p. 25

Using the quadratic formula,


b

4 28
2
42 7
=
2
= 2 + 7 or 2

2.

p.20
1.

Quadratic Equations in One Unknown

Quadratic equations
Value of
x2 + 4x + 2 = 0
= 42 4(1)(2) = 8 > 0
2x2 3x 5 = 0
= (3)2 4(2)(5) = 49 > 0
2
x + 8x + 16 = 0
= 82 4(1)(16) = 0
2
2x + 5x = 0
= 52 4(2)(0) = 25 > 0
2
4x + 25 = 0
= 02 4(4)(25) = 400 < 0
Nature of roots
2 distinct
1 double real root
No real roots
real roots

The equation x2 9x + k = 0 has a double real root.


= 0

2.

b b 4ac
2a
2

10 10 2 4(3)(8)
2(3)

10 196
6
10 14
=
6
2
=
or 4
3
=

3.

( 9) 2 4(1)( k ) = 0
81 4k = 0
81
k =
4
The equation (2k 1)x2 + 3x 6 = 0 has no real
roots.

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A


< 0
(b)

3 4( 2k 1)( 6) < 0
9 + 48k 24 < 0
48k 15 < 0
15
k <
48
5
k <
16
2

x=
=

5
.
16

1.

The x-intercepts of y = 2x2 + 3x 5 are 2.5 and 1.


Therefore, the roots of the equation 2x2 + 3x 5 = 0 are
2.5 and 1.

2.

(a)

0
1

1
0

2
1

3
4

18 18 2 4( 2)(57)
2( 2)

18 780
4
18 2 195
=
4
9 195
=
2
9 + 195
9 195
=
or
(rejected)
2
2
= 2.48 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)

4
9
2.

(b)

b b 2 4ac
2a

p. 30

2 1
9 4

4 x 2 + 36 x 114 = 0
2 x 2 + 18 x 57 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,

The range of possible values of k is k <

x
y

4 x 2 + 36 x = 114

Let x be the number of days Mr Tung worked in the


3600
project, then Mr Tungs daily wage is $
and Mr
x
3600
100 .
Pangs daily wage is $
x

3600

100 ( x + 3) = 3600

10 800
300 = 3600
x
100 x 2 + 3300 x + 10 800 = 3600 x

3600 100 x +

100 x 2 + 300 x 10800 = 0

(c)

The x-intercept of y = x2 2x + 1 is 1.
Therefore, the root of the equation x2 2x + 1 = 0
is 1.

Exercise

p. 33
1.

positive

2.

positive

3.

negative

4.

zero

5.

negative

6.

positive

Exercise 1A (p. 11)


Level 1
1.

( x 3)( x 4) = 0
x 3 = 0 or x 4 = 0
x = 3 or
x = 4

2.

(3x + 2)( x + 2) = 0
3x + 2 = 0
or
x+2=0
2
x=
or
x = 2
3

p. 40
1.

(a)

Area of the border


= [( x + 7 + x )( x + 11 + x ) (7.11)] cm 2
= [( 2 x + 7)( 2 x + 11) 77] cm

= ( 4 x 2 + 36 x + 77 77) cm 2
= ( 4 x 2 + 36 x ) cm 2
3.

x 2 + 3x 108 = 0
( x + 12)( x 9) = 0
x + 12 = 0
or x 9 = 0
x = 12 (rejected) or
x = 9
Mr Tung worked in the project for 9 days.

3x ( x + 5) = 0
x ( x + 5) = 0

1
x=0
x=0
4.

5.

6.

7.

or
or

x+5= 0
x = 5

5( x 1)( x + 3) = 0
( x 1)( x + 3) = 0
x 1 = 0 or x + 3 = 0
x = 3
x = 1 or
2 y2 5y = 0
y ( 2 y 5) = 0
y = 0 or 2 y 5 = 0
5
y = 0 or
y =
2

x2 6x + 5 = 0
( x 1)( x 5) = 0
x 1 = 0 or x 5 = 0
x = 1 or
x = 5

8.

x 2 7 x 30 = 0
( x + 3)( x 10) = 0
x+3= 0
or x 10 = 0
x = 3 or
x = 10

9.

2 x 2 15 x 8 = 0
( 2 x + 1)( x 8) = 0
2 x + 1 = 0 or x 8 = 0

x=
10.

4 y 3 = 0 or 3 y 2 = 0
3
2
y =
or
y =
4
3

13.

14.

16 121x 2 = 0
121x 2 16 = 0
(11x + 4)(11x 4) = 0
11x + 4 = 0
or 11x 4 = 0
4
4
x =
or
x =
11
11

1
or
2

6 w + 13w + 6 = 0
(3w + 2)( 2 w + 3) = 0
2w + 2 = 0
or 2 w + 3 = 0
2
3
w =
or
w =
3
2

2 15 x 8 x 2 = 0
8 x 2 + 15 x 2 = 0
(8 x 1)( x + 2) = 0
8 x 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0
1
x =
or
x = 2
8
5x 2 = 9 x + 2
5x 2 9 x 2 = 0
(5 x + 1)( x 2) = 0
5x + 1 = 0
or x 2 = 0
1
x =
or
x = 2
5

16.

17.

12 4 y = 5 y 2
5 y 2 + 4 y 12 = 0
(5 y 6)( y + 2) = 0
5 y 6 = 0 or y + 2 = 0
6
y =
or
y = 2
5

18.

19.

11.

12m 2 + 25m + 12 = 0
( 4m + 3)( 3m + 4) = 0
4m + 3 = 0
or 3m + 4 = 0
3
4
m =
or
m =
4
3

15.

x =8

4 x 2 + 13x 12 = 0
( 4 x 3)( x + 4) = 0
4 x 3 = 0 or x + 4 = 0
3
x =
or
x = 4
4
2

20.

12.

12 y 2 17 y + 6 = 0
( 4 y 3)( 3 y 2) = 0

Quadratic Equations in One Unknown

x = 0 or
x=1
x = 0 or x 1 = 0
x ( x 1) = 0
x2 x = 0
The required equation is x2 x = 0.
x=4
or
x = 1
x4=0
or x + 1 = 0
( x 4)( x + 1) = 0
x 2 3x 4 = 0
The required equation is x2 3x 4 = 0.
x=2
or
x=3
x2=0
or x 3 = 0
( x 2)( x 3) = 0
x 2 5x + 6 = 0
The required equation is x2 5x + 6 = 0.
x = 1
or
x = 4
x+1=0
or x + 4 = 0
( x + 1)( x + 4) = 0
x 2 + 5x + 4 = 0
The required equation is x2 +5x + 4 = 0.

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A


x2 + bx 24 = 0 can be solved using the factor
method.
x2 + bx 24 = 0 can be written as
( x h )( x k ) = 0 for some real numbers h and
k.
x 2 hx kx + hk = 0

21.

x 2 ( h + k ) x + hk = 0
By comparing coefficients, we have
h + k = b
hk = 24
Let h = 4, k = 6, then b = 4 + 6 = 2
Let h = 3, k = 8, then b = 3 + 8 = 5
Let h = 2, k = 12, then b = 2 + 12 = 10
b = 2 or 5 or 10 (or any other reasonable answers)

2 y (19 4 y ) = 35
26.

8 y 2 38 y + 35 = 0
( 2 y 7)( 4 y 5) = 0
2 y 7 = 0 or 4 y 5 = 0
7
5
y =
or
y =
2
4

27.

22. Let h and k be the roots of the equation x2 18x + c = 0

x = h or

x=k

x h = 0 or x k = 0

x 2 ( h + k ) x + hk = 0
By comparing coefficients, we have
h + k = 18
hk = c
Let h = 6, k = 12, then c = 6 12 = 72
Let h = 7, k = 11, then c = 7 11 = 77
Let h = 8, k = 10, then c = 8 10 = 80

28.

( x + 3)( 2 x + 1) + 3 = 0

30.

6x 2 + x + 5 = 0

x 2 3x ( x 5) = 25
2 x 2 + 15 x 25 = 0

25.

2 x 2 15 x + 25 = 0
( 2 x 5)( x 5) = 0
2 x 5 = 0 or x 5 = 0
5
x =
or
x = 5
2

5 x ( x 2) ( x 2 ) 2 = 0
( x 2)[5 x ( x 2)] = 0
( x 2)( 4 x + 2) = 0
x 2 = 0 or 4 x + 2 = 0
x = 2 or

(3x + 1)(1 2 x ) + 4 = 0
6x 2 x 5 = 0
( 6 x + 5)( x 1) = 0
6x + 5 = 0
or x 1 = 0
5
x =
or
x =1
6

6 x 2 15 x 21 = 0

5 x ( x 2 ) = ( x 2) 2

Level 2

24.

6 x 2 21x 12 = 9 6 x

2 x 7 = 0 or x + 1 = 0
7
x =
or
x = 1
2

c = 72 or 77 or 80 (or any other reasonable


answers)

2x2 + 7x + 6 = 0
( 2 x + 3)( x + 2) = 0
2x + 3 = 0
or x + 2 = 0
3
x =
or
x = 2
2

15 y 2 34 y + 15 = 0
(3 y 5)(5 y 3) = 0
3 y 5 = 0 or 5 y 3 = 0
5
3
y=
or
y=
3
5

2 x 2 5x 7 = 0
( 2 x 7)( x + 1) = 0

29.

23.

15( y 2 + 1) = 34 y

( x 4)( 6 x + 3) = 3(3 2 x )

( x h )( x k ) = 0

8 y + 38 y 35 = 0
2

x =

3 y ( y 6)
3 y ( y 6)
3 y ( y 6) ( y + 6)( y 6)
( y 6)[3 y ( y + 6)]
( y 6)( 2 y 6)
y 6 = 0 or 2 y 6 = 0
y = 6 or
y = 3

1
2
=
=
=
=
=

y 2 36
( y + 6)( y 6)
0
0
0

( 2 x 5) 2 = ( x 3)( 2 x 5)
31.

( 2 x 5) 2 ( x 3)( 2 x 5) = 0
( 2 x 5)[( 2 x 5) ( x 3)] = 0
( 2 x 5)( x 2) = 0
2 x 5 = 0 or x 2 = 0
5
x =
or
x = 2
2

32.

( x + 1) 2 + 3( x + 1) 4 = 0
[( x + 1) 1][( x + 1) + 4] = 0
x ( x + 5) = 0
x = 0 or x + 5 = 0
x = 0 or
x = 5
1
or
2

x =
33.

x = 2

38. (a)

1
= 0 or x + 2 = 0
2
2 x 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0
( 2 x 1)( x + 2) = 0
x

2 x 2 + 3x 2 = 0
The required equation is 2x2 + 3x 2 = 0.
x =

34.

1
or
3

x =

3
2

1
3
= 0
or x
= 0
3
2
3x + 1 = 0
or 2 x 3 = 0
(3x + 1)( 2 x 3) = 0

6x 7x 3 = 0
The required equation is 6x2 7x 3 = 0.

1
1
x =
or
x =
2
3
1
1
x +
= 0
or x +
= 0
2
3
2x + 1 = 0
or 3x + 1 = 0
( 2 x + 1)(3 x + 1) = 0

35.

1
2
7
3
x=
or
x=
3
2
7
3
x = 0 or
x+ =0
3
2
3 x 7 = 0 or 2 x + 3 = 0
(3x 7)( 2 x + 3) = 0
x=2

36.

37. (a)

1
or
3

39. (a)

6 x 2 + 5x + 1 = 0
The required equation is 6x2 + 5x + 1 = 0.

4 x 2 8x + 3 = 0
The required equation is 4x2 8x + 3 = 0.

4x 2 8x + 3 = 0
( 2 x 1)( 2 x 3) = 0
2 x 1 = 0 or 2 x 3 = 0
1
3
x =
or
x =
2
2

3
1
= 0 or x = 0
2
2
2 x 3 = 0 or 2 x 1 = 0
( 2 x 3)( 2 x 1) = 0
x

1
(b) The roots of the required equation are 2 and
2
3
2 , i.e. 1 and 3.
2

x +

Quadratic Equations in One Unknown

x =1
or
x=3
x 1 = 0 or x 3 = 0
( x 1)( x 3) = 0

x2 4x + 3 = 0
The required equation is x2 4x + 3 = 0.

2x2 9x 5 = 0
( 2 x + 1)( x 5) = 0
2x + 1 = 0
or x 5 = 0
1
x =
or
x = 5
2

(b) The roots of the required equation are

1
+ 5 and
2

1
9
5
(5) , i.e. and .
2
2
2
9
5
x=
or
x =
2
2
9
5
x =0 or x + =0
2
2
2x 9 = 0
or
2x + 5 = 0
( 2 x 9)( 2 x + 5) = 0

4 x 2 8 x 45 = 0
The required equation is 4x2 8x 45 = 0.

x = 1

6 x 2 5 x 21 = 0
The required equation is 6x2 5x 21 = 0.

Exercise 1B (p. 17)

3x 8 x + 4 = 0
(3x 2)( x 2) = 0
3x 2 = 0 or x 2 = 0
2
x =
or
x = 2
3
2

Level 1

1.

(b) The roots of the required equation are

1
2
3

and

( x + 5) 2 = 36
x + 5 = 6
x = 5 + 6 or 5 6
=1
or 11

1
, i.e.
2

3
1
and .
2
2

x=

3
or
2

x=

1
2

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

16
9
4
x4=
3

2
9 2 x = 5
3

( x 4) 2 =

2.

2
2 x 2 = 5
3
9

4
4
or 4
3
3
16
8
=
or
3
3

7.

x =4+

2x

x + 1 = 25
3

1
x + = 5
3
1
1
x = + 5 or 5
3
3
14
16
=
or
3
3

3.

25 2 = 7
3

7
x

2 =
25
3

x
7
2 =
3
5
x
7
= 2
3
5
3 7
3 7
x = 6+
or 6
5
5

8.

4.

25 x = 4
5

1
4

x =
5
25

1
2
x =
5
5
1 2
1 2
x = + or

5 5
5 5
3
1
=
or
5
5

( x 3) 2 = 2
5.

x3= 2
x = 3+

2 or 3

9.

x+5=

6
p=
2
=9

7
2

x = 5+

7
7
or 5
2
2

6
x 2 6 x + 9 = x
2

= ( x 3) 2

8
p =
10.
2
= 16

4( x + 5) 2 = 7
7
( x + 5) 2 =
4

6.

11.

x 2 + 5x +

3
p =
4

12.
9
=
16

8
x 2 + 8 x + 16 = x +
2

= ( x + 4) 2

5
p =
2
25
=
4

2
5
=
3
3
2 5
2x =
3
2+ 5
2 5
x =
or
6
6

25
5
= x +
4
2

x2

3x
9
3
+
= x
2
16
4

13.

x2 2ax + b is a perfect square.


2

2a
b = 2
= a2
a = 2, b = 4 or a = 1, b = 1 or a = 1, b = 1.
(or any other reasonable answers)
18.

1
(x d ) =
4

2 x 2 10 x 5 = 0
5
x 2 5x
= 0
2
5
x 2 5x =
2
2
2
5
5 5
x 2 5 x + =
+
2 2
2
2

x 5 = 35
2
4

14.

xd =

1
2

x = d

Quadratic Equations in One Unknown

x
1
2

1
are integers.
4
1
1
1
d = 1 or 2 or 3 (or any other reasonable
2
2
2
answers)

The roots of (x d)2 =

Level 2
x 2 8 x + 15 = 0

19.

x 2 8 x = 15
2

15.

8
x 2 8 x +
2
( x 4) 2
x4
x

8
= 15 +
2
=1
= 1
= 4 1
= 5 or 3

x 16 x + 28 = 0
2

x 2 16 x = 28
2

16.

16
x 2 16 x +
2
( x 8) 2
x8
x

16
= 28 +
2
= 36
= 6
= 86
= 14 or 2

20.

x 2 + 7 x 98 = 0
x 2 + 7 x = 98
2

7
7
x 2 + 7 x + = 98 +
2

2

5
35
=
2
2
5
35
x =

2
2
5 + 35
5 35
=
or
2
2

3x 2 + 6 x 28 = 0
28
x2 + 2x
= 0
3
28
x2 + 2x =
3
2
2
2
28 2
x 2 + 2 x + =
+
3
2
2
31
( x + 1) 2 =
3
31
x +1=
3
31
= 1+
or 1
3
3x 2 6 x 7 = 0
7
x2 2x
= 0
3
7
x2 2x =
3
2
2
2
7 2
2

x 2x + =
+
3 2
2
10
2
( x 1) =
3
10
x 1 =
3
10
x = 1+
or 1
3

31
3

10
3

21.

3x 2 + 7 x 3 = 0

17.

7
441

x + =
2
4

7
21
x+ =
2
2
7 21
x=
2 2
= 7 or - 14

7
x 1 = 0
3
7
x2 + x = 1
3

x2 +

x2 +

7
7
7
x + = 1+
3
6

6

7
85

x+ =
6
36

10

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

x+

7
85
=
6
6
7
85
x=
6
6
7 + 85
7 85
=
or
6
6

x 2 + 2 3x + 1 = 0
x 2 + 2 3 x = 1
2

24.

2 3
2 3
= 1 +

x 2 + 2 3 x +

2
2

( x + 3)2 = 2
x+ 3 = 2
x= 3 2

5( x 1) = 4 x
5x2 4x 5 = 0
2

22.

= 3 + 2 or 3 2

4
x2 x 1 = 0
5
4
x2 x = 1
5
2

x2

4
4
4
x + = 1+
5
10

10

x2

3
= 0
4
3
x 2 2 5x
= 0
2
3
x 2 2 5x =
2

2
29

x =
5
25

25.

2
29
=
5
5
2
29
x=
5
5
2 + 29
2 29
=
or
5
5

5x

3 2 5
2 5
x 2 2 5x +
+
=

2 2
2
13
(x 5)2 =
2
13
x 5 =
2
13
= 5 +
or
2

2 x 2 5 x 30 = 0
x2
23.

( x 1)(2 +3 x ) = x 2
3x 2 x 2 = x 2

2x 2 x 2 = 0
1
x2 x 1= 0
2
1
x2 x =1
2
2

x2

1
1
1
x + =1+
2
4
4

x2
26.

1 17

x =
4 16

1
17
x =
4
4
1
17
x=
4
4
1 + 17
1 17
=
or
4
4

11

5
x 15 = 0
2
5
x2
x = 15
2

5
5
5
= 15 +

x +

4
2
4

x 5 = 245

4
16

5
7 5
=
4
4
5 7 5
x=

4
4
= 2 5 or

3 5
2

13
2

1
5.

Exercise 1C (p. 21)

1.

Using the quadratic formula,


x =
=

2.

( 4 )

7.

x=
=

b b 2 4ac
2a
( 31) (31) 2 4(14)(15)
2(14)

Using the quadratic formula,

x=
=

b b 2 4ac
2a
(2) (2) 2 4(3)(13)
2(3)

2 160
6
2 4 10
=
6
1 + 2 10
1 2 10
=
or
3
3
=

(9) (9) 2 4(35)(2)


2(35)

Using the quadratic formula,

5 5 2 4(2)(6)
2(2)

5 73
4
5 + 73
5 73
=
or
4
4

b b 2 4ac
2a

9 361
70
9 19
=
70
2
1
= or
5
7

b b 2 4ac
2a

(3) (3) 2 4(2)(2)


2( 2)

2(1)

Using the quadratic formula,

x=

Using the quadratic formula,

x=

4.

6.

b b 2 4ac
2a

3 25
4
35
=
4
1
= 2 or
2

( 7) (7) 2 4(1)(11)

7 5
2
7+ 5
7 5
=
or
2
2

b b 2 4ac
2a

( 4) 2 4(1)( 5)
2(1)

Using the quadratic formula,

x=

3.

b 2 4ac
2a

36
2
46
=
2
= 5 or 1
=

Using the quadratic formula,

x=

Level 1

Quadratic Equations in One Unknown

8.

Using the quadratic formula,

x=
=

b b 2 4ac
2a
3 3 2 4(3)(5)
2(3)

3 69
6
3 + 69
3 69
=
or
6
6
=

31 121
28
31 11
=
28
3
5
= or
2
7
=

12

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A


9.

Using the quadratic formula,

b b 2 4ac
x=
2a
=

13.

(6) (6) 2 4(2)(3)


2( 2)

(7) (7)2 4(6)(1)


2(6)

b 2 4ac
2a

32 4(9)( 4)
2(9)

3 153
18
3 3 17
=
18
1 + 17
1 17
=
or
6
6
= 0.52 (cor. to 2 d.p.) or 0.85 (cor. to 2 d.p.)
x ( 3x + 4) = ( x + 1)( x 2)

14.

3x 2 + 4 x = x 2 x 2
2 x 2 + 5x + 2 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,

7 73
12
7 + 73
7 73
=
or
12
12
=

x=
=

b b 2 4ac
2a
5 5 2 4( 2)(2)
2( 2)

5 9
4
53
=
4
= 0.5 or 2
=

Level 2
11. x ( x 10) + 5 = 0
x 2 10 x + 5 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,
x =
=

b 2 4ac
2a

( 10)

( 10) 2 4(1)(5)
2(1)

10 80
2
10 4 5
=
2
= 5+2 5
or 5 2 5
= 9.47 (cor. to 2 d.p.) or 0.53 (cor. to 2 d.p.)
=

x + 1 ( x + 1) = 3 x
2
4

3
1
3x
2
x + x+
=
15.
2
2
4
9x
1
2
x +
+
= 0
4
2
2
4x + 9x + 2 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,

x=
=

7 x 5x 2 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,

b 2 4ac
2a

( 5)

( 5) 2 4(7)( 2)
2( 7)

5 81
14
59
=
14
=

2
7
= 1 or 0.29 (cor. to 2 d.p.)
= 1 or

9 92 4(4)(2)
2( 4)

x =

b b 2 4ac
2a

9 49
8
97
=
8
= 0.25 or 2

5x + 2 = 7 x 2

12.

13

10. Using the quadratic formula,

b b 2 4ac
2a

9 x 2 + 3x 4 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,
x =

6 12
=
4
62 3
=
4
3+ 3
3 3
=
or
2
2

x=

(3x + 2)(3x 2) + 3x = 0

16.

( x 3)( 2 x 5) = x ( x + 3) + 2
2

2 x 2 11x + 15 = x + 3 x + 2
x 2 14 x + 13 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,

x =
=

b 2 4ac
2a

( 14)

20.

( 14) 4(1)(13)
2(1)
2

Quadratic Equations in One Unknown

( 2 x + 1)( 3x 2) = (6 x + 5) 2 4 x
6 x 2 x 2 = 36 x 2 + 56 x + 25
30 x 2 + 57 x + 27 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,

14 144
2
14 12
=
2
= 13 or 1
=

x =
=

b 2 4ac
2a

57

57 2 4(30)( 27)
2(30)

57 9
60
57 3
=
60
= 0.9 or 1
=

17.

( 2 x 3) 2 + 6 x = 7
4x2 6x + 9 = 7
4x2 6x + 2 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,
x =
=

b 2 4ac
2a

( 6)

( 6) 2 4( 4)( 2)
2( 4)

6 4
8
62
=
8
= 1 or 0.5
=

Exercise 1D (p. 26)

Level 1

1.

= ( 4) 2 4(1)( 1)
= 20

0.2 x 2 + 0.8( x + 2) = 0.8


18.

2
For x 4 x 1 = 0,

0.2 x 2 + 0.8 x + 1.6 = 0.8


>0

0.2 x 2 + 0.8 x + 0.8 = 0


x2 + 4x + 4 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,
x =
=

roots.

b 2 4ac
2a

4 2 4(1)( 4)
2(1)

4
=
2
= 2

2.

2
For 2 x + 3x + 1 = 0,

= 32 4( 2)(1)
=1

>0

( x 3) = ( 2 x + 1)( x 2)
2

19.

The equation x2 4x 1= 0 has two distinct real

x 2 6 x + 9 = 2 x 2 3x 2

The equation 2x2 + 3x + 1 = 0 has two distinct real


roots.

x 2 + 3x 11 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,

x=

b b 2 4ac
2a

3 32 4(1)(11)
=
2(1)

3.

For 3x2 + 2x + 2 = 0
= 2 2 4(3)( 2)
= 20

3 53
2
3 53
3 53
=
or
2
2
= 2.14 (cor. to 2 d.p.) or 5.14 (cor. to 2 d.p.)
=

<0

4.

The equation 3x2 + 2x + 2 = 0 has no real roots.

For x2 + 4x + 4 = 0,

14

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A


= 4 2 4(1)( 4)
= 0

roots.

>0
(3) 4(2)(k ) > 0
2

=0

5.

The equation x + 4x + 4 = 0 has a double real root.

For 2x2 4x + 3 = 0,

= ( 4) 2 4( 2)(3)
= 8
<0

9 8k > 0
9
k<
8

9
The range of possible values of k is k < 8 .

The equation 5x2 + 3x + (k + 1) = 0 has two distinct

10.

The equation 2x2 4x + 3 = 0 has no real roots.

real roots.

>0
3 4(5)(k + 1) > 0
9 20k 20 > 0
11 20k > 0
2

k<
6.

For 3x2 + x 10 = 0,

= 12 4(3)(10)
= 121

11
20

11
The range of possible values of k is k < 20 .

>0

The equation 3x2 + x 10 = 0 has two distinct real

The quadratic equation 3x2 + 4x + k = 0 has real

11.

roots.

roots.

i.e. 4 4(3)(k ) 0
16 12k 0
2

The equation (k 1)x2 2x + 1 = 0 has a double

7.

real root.

=
=
=
=

0
0
0
2

The equation x2 + 4kx + 16k + 20 = 0 has a double

8.

real root.

= 0

( 4k ) 2 4(1)(16k + 20) = 0

12k 16
4
k
3

= 0

( 2) 4( k 1)(1)
4 4k + 4
8 4k
k
2

16k 2 64k 80 = 0

The range of the values of k is k

The quadratic equation (k + 1) x2 2kx + (k 2) = 0

12.

has real roots.

i.e.

k 2 4k 5 = 0
( k 5)( k + 1) = 0

The equation 2x2 3x + k = 0 has two distinct real

15

0
(2k ) 2 4( k + 1)(k 2) 0

4 k 2 4k 2 + 4k + 8 0
4k + 8 0
4 k 8
k 2

k 5 = 0 or k + 1 = 0
k = 5 or
k = 1

9.

4
3 .

The range of the values of k is k 2.

The equation 3x2 + 5x k = 0 has no real roots.

13.

< 0

17.

( k + 2) x 2 = 2 x 1
( k + 2) x 2 2 x + 1 = 0

52 4(3)( k ) < 0
25 + 12k < 0

k <

The equation (k + 2) x2 2x + 1 = 0 has no real


roots.

25
12

< 0

25
The range of possible values of k is k < 12 .

Quadratic Equations in One Unknown

( 2) 4( k + 2)(1) < 0
4 4k 8 < 0
k > 1
2

The range of possible values of k is k > 1.

The equation (k + 2)x2 4x 5 = 0 has no real

14.

roots.

3( x 2 + 1) = x + 12k

18.

3 x 2 + 3 = x + 12k

< 0

3 x 2 x + (3 12k ) = 0

( 4) 2 4( k + 2)( 5) < 0
16 + 20k + 40 < 0
56 + 20k < 0

k <

The equation 3x2 x + (3 12k) = 0 has no real


14
5

roots.

<0
( 1) 4(3)(3 12k ) < 0
1 36 + 144k < 0
35
k<
144
2

14
The range of possible values of k is k < 5 .

The equation ax2 + 3x + c = 0 has two distinct real

15.

roots.

35
The range of possible values of k is k < 144 .

> 0
32 4ac > 0
9 4ac > 0
9
ac <
4

1
a = 2 , c = 3 or a = 1, c = 2.

The equation x2 2kx + 2k + 15 = 0 has equal

19. (a)

real roots.

=0
(2k ) 2 4(1)(2k + 15) = 0

4k 2 8k 60 = 0
k 2 2k 15 = 0

(or any other reasonable answers)

16.

ax 2 + 2 x = c
ax + 2 x c = 0
2

The equation ax2 + 2x c = 0 has no real roots.


< 0

2 2 4a ( c ) < 0
4 + 4ac < 0
ac < 1

(k + 3)(k 5) = 0
k +3= 0
or k 5 = 0
k = 3 or
k = 5

(b) For k = 3,
x 2 2( 3) x + 2( 3) + 15 = 0
x 2 + 6x + 9 = 0
( x + 3) 2 = 0
x +3= 0
x = 3

ac = 2 or 3. (or any other reasonable answers)

Level 2

For k = 5,

16

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

x 2 2(5) x + 2(5) + 15 = 0

(m 1) 2 0

x 2` 10 x + 25 = 0

(m 1) 2 + 1 > 0

( x 5) 2 = 0
x 5 = 0
x = 5

<0

The equation 4x2 + 5kx + k = 0 has equal real

20. (a)

4 (m 1) 2 + 1 < 0

The equation x2 2(m + 1)x + (2m2 + 3) = 0 has no


real roots for any real values of m.

roots.
= 0

(5k ) 2 4( 4)( k ) = 0

22. (a)

12 x 2 + 4 x + k = 1
12 x + 4 x + ( k 1) = 0
2

25k 2 16k = 0
k ( 25k 16) = 0

The equation 12x2 + 4x + (k 1) = 0 has real


roots.

k = 0 or 25k 16 = 0
16
k=
25

k = 0 or

(b) For k = 0,
4 x 2 + 5(0) x + (0) = 0
4x2 = 0
x = 0

16
For k = 25 ,
16
16
4 x 2 + 5 x +
= 0
25
25
16
16
4x2 +
x+
= 0
5
25
2
25 x + 20 x + 4 = 0

(b) (i)

4
The range of possible values of k is k 3 .

12 x 2 + 4 x 1 = 0
12 x 2 + 4 x + 0 = 1
k = 0
4

(5 x + 2 ) 2 = 0
5x + 2 = 0

The equation 12x2 + 4x 1 = 0 has real


roots.

2
x =
5

36 x + 12 x + 1 = 0
1
12 x 2 + 4 x + = 0
3
4
12 x 2 + 4 x +
=1
3
2

(ii)
2
2
21. For the equation x 2( m + 1) x + ( 2m + 3) = 0 ,

4 2 4(12)( k 1) 0
16 48k + 48 0
64 48k 0
4
k
3

4
3
4

k =

= [ 2( m + 1)]2 4(1)( 2m 2 + 3)
= 4m 2 + 8m + 4 8m 2 12
= 4m 2 + 8m 8
= 4 ( m 2 2 m + 2 )
= 4[( m 1) 2 + 1]

The equation 36x2 + 12x + 1 = 0 has real


roots.

For any real values of m,

Exercise 1E (p. 34)


17

Quadratic Equations in One Unknown

Level 1

1.

(a)

two

(b) The x-intercepts of y = x2 14x + 48 are 6 and 8.


Therefore, the roots of the equation x2 14x + 48 =
0 are 6 and 8.
2.

(a)

two

(b) The x-intercepts of y = x2 3x 10 are 2 and 5.


Therefore, the roots of the equation x2 3x 10 = 0

(c)

are 2 and 5.

The x-intercepts of y = 2x2 4x are 0 and 2.0.


Therefore, the roots of the equation 2x2 4x = 0 are
0 and 2.0.

3.

x
(a)
y

4
5

3
0

2
3

1
4

0
3

1
0

2
5
5.

3
14

x
y

(a)

2
5

1
0

0
1

1
2

2
9

3
20

(b)

(b) The x-intercepts of y = 2x2 + x 1 are 1.0 and 0.5.


Therefore, the roots of the equation 2x2 + x 1 = 0
are 1.0 and 0.5.

6.
(c)

(a)

x
y

0
9

1
4

2
1

3
0

4
1

5
4

6
9

The x-intercepts of y = x2 + 2x 3 are 3 and 1.


Therefore, the roots of the equation x2 + 2x 3 = 0

4.

(a)

are 3.0 and 1.0.


x
0
2 1
y
16
6
0

1
2

2
0

3
6

4
16

(b)

18

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

Level 2

9.

3
8

x
(a) y

2
2

1
2

0
4

1
4

2
2

3
2

4
8

(b) The x-intercept of y = x2 6x + 9 is 3.0.


Therefore, the root of the equation x2 6x + 9 = 0 is
3.0.

The graph y = x2 + bx + c does not intersect the

7.

x-axis.

x2 = x + 4

(b)

The equation x2 + bx + c = 0 has no real roots.

b 4( 1)( c ) < 0

x x4 = 0
2

< 0

The x-intercepts of y = x2 x 4 read from the

graph are 1.6 and 2.6.

b 2 + 4c < 0

Therefore, the roots of the equation x2 = x + 4 are

The possible values of b and c are: b = 1, c = 2 or


b = 0, c = 1. (or any other reasonable answers)

1.6 and 2.6.


x
10. (a) y

1
2
3
3 2 1 0
5 2 1 2 5 10 17

The graph y = kx2 + 3x + k cuts the x-axis at two

8.

distinct points.

The equation kx2 + 3x + k = 0 has 2 distinct real


root.

>0
3 4( k )(k ) > 0
2

9 4k 2 > 0
9
k2 >
4
3
3
<k<
2
2
1
k = 1 or 2 or 1 (or any other reasonable answers)

(b) The graph y = x2 2x 2 does not intersect the


x-axis.
Therefore, the equation x2 2x 2 = 0 has no real
roots.

19

(b) (i)
11.

1
9

x
(a) y

0
1

1
1

Quadratic Equations in One Unknown


x
y

0
5

2
9

1
2
3
4
1.8 0.2 0.2 1.8

5
5

(ii) The x-intercept of y = (k + 1)x2 + 4x 5 is 2.5.


Therefore, the root of the equation
(b)

4 x (1 x ) = 1

(k + 1)x2 + 4x 5 = 0 is 2.5.

4x 4x + 1 = 0
2

The x-intercept of y = 4x2 4x + 1 is 0.5.


Therefore, the root of the equation 4x(1 x) = 1 is

Exercise 1F (p. 40)

0.5.

Level 1
12. The graph y = x2 2x k does not intersect the x-axis.
Therefore, the equation x2 2x k = 0 has no real roots.
< 0

13. (a)

1.

Let x be the positive number.


x + x 2 = 56

( 2) 2 4(1)( k ) < 0
4 + 4k < 0
k < 1

x + x 56 = 0
( x + 8)( x 7) = 0
2

x+8 = 0
or x 7 = 0
x = 8 (rejected) or
x = 7

The range of possible values of k is k < 1.

The graph of y = (k + 1)x2 + 4x 5 touches the

The positive number is 7.

x-axis.
Therefore, the equation (k + 1)x2 + 4x 5 = 0 has a
double real roots.

2.

Let x be the smaller odd number, then x + 2 is the larger


odd number.

=0

x 2 + ( x + 2) 2 = 202

42 4( k + 1)(5) = 0
16 + 20( k + 1) = 0
20k + 36 = 0

x 2 + x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 202

k=

2 x 2 + 4 x 198 = 0
x 2 + 2 x 99 = 0
( x + 11)( x 9) = 0

9
5

x + 11 = 0
or x 9 = 0
x = 11 (rejected) or
x = 9

The two consecutive positive odd numbers are 9

20

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A


150
2 x +
= 50
x

150
x+
= 25
x
x 2 + 150 = 25 x

and 11.

3.

Let x be the smallest number.

[ x + ( x + 1) + ( x + 2) 2 ] [ x 2 + ( x + 1) 2 + ( x + 2) 2 ] = 94

x 2 25 x + 150 = 0
( x 15)(( x 10) = 0

(3 x + 3) 2 [ x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 1 + x 2 + 4 x + 4] = 94
9 x 2 + 18 x + 9 (3 x 2 + 6 x + 5) = 94

x 15 = 0 or
x = 15 or

6 x 2 + 12 x + 4 = 94
6 x 2 + 12 x 90 = 0
x 2 + 2 x 15 = 0

( x + 5)( x 3) = 0

Alternative Solution
50 2 x = ( 25 x ) cm
Let x cm be the length, then
2

The three positive consecutive numbers are 3, 4 and


5.

4.

The length and width are 15 cm and 10 cm


respectively.

x+5=0
or x 3 = 0
x = 5 (rejected) or
x = 3

Let x cm be the length of the hypotenuse, then (x 2) cm

is the width.
x ( 25 x ) = 150

is the base and [(x 2) 14] = (x 16) cm is the height.


( x 2) 2 + ( x 16) 2 = x 2 (Pyth. theorem)

5.

x 2 4 x + 4 + x 2 32 x + 256 = x 2
x 2 36 x + 260 = 0
( x 26)( x 10) = 0
x 26 = 0 or
x = 26 or

The length of the hypotenuse is 26 cm.

7.

4 x 2 + 148 x + 1344 1344 1032 = 0

x + 2 x 48 = 0
( x + 8)( x 6) = 0

4 x 2 + 148 x 1032 = 0
x 2 + 37 x 258 = 0
( x + 43)( x 6) = 0

x6 = 0
x = 6

x + 43 = 0

or x 6 = 0
x = 43 (rejected) or
x = 6

The length is 8 m and the width is 6 m.

6.

The length and width are 15 cm and 10 cm

Area of the border = 1032 cm2


( 42 + 2 x )( 32 + 2 x ) 42 32 = 1032

150
Let x cm be the length, then x cm is the width.

The width of the border is 6 cm.

1 + 9x 2x2 = 5
8.

2x2 9x + 4 = 0
( 2 x 1)( x 4) = 0

2 x 1 = 0 or
x = 0.5 or

21

x 10 = 0
x = 10

Let x cm be the width of the border.

2 x 2 + 4 x 96 = 0

x+8 = 0
or
x = 8 (rejected) or

x 25 x + 150 = 0
( x 15)( x 10) = 0

respectively.

x 2 + x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 100

25 x x 2 = 150
2

x 15 = 0 or
x = 15 or

x 10 = 0
x = 10 (rejected )

Let x m be the width, then (x + 2) m is the length.


x 2 + ( x + 2) 2 = 102 (Pyth. theorem)

x 10 = 0
x = 10

x4 = 0
x = 4

or x + 20 = 0
x 100 = 0
x = 20 (rejected)
x = 100 or

After 0.5 seconds and 4 seconds, the ball is 5 m


above the ground.

Level 2

9.

12. (a)

20 20

=1
x 1 x
20 x 20( x 1)
=1
x( x 1)

(b)

x x 20 = 0
( x 5)( x + 4) = 0
2

Base area

= ( 26 2 x )(16 2 x ) cm 2
= ( 4 x 2 84 x + 416) cm 2

4 x 2 84 x + 216 = 0
x 2 21x + 54 = 0
( x 18)( x 3) = 0
x 18 = 0
or x 3 = 0
x = 18 (rejected) or
x = 3

20 x 20 x + 20 = x 2 x

x 5 = 0 or
x = 5 or

The man bought 100 articles.

4 x 2 84 x + 416 = 200

Let x km/h be the original speed of Peter.

Quadratic Equations in One Unknown

x+4 = 0

Volume of the box


= base area height of the box

x = 4 (rejected)

= 200 x cm 3
= 200(3) cm 3

The original speed of Peter is 5 km/h.

= 600 cm 3

10. Let $x be the original price of an apple.

13. (a)

75
75

=5
x 0.5 x
75 x 75( x 0.5)
=5
x( x 0.5)

(i)

= x ( x + 1) km
= ( x 2 + x ) km

75 x 75 x + 37.5 = 5 x 2 2.5 x

(ii) Distance travelled in the last (x 1) hours

5 x 2.5 x 37.5 = 0

= ( x 1)( x 1) km

2 x x 15 = 0
( 2 x + 5)( x 3) = 0

= ( x 2 2 x + 1) km

2x + 5 = 0

or

11.

( x 2 + x) + ( x 2 2 x + 1) = 16

x 3 = 0

5
x = (rejected) or
2

x=3

The original price of an apple is $3.

300
original cost of one article is $ x .
x
300
15 300 = 25

4
x
15 x
7500
300 =
4
x
15 x 2 1200 x = 30 000

2 x 2 x + 1 = 16

(b)

Let x be the number of articles that the man bought, then

Distance travelled in the first x hours

14.

2 x 2 x 15 = 0
(2 x + 5)( x 3) = 0

2x + 5 = 0

or

x3= 0

x =

5
(rejected) or
2

x = 3

Area of ABCD area ofABP area ofADQ


area of CPQ
= shaded area

x 2 80 x 2000 = 0
( x 100)( x + 20) = 0

22

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A


7( 7 x ) 7( 7 2 x ) 2 x x

= 17
2
2
2
49 7 x
49 14 x
2x2
49

= 17
2
2
2
98 49 + 7 x 49 + 14 x 2 x 2 = 34

72

DC =

= 62 + 82 cm
= 10 cm

2 x 2 21x + 34 = 0
( 2 x 17)( x 2) = 0

Perimeter of trapezium ABCD


= (8 + 6.5 + 10 + 12.5) cm
= 37 cm

2 x 17 = 0
or x 2 = 0
x = 2
x = 8.5 (rejected) or

15. (a)

EC 2 + DE 2 (Pyth. theorem)

Area of trapezium ABCD


[( x + 2) + (3 x 1)]( 2 x 1)
cm 2
2
( 4 x + 1)( 2 x 1) 2
=
cm

2
2
8x 2 x 1 2
=
cm
2

1
2
= 4 x x cm 2
2

Revision Exercise 1 (p. 44)

Level 1

1.

6 x 2 + 11x 10 = 0
(3x 2)( 2 x + 5) = 0
3x 2 = 0 or 2 x + 5 = 0
2
5
x =
or
x =
3
2

(b) (i)

By (a),
1
= 76
2
8 x 2 2 x 1 = 152

12 x 2 3 = 35 x

4x2 x

2.

8 x 2 2 x 153 = 0
(ii)

8 x 2 2 x 153 = 0
( 4 x + 17)( 2 x 9) = 0

12 x 2 35 x 3 = 0
(12 x + 1)( x 3) = 0
12 x + 1 = 0

or

x3= 0

x =

1
or
12

x = 3

4 x + 17 = 0
or 2 x 9 = 0
17
9
x =
(rejected) or
x =
4
2

x = 4 or
x = 6
x + 4 = 0 or x 6 = 0

3.

EC = BC BE
= BC AD
9 9

= 3 1 + 2 cm

2 2
= (12.5 6.5) cm
= 6 cm

23

( x + 4)( x 6) = 0
x 2 2 x 24 = 0
The required equation is x2 2x 24 = 0.

1
3
or x =
3
2
3
1
x
= 0 or x
= 0
2
3
2 x 3 = 0 or 3x 1 = 0
x =

4.

( 2 x 3)( 3x 1) = 0
6 x 2 11x + 3 = 0

The required equation is 6x2 11x + 3 = 0.

Quadratic Equations in One Unknown

1
2
10. For 3x + 4 x + 1 = 0
2

5.

1
= 4( 3)(1)
4
193
=
16

Using the quadratic formula,

x=
=

b b 2 4ac
2
(3) (3) 2 4(4)(4)
2( 4)

3 73
8
3 + 73
3 73
=
or
8
8
= 1.44 (cor. to 2 d.p.) or 0.69 (cor. to 2 d.p.)

> 0

6.

distinct real roots.

The equation x2 4x + 2k = 0 has a double real


root.
= 0

11.

Using the quadratic formula,

x=

b b 2 4ac
2
(3) ( 3) 2 4(7)(5)
2(7 )

3 149
14
3 + 149
3 149
=
or
14
14
= 1.09 (cor. to 2 d.p.) or 0.66 (cor. to 2 d.p.)

For 2x2 5x + 1 = 0

>0

For x2 8x + 16 = 0
= ( 8) 2 4(1)(16)
= 0

9.

= 0
The equation x2 8x + 16 = 0 has a double real
root.

6 2 4(1)(k ) < 0
36 4k < 0
k >9
The range of possible values of k is k > 9.
The equation 3kx2 4x + 3 = 0 has no real roots.
<0

14.

roots.

8.

3
8

The equation x2 + 6x + k = 0 has no real roots.


<0

= ( 5) 2 4( 2)(1)
= 17

The equation 2x2 5x + 1 = 0 has two distinct real

(3) 2 4(k )( 6) = 0
9 + 24k = 0
k =

13.

( 4) 2 4(1)( 2k ) = 0
16 8k = 0
k = 2
The equation kx2 + 3x 6 = 0 has a double real
root.
= 0

12.

7.

1
x + 1 = 0 has two
4

The equation 3x 2 +

(4) 2 4(3k )(3) < 0


16 36k < 0
4
k>
9
The range of possible values of k is k >

15. (a) x
y

1
8

0
3

1
0

2
1

3
0

4
3

4
.
9

5
8

For 2x2 + 3x + 4 = 0
= (3) 2 4( 2)( 4)
= 23

< 0
The equation 2x2 + 3x + 4 = 0 has no real roots.

24

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

(b)

The length and width of the rectangle are 11 cm and


8 cm respectively.

Alternative Solution
Let x cm be the length of the rectangle, then

88
cm is
x

the width of the rectangle.


88
2 x +
= 38
x

88
x+
= 19

x
x 2 + 88 = 19 x

16. (a) two


(b) The x-intercepts of y = 4x2 4x 3 are 0.5 and
1.5.
Therefore, the roots of the equation 4x2 4x 3 = 0
are 0.5 and 1.5.
17. (a) one
(b) The x-intercepts of y = x2 6x + 9 is 3.
Therefore, the roots of the equation x2 6x = 9 is
3.

20.

18. Let x be one of the number, then 27 x is the other


number.
x ( 27 x ) = 180

27 x x 2 = 180

x 27 x + 180 = 0
( x 15)( x 12) = 0
x 15 = 0 or x 12 = 0
x = 15 or
x = 12
The two numbers are 12 and 15.

x 2 19 x + 88 = 0
( x 11)( x 8) = 0
x 11 = 0 or x 8 = 0
x = 11 or
x = 8
The length and width of the rectangle are 11 cm and 8 cm
respectively.

Let x be one of the number, then

180
is the other
x

number.

180
= 27
x
2
x + 180 = 27 x

x 2 27 x + 180 = 0
( x 15)( x 12) = 0
x 15 = 0 or x 12 = 0
x = 15 or
x = 12
The two numbers are 12 and 15.

x+

19. Let x cm be the length of the rectangle, then


38 2 x
= (19 x ) cm is the width of the rectangle.
2
x (19 x ) = 88
19 x x 2 = 88

x 19 x + 88 = 0
( x 11)( x 8) = 0
x 11 = 0 or x 8 = 0
x = 11 or
x = 8
2

25

4x 2 8x + 3 = 0
( 2 x 1)( 2 x 3) = 0
2 x 1 = 0 or 2 x 3 = 0
x = 0.5 or
x = 1.5
After 0.5 seconds and 1.5 seconds, the ball is 3 m
above the ground.
The equation x2 ax 40 = 0 has two distinct real
roots.
> 0

21.

Alternative Solution

8x 4 x 2 = 3

( a ) 2 4(1)( 40) > 0


a 2 + 160 > 0

a 2 > 160
The square of any numbers is always positive.
The equation x2 ax 40 = 0 has two distinct real
roots for any real values of a.
a = 1 or 2 or 3 (or any other reasonable answers)
2

2 x 1 = m
3

22.
4
1
2

4 x x + m = 0
3
9

Using the quadratic formula,


x =

b 2 4ac
2a

4

3

4 4( 4) 1 m
3
9

2( 4)

4
16 m
= 3
8
To have two rational roots of different signs, we need
4
16 m >
3
16
16 m >
9
1
m >
9

m = 1 or 9 or 16 (or any other reasonable answers)

The graph of y = ax2 + 4x + c intersects the x-axis at


one point.
The equation ax2 + 4x + c = 0 has a double real
root.
= 0

23.

24.

( 4) 2 4ac = 0
16 4ac = 0
ac = 4
a = 2, c = 2 or a = 1, c = 4 or a = 2, c = 2.
(or any other reasonable answers)

Quadratic Equations in One Unknown

2( x + 1)( x 1) = 5 x + 4
2( x 2 1) = 5 x + 4
2 x2 2 = 5x + 4
2 x2 5x = 6
5
x2 x = 3
2
2

x2
27.

5
5
5
x + = 3+
2
4

4

5
73
=
4
16
5
73
=
4
4

The graph y = x2 + 2x + k does not intersect the


x-axis.
The equation x2 + 2x + k = 0 has no real roots.
< 0
2 2 4( 1)( k ) < 0
4 + 4k < 0
k < 1
k = 4 or 3 or 2 (or any other reasonable
answers)

x=

5
73

4
4

5 + 73
4

or

5 73
4

(2 x + 3)( x 4) = 3x 2
2 x 2 5 x 12 = 3x 2
2 x 2 8 x = 10

Level 2

x2 4 x = 5
28.

x( x 6) + 4 = 0
x2 6x + 4 = 0
x 2 6 x = 4
2

25.

6
6
x 2 6 x + = 4 +
2
2
( x 3) 2 = 5

x3 = 5

x (6 x 5) = 4

x = 3 5
= 3+ 5

or

6x2 5x = 4

3 5
29.

16( x 2 + 4) = 64 x + 9
16 x 2 + 64 = 64 x + 9
16 x 2 4 x = 55
55
x2 4x =
16
2

26.

4
4
x2 4x + = 5 +
2
2
2
( x 2) = 9
x 2 = 3
x = 23
x = 5 or 1

6 x2 5x 4 = 0
(3 x 4)(2 x + 1) = 0
3x 4 = 0
4
x=
3

2x + 1 = 0

or

x =

1
2

2x
3
9( x 2 1) = 2 x
3( x 2 1) =

55 4
4
x2 4 x + = +
2
16

2
9
( x 2) 2 =
16
3
x2=
4
3
x = 2
4
11
5
=
or
4
4

or

30.

9x2 9 = 2x
9x 2x 9 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,
2

26

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A

x=
=

b b 2 4ac
2a
( 2) (2) 2 4(9)(9)
2(9)

3
(b) The roots of the required equation are 2 and
2
2(4), i.e. 3 and 8.

2 328
=
18
=

2 82
18

1 + 82
=
9

or

1 82
9

34. (a)

( 2 x + 1)(3 x 1) = 4( x 1)(2 x + 1)
2 x2 5x 3 = 0
(2 x + 1)( x 3) = 0
2x + 1 = 0
or x 3 = 0

x=

1
2

x=3

or

Alternative Solution
( 2 x + 1)(3 x 1) = 4( x 1)(2 x + 1)
( 2 x + 1)(3x 1) 4( x 1)(2 x + 1) = 0
( 2 x + 1)[(3 x 1) 4( x 1)] = 0
( 2 x + 1)( x + 3) = 0
( 2 x + 1)( x 3) = 0
2x + 1 = 0
1
x=
2

or

x3 = 0

or

x=3

( x 1) 2 + 4( x 1) + 4 = 0
x 2x + 1 + 4x 4 + 4 = 0
x2 + 2x + 1 = 0

32.

( x + 1) 2 = 0
x +1 = 0
x = 1

x 2 11x + 24 = 0
The required equation is x 2 11x + 24 = 0 .

3x 2 + 8 x 3 = 0
(3 x 1)( x + 3) = 0

2x 3 = 0
3
x=
2

27

x=

or

3x 2 8 x 3 = 0
The required equation is 3 x 2 8 x 3 = 0 .

or

x+

The equation x 2 2( k 5) x + 16 = 0 has a


double real root.
=0
[2( k 5)]2 4(1)(16) = 0
4( k 5) 2 64 = 0
(k 5) 2 16 = 0

(k 5) 2 = 16
k 5 = 4
k = 5 4
=9
or
(b) For k = 9 ,
x 2 2(9 5) x + 16 = 0
x 2 8 x + 16 = 0

or

x4 = 0

or

x=4

1
3

x3 = 0

[ ( x 1) + 2] 2 = 0

2 x 2 11x + 12 = 0
(2 x 3)( x 4) = 0

x = 3

1
=0
3
x 3 = 0 or 3 x + 1 = 0
( x 3)(3 x 1) = 0

( x 1) 2 + 4( x 1) + 4 = 0

33. (a)

x+3= 0

or

x=3

Alternative Solution

( x + 1) 2 = 0
x +1 = 0
x = 1

or

1
1
(b) The roots of the required equation are 1 and
.
3
3
1
i.e. 3 and .
3

35. (a)

x = 3 or
x=8
x 3 = 0 or x 8 = 0
( x 3)( x 8) = 0

3x 1 = 0
1
x=
3

6 x2 + x 1 = 8x2 4x 4

31.

( x 4) 2 = 0
x4= 0
x=4
For k = 1 ,

1
x 2 2(1 5) x + 16 = 0

8 x 2 8 x + 15 = 0
15
=0
(ii) 4 x 2 4 x +
2
19
4x2 4x +
=2
2
19
>3
2

The equation has no real roots.

x 2 + 8 x + 16 = 0
( x + 4) 2 = 0
x+4=0
x = 4
The equation x 2 3x ( k + 2) = 0 has real
roots.
0

36. (a)

Quadratic Equations in One Unknown

38. (a)

( 3) 4(1)[( k + 2)] 0
9 + 4(k + 2) 0
4k + 17 0
2

y
17
4

The range of possible values of k is k

(b)

10

(b)
17
.
4

17
.
4

17

x 2 3x
+ 2 = 0
4

9
2
x 3x + = 0
4
2

x = 0
2

3
x =0
2
3
x=
2

(c)

The x-intercepts of y = 2 x 2 x 5 read from the


graph are 1.4 and 1.9.
Therefore, the roots of the equation 2 x 2 x 5 = 0
are 1.4 and 1.9.

39. (a)
x
y

37. (a)

2
5

17
4

Minimum value of k is

(c)

3
16

2
10

1
3

4 x2 4 x + k = 2
4 x 2 4 x + (k 2) = 0

(b)

The equation 4 x 2 4 x + ( k 2) = 0 has no


real roots.
<0

(b) (i)

( 4) 2 4( 4)(k 2) < 0
16 16( k 2) < 0
16k + 48 < 0
k >3
The range of possible values of k is k > 3.

(c)

4 x2 4 x 1 = 0
4x2 4x + 1 = 2
1<3

The equation has real roots.

The x-intercepts of y = x 2 4 x 2 read from the


graph are 0.4 and 4.4.
Therefore, the roots of the equation x 2 = 2( 2 x + 1)
are 0.4 and 4.4.

40. (a)
x

28

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A


43. Let x km/h be the original speed of the car.

240 240

=
x
x + 15
240( x + 15 x)
=
x( x + 15)
5
(240)(15) =

4
4500 =

4
5
4
5
x( x + 15)
x 2 + 15 x

x + 15 x 4500 = 0
( x 60)( x + 75) = 0
2

(b) (i)

1 double real root

(ii) The x-intercept of y = x 2 8 x + 16 is 4.


Therefore, the root of the equation
x(8 x) = 16 is 4.
The graph of y = kx + 5 x + k touches the
x-axis..
The equation kx 2 + 5 x + k = 0 has a double real
root.
2

41.

=0

The original speed of the car is 60 km/h.

44. Let V m3 be the volume of the swimming pool, and


x h be the time the larger pipe take to fill up the
swimming pool, then ( x + 6) h is the time the smaller
pipe take to fill up the swimming pool and
V 3
V
+
m is the volume of water filled in the
x
x
+6

swimming pool in 1 hour using two pipes.

5 4(k )(k ) = 0
2

V
=4
V
V
+
x x+6

25 4k 2 = 0
(5 + 2k )(5 2k ) = 0
5 + 2k = 0
or 5 2k = 0
5
5
k=
or
k=
2
2
42.

x 60 = 0 or x + 75 = 0
x = 60 or
x = 75 (rejected)

1
1
V = 4V +

x x+6
x + 6+ x
1 = 4

x( x + 6)

The graph of y = 2 x 2 + 3 x k 1 has two distinct


x-intercepts.
The equation 2 x 2 + 3 x k 1 = 0 has two distinct
real roots.

x 2 + 6 x = 8 x + 24
x 2 x 24 = 0
( x 6)( x + 4) = 0
2

x6 =0
x=6

>0

( 3 )2 4( 2 )( k 1 ) > 0
9 8(k + 1 ) > 0
1 8k > 0
1
k<
8
The range of possible values of k is k <

x+4=0
x = 4 (rejected)

It would take the larger pipe 6 hours to fill up the


swimming pool.

AC 2 + BC 2 = AB 2 (Pyth. theorem)
1
.
8

( x + 3) 2 + (7 x 2) 2 = (6 x + 5) 2

45. (a)

x 2 + 6 x + 9 + 49 x 2 28 x + 4 = 36 x 2 + 60 x + 25

(b)

29

or
or

14 x 2 82 x 12 = 0
7 x 2 41x 6 = 0
7 x 2 41x 6 = 0
(7 x + 1)( x 6) = 0
7x + 1 = 0
or
1
x = (rejected) or
7

x6 = 0
x=6

1
AC BC
2
(6 + 3) (7 6 2)
=
cm 2
Area of ABC
2
9 40
=
cm 2
2
= 180 cm 2
=

46. (a)

Perimeter of ABC
= AB + BC + AC
= [(6 6 + 5) + (7 6 2) + (6 + 3)] cm
= ( 41 + 40 + 9) cm
= 90 cm

Area of shaded region

43
= (5 x 2)(3 x + 1)
8 cm 2
2

= (15 x 2 x 2 48) cm 2
= (15 x 2 x 50) cm 2
15 x 2 x 50 = 186

(b) (i)

(ii)

15 x 2 x 236 = 0

15 x 2 x 236 = 0
(15 x + 59)( x 4) = 0
15 x + 59 = 0
or x 4 = 0
59
x=
(rejected) or
x=4
15
JK = BC BJ KC

= [(3 4 + 1) 4 4] cm
= 5 cm

GH = AB AG HB
= [(5 4 2) 3 3] cm
= 12 cm

4.

Quadratic Equations in One Unknown

x = 5 or
x=2
x + 5 = 0 or x 2 = 0
( x + 5)( x 2) = 0
x 2 + 3x 10 = 0
The required equation is y = x 2 + 3x 10 .

Answer: D
For x 2 + 2 x + 3 = 0 ,

= 22 4(1)(3)
= 8
<0
The equation x 2 + 2 x + 3 = 0 has no real roots.

The graph y = x 2 + 2 x + 3 has no x-intercepts.


For x = 0
y = 0 2 + 2(0) + 3
=3
The graph y = x 2 + 2 x + 3 has positive
y-intercept.
5. Answer: B
The graph y = x 2 4 x + c touches the x-axis.

The equation x 2 4 x + c = 0 has a double real


root.
=0

( 4) 2 4(1)(c) = 0
16 4c = 0
c=4

6. Answer: A
The equation x 2 + ( k + 8) x + 8k = 0 has a double
root.

=0

(k + 8) 4(1)(8k ) = 0
2

k 2 + 16k + 64 32k = 0
k 2 16k + 64 = 0
(k 8) 2 = 0
k 8 = 0
k =8

Multiple Choice Questions (p. 48)


1.

Answer: C
2x2 x 6 = 0
( 2 x + 3)( x 2) = 0
2x + 3 = 0
or x 2 = 0

x=

3
or
2

x=2

2. Answer: B
16 x 2 + 8 x + 1
= ( 4 x + 1) 2
3.

Answer: D
The x-intercepts of the graph are 5 and 2.
The roots of the graph are 5 and 2.

7. Answer: A
The equation x 2 8 x + p = 0 has no real roots.
<0

( 8) 2 4(1)( p ) < 0
64 4 p < 0
p > 16
The range of possible values of p is p > 16.

8. Answer: D
( x 2)( x 4) = ( x 2)
( x 2)( x 4) ( x 2) = 0
( x 2)[( x 4) 1] = 0
( x 2)( x 5) = 0

30

Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4A


x 2 = 0 or x 5 = 0
x = 2 or
x=5

9. Answer: B
is a root of 2 x 2 + 3 x 5 = 0 .
2 + 3 5 = 0

4 + 6 5 = 2(2 + 3 5) + 5
= 2(0) + 5
.
=5
2

10. Answer: A
The graph y = x 2 8 x + c has two x-intercepts.

The equation x 2 8 x + c = 0 has two distinct real


roots.
>0

( 8) 2 4(1)(c) > 0
64 4c > 0
c < 16

The range of possible values of c is c < 16.

2
2
5 1
4
3
3
2 4
x=
5
2
2
2
53

3
18
=
5
=

2
106

15
30

4 + 106
30

f ( x) + kg ( x) = 0

30 x 2 8 x 3 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,

[(4 k )]2 4( 41 2k )(4) = 0

k 2 8k + 16 656 + 32k = 0
k 2 + 24k 640 = 0
(k 16)(k + 40) = 0

k 16 = 0

or k + 40 = 0

k = 16
d = 40

or

Lets Discuss
p. 20
Angels method:
5 2 2x 1
x
=
2
3
4
5 2 2x 1
x
=0
2
3 4
Using the quadratic formula,

31

k = 40

( 8) (8) 2 4(30)(3)
2(30)

8 424
60

8 2 106
60

4 106
30

4 + 106
30

41x 2 4 x + 4 + k ( 2 x 2 + x) = 0
( 41 2k ) x 2 ( 4 k ) x + 4 = 0
The equation f ( x ) + kg ( x) = 0 has a single root.
=0

4 106
30

Kens method:
5 2 2x 1
x
=
2
3
4
30 x 2 8 x = 3

x=

HKMO (p. 49)

or

or

4 106
30

Quadratic Equations in One Unknown

32