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LECTURE 3

PRINCIPLES OF SAMPLING

OUTLINE
Definitions Advantages and Disadvantages of Sampling III. Reasons for Sampling IV. Where Does Sampling Occur? V. Goals When Sampling VI. Types of Quality Characteristics VII. Selecting the Sample VIII.Sampling Tools
I. II.

I.

DEFINITIONS

A. Lot homogeneous source of items from the same code

B. Sub lot distinct smaller portion of a lot a case or pallet


C. Sample a portion of the product units, or quantity of a commodity, ingredient or supplies from a lot.

I.

D. Unit smallest quantity being inspected a representative sample of a fresh commodity, an ingredient or a single package of food E. Sampling A method for obtaining information from a small portion of a lot when it is too expensive, time consuming, impossible/preferred to measuring the total population

DEFINITIONS (cont.)

I.

DEFINITIONS (cont.)

F. Inspection measuring, examining or testing a sample of ingredients or product units to determine if items are acceptable and meet specifications.

II. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SAMPLING


A. Advantages
1. Economy due to inspecting only part of each lot 2. Less damage due to handling inspection in

3. Fewer inspectors needed, therefore reduces recruiting and training problems

II. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SAMPLING (cont.)


4. May use destructive testing 5. Rejections to suppliers or departments of entire lots provides increased motivation to meet specifications and make improvements

II. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SAMPLING (cont.)


B. Disadvantages

1. Risk of accepting bad lots and rejecting good lots


2. Additional required record keeping

III. REASONS FOR SAMPLING


A. To protect producers and consumer by accepting or rejecting product B. Establish process capability C. To develop a history of product quality

III. REASONS FOR SAMPLING (cont.)


D. Feedback for process control (make appropriate adjustments to control to minimize variability)
E. To assign quality grades to products to optimize their economic value F. Economic, physiological to improve production process

IV. WHERE DOES SAMPLING OCCUR?


A. At the suppliers warehouse B. As ingredients are received C. During processing or manufacturing

IV. WHERE DOES SAMPLING OCCUR? (cont.)


D. From product lots stored in your warehouse

E. From carrier truck


G. From retail markets

V. GOALS WHEN SAMPLING


A. Choose random samples

B. Choose samples that represent the population minimize error that will naturally occur due to the fact that only a portion of the population is used to estimate population parameters. Representatives samples depend on: 1. Size of lot 2. Purpose of control 3. Product variability 4. Regulation

V. GOALS WHEN SAMPLING (cont.)


C. Sample optimal numbers of units at appropriate times and locations to ensure efficiency

VI.TYPES OF QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS


A. Attributes to identify yes/no, go/no go or accept/reject decisions

B. Variables to identify variations between units measured

Attributes

Quality characteristics of either a product or process Which may be tabulated as either: -present or absent -satisfactory or non-satisfactory - within limit or outside limit

Variables - Can be measured and expressed in increments of inches, mg, degrees, %, etc.
- Can be measured by use of some scales which can theoretically be divided into infinite sub-units

Attributes Vs Variables - Attribute characteristics are tabulated while Variables are measured - Tabulating attributes as the basis for quality control is generally less expensive than measuring variables BUT - Attributes require many more observations to obtain the same information than can be obtained from a small number of measurements of variables

A. ATTRIBUTES as used in quality control


Refers to those quality characteristics that conform or do not conform to specification. e.g -broken

-chipped off
- dirty

*defects that may affect safety of product

B. VARIABLES based on : sample statistic of average on standard deviation and the type of frequency distribution e.g - thickness of bottles, cans - weight of bottles, cans - headspace * will effect fill weight of products.

VII.
A.

Non-random sampling bias; disturb product acceptance decisions Sampling from same location Selecting only those products that appear defective (or non defective) Ignoring portions of lot inconvenient to sample Deciding on the pattern of stratification with limited knowledge

SELECTING THE SAMPLE

a. b. c.

d.

VII.
B.
1.

SELECTING THE SAMPLE (cont.)

Random sampling
Simple random sample

a. Equal chance of selecting each unit


i. ii. Dice, cards, or numbers out of a hat Random number table

b. Sample subset = N/n where N = population size, n = sample size

VII.

SELECTING THE SAMPLE (cont.)

2. Systematic random sample a. Sampling at uniform intervals b. Number of intervals

i.

K = N/n = # product unit in lot / # samples desired ii. Pick every kth product

VII.

SELECTING THE SAMPLE (cont.)

Example : You have 2000 1-gallon containers of icecream and you need 20 samples K = 2000/20 = 100, or each 100 gallons is a sub lot Therefore, if the first gallon chosen (randomly) off the line was the 14th product from the first sub lot, then the 14th product from each of the remaining 19 sub lots must be chosen.

VII.

SELECTING THE SAMPLE (cont.)

3. Stratified random sample Used when the lots are known to come from different machines, production shifts, operators, etc
4. Composite sample Combination of two or more random samples from a uniform flow of solid or liquid

VII.

SELECTING THE SAMPLE (cont.)

5. Skip lot sampling Used to greatly reduce the amount of sampling when desired quality is uniform and items are guaranteed as with ingredients or finished foods manufactured the TQM way.

VIII.

SAMPLING TOOLS

A. Thief a dipper of probe designed to sample liquids, powders or small particulates.


B. Automatic sampler A computerdriven, in-line sampling system for collecting composite samples from a uniform flow of liquids, powder or particulates.

VIII.

SAMPLING TOOLS (cont.)

C. Rifle or Divider A vibrating, subdividing sampling system with numerous sample pockets for use with a free flowing particulate powder.