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Generations Of Computer

1st Generation Name Year Technology


ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator 1946-1957

2nd Generation
second generation computers was the IBM 1401, 1958-1964

3rd Generation
CDC 6000/7000 series, NCR 395, ICL 1900. 1965-1971

Vacuum Tubes

Transistors

Clock Time

ENIAC's basic clock speed was 100000 cycles per second.

1-MHz clock power

No of Transistor

17,468 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors, 1,500 relays, and 6,000 manual switches

Machine had a total of 200 point-contact transistors and 1300 point diodes,

Memory Size

ENIAC has only 20 words of internal memory, in the form of electronic accumulators. ENIAC could execute 5,000 additions, 357 multiplications, and 38 divisions in one second

Core Memory was developed. Computer contained between 1KB and 16KB of core memory. Can perform 193,300 additions (eight-digit numbers) or 25,000 multiplications (sixdigit numbers by fourdigit numbers).

Logical Semantic Indexing (LSI) Technology used as Integrated Circuits Based on the 22nm process technology and brings increased performance at the same power dissipation of the previous generation, A complete electrical circuit whose components (transistors, capacitors, etc.) are fabricated onto a small "chip" made of silicon . RAID Technology of data storage

Processing Speed

108 operations per second

4th Generation Surface Mount Technology (SMT)

Name

4004

8008

8080

8086

8088

1971 1972 1974 1978 1979 Introduced Year Technology Microprocessors Microprocessors Microprocessors Microprocessors Microprocessors

Clock Speed Bus Width No of Transistors Processing speed

108,000 Cycle per second 4 bit 2,300 108 kHz

108,000 Cycle per sec 8 bit 3,500 108 kHz

2 Million Cycle per sec 8 bit 6,000 2 MHz

5 -10 Million Cycle Per sec 16 bit 29,000 5 MHz, 8Mhz,10Mhz

5 - 8 Million Cycle per sec 8 bit 29,000 5Mhz, 8Mhz

Name Introduced Year Technology Clock Speed Bus Width No of Transistors Processing Speed

80286
1982 Microprocessors 6-12 Millions cycle per sec 16 bit 134,000 6 MHz -12 MHz

386TM DX
1985 Microprocessors 16 -33 Millions cycle per sec 32 bit 275,000 16 MHz -33mhz

386TM SX
1988 Microprocessors 16 -33Millions cycle per sec 16 bit 275,000 16 MHz -33mhz

486TM DX CPU
1989 Microprocessors 25 - 50 Millions cycle per sec 32 bit 1.2 million 25 MHz- 50 MHz

Pentium Series
Name Introduced Year Technology Clock Speed Bus Width No of Transistors Processing Speed Pentium I
1993 Microprocessors 60-160 Millions cycle per sec 32 bit 3.1 Million 60-160 MHz

Pentium II
1997 Microprocessors 200-300 Millions cycle per sec 64 bit 7.5 Million 200-300 MHz

Pentium III
1999 Microprocessors 450-660 Millions cycle per sec 64 bit 9.5 Million 450-660 MHz

Pentium IV
2000 Microprocessors 1.3-1.8 Billions cycle per sec 64 bit 42 Million 1.3-1.8 GHz

Core Series
Name Introduced Year Technology Clock Speed Bus Width No of Transistors Processing Speed Dual Core
2006 Microprocessors 1.03 to 2.6 billion cycle per sec 64 bit 167 Million 1.3 - 2.6 GHz

Core 2 Duo
2006 Microprocessors 1.06 to 3 billion cycle per sec 64 bit 291 Million 1.06 3.5 GHz

Core 2 Quad
2008-2009 Microprocessors 2.4 to 3.5 billion cycle per sec 64 bit 582 Million 2.4 - 3.5 GHz

Core I Series
Name Introduced Year Technology Clock Speed Bus Width No of Transistors Processing Speed Core i3
2010 Microprocessors 2.2 - 3.4 Billions cycle per sec 64 bit 624 Million 2.4 GHz - 3.4 GHz

Core i5
2010 Microprocessors 1.06 - 3.46 Billions cycle per sec 64 bit 842 million 1.06 GHz - 3.46 GHz

Core i7
2010 Microprocessors 1.6 - 3.6 Billions cycle per sec 64 bit 995 million 1.6 GHz - 3.6 GHz

Fifth Generation Computers (In process)


The main drawback of first to fourth generation computers is that the computers have not their own thinking power. These are totally depending upon the instructions given by the users. Fifth generation computers are supposed to be the ideal computers, but do not exist. The scientists are working to design such computers that will have the following features.

1. Having their own thinking power 2. Making decisions themselves 3. Having capabilities of learning 4.Having capabilities of reasoning 5.Having large capacity of internal storage 6.Having extra high processing speed 7. Having capabilities of parallel processing

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