Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 107

Introduction to Communication

Introduction: Defining communication is not easy as it means many things to many people. Unlike definitions of a theory or some scientific term Communication has no universal definition accepted by the experts. Communication is a message understood. Unless a message is understood we cannot say that communication has taken place. Lets send a message to someone elses phone, where came first. The person who gets this message would wonder what it means. It does not make any sense. The receiver of the message just does not understand it. So for communication to take place, there are two conditions. First, there should be a clear message. Secondly, that message must be understood by the receiver, for whom it is meant. In society, we all interact with messages. Without interactions, a society cannot survive. Social interaction is always through messages. So we can also define communication in the following words. Communication is social interaction through messages. Think of telling someone, It is very warm today or I am bored with the history classes. In both these cases, we are communicating what we experience. The weather being warm is what you feel or experience physically. Getting bored with a subject is a different feeling which needs some amount of education or experience in a class room. In both cases we are sharing our Feelings or experience with someone else. So we may say that communication is sharing of experience. According to another definition by William Scott in his book Organization Theory Administrative communication is a process which involves the transmission and accurate replication of ideas ensured by feedback for the purpose of eliciting actions which will accomplish organizational goals.

This definition emphasizes the following important points 1. The process of communication involves the sharing of information and ideas. 2. The ideas should be accurately replicated in the receivers mind. This implies that the receiver should exactly get the same idea as were transmitted. If the process of communication is perfect, there will be no dilution, exaggeration or distortion of the facts. 3. It is a two way process where the transmission of feedback is included. 4. The purpose of all communication is to elicit action. 5. The ideas should be adequately enlarged to include emotions also. 6. Apart from eliciting action the purpose of communication can be to seek information or persuade others to a certain point of view. The meaning, the origin and the significance of the term communication effectively signalize the intended purpose of the communicator. A few Latin words signify the impact quite understandably Communo or communicate or communico: This implies to impart, transmit, share or pass along. In human communication as well as in organizational communication, the message needs to be passed on to the intended recipients at the first place. If the information is not passed or shared, the intended recipients will not be able to reciprocate the desired reactions or responses. Communis: Common understanding. Communication is effective only when commonness (communion of interests) has been established. At the next stage of communication the communicator has to look forward to a state of mutual understanding between both the sender and the receiver. The response or effect can be expected only when the elements of commonness between both are established. This also requires that the message has to be accordingly constructed for a favorable response. Communicare: Indicates communion, sharing of thoughts, feelings and developing relationships. The communicator and the communicant have mutual dealings, interactions, feel in close touch with each other and are able to relate with society as well. Communication must be viewed as a means to an end and not an end in itself. The end is the result achieved the realization of an idea.

1.1 Need for Communication Communication stems from the desire to express oneself: Sociologists describe human beings as social animals. As members of society, they have to constantly interact with their fellow beings. They have feelings, emotions, likes and dislikes all of which they have to convey. In other words, whatever the environment in which they are placed, they have to build links and establish relationships. The need for communication arises from their desire to express themselves in a meaningful manner. Human beings have the urge to convey feelings and thoughts: Human beings are also emotional. Human heart generates feelings, emotions and certain thoughts. Further, just as they are social and emotional they are equally rational. They are endowed with the power of thinking and intelligence. The human mind is a very potent force. There is always a constant urge to give expression to what the mind generates. In order to give a meaningful expression to thoughts, ideas, reasoning, creativity and intelligence, they resort to communication. Desire for communication varies from person to person and time to time: The need or the desire to communicate varies from person to person depending upon the time and context. There are times and occasions when a person is extremely communicative and there are also times and occasions when he or she prefers to be silent. Be that as it may, most of our waking hours are spent in communication. Such communication may take place in several ways listening, speaking, reading and writing. State of conflict in almost all spheres of human activity: The face of the public is ever changing and the organizations are changing themselves accordingly. In socio economic environments, conflicts are all pervasive and noticeable. All businesses have to justify their creation and existence, both by their economic contribution and their contributions to the prosperity of the communities in which they operate. The increasingly complex structure of the business and industry: The ever expanding communication revolution has necessitated that all management teams are constantly prepared and be open to dialogue. They need to be sensitive to public opinion and take initiative in participating with the right kind of communication whose bottom line is credibility.

The development of a vast and intricate network of mass communication media: It is essential that the industry and business, government and all public oriented organizations conduct activities in a competent and responsible manner. At the same moment, they must also be perceived as doing so by the public at the local, the national and even at the global level. This has lead the organizations to appreciate the value of media communication. The rise of competition and the change of global economic perspective: The days of monopoly are over and there is increasingly keen competition in all economies of the world. This has imposed and urgent need for public support, whether in terms of products or services, policies or actions, demand and supply or promotion of an idea or just a concept. Increasing emphasis on employee relations and communication within the organization: Increasing realization that for successful management of external environment, the starting point is the home ground or own employees. They are now acknowledged to be the living manifestations of the organization entity. In this respect, the organizations irrespective of its nature and form, must regularly interact and update the employees through all methods of two way communication, information sharing the process and adequate responsiveness. Development in third world countries: The result of growth in literacy and education has increased the demand from the public for facts and extensive variety of information pertaining to corporate, state or service sectors. The dominance of customers in todays market driven economies: In the free economic situation customers have started to enjoy a new dominance. Organizations are becoming more customer centric and constantly try to update their CRM and communication efforts. Improving speed of response and quick service to feed back information are the core areas of customer communication strategies. And to promote communication as a habit now happens to be the core factor in customer relationships for organizations. Need to convert negative attitudes into positive perceptions: Many a negative feeling in the mind of the people is caused by changing values as well as by misconceptions, misunderstandings, miscommunication or absence of communication. Any successful organization can be measured by its ability to convert negative situations into favorable ones. The change process is activated by organized and purposeful communication and transmission of information on a continuous basis as a planned and systematic course of action.

1.2 Objectives of Communication The main objective of all communications in an organization is the general welfare of the organization. Effective communication is needed at all stages in order to ensure this welfare. At the planning stage, information is needed on the various aspects of the enterprise, the feasibility of the project being undertaken, finances involved, manpower required, marketing conditions, publicity campaigns, etc. At the execution stage, orders are issued to the employees to start work, the workers associated with the project are constantly motivated and kept involved, a sense of discipline is cultivated among them and their morale is kept high. All this requires constant two-way communication between the managers and the employees. Then at the assessment stage, the manager is again required to communicate with various sources, both internal and external, to assess the success of the project, and if a need is felt, to envisage modifications in the future plans. In view of this elaborate and complex commercial structure, communication can be used for any or more of the following objectives: 1. Information 2. Education 3. Advice 4. Warning 5. Order 6. Raising Morale 7. Suggestion 8. Motivation 9. Persuasion 10. Control 11. Influence 12. Decision making 13. Problem Solving 14. Facilitating change 15. Group building 16. Organizational Learning 17. Gate Keeping 18. Counseling 19. Integrate 20. Relate and connect 21. Promote 22. Entertain

1.2.1 Information: Passing or receiving information about a particular fact or circumstance is one of the most important objectives of communication. It can be done either through spoken or written language or by using any other system of signs or signals. Managers need complete, accurate and precise information to plan and organize; employees need it to translate planning into reality. Information on the following aspects is very essential for the existence and welfare of any organization: Consumer response to its products in comparison with competing products with reference to quality as well as price. Whether they are being produced in conformity with the latest trends? The nature of the various financial institutions and the terms and conditions on which credit is offered by them. How better quality raw materials can be procured on easier terms, or if there are any cheaper substitutes available? What kind of effect, the rules and regulations of the government and the changing political scene can have on the product policy of the organization? Information about the efficiency, suitability, relative merits and the expenses involved on the advertising media. Information about the latest developments in the fields of science and technology.

Information about the precise nature of every employees job, its scope, and the procedures governing it should be readily available with every employee as well as in the files of the organization. Managers whose primary job is planning need detailed information of the following kinds: Information about the political, social and economic conditions. Information about the cultural milieu; geographical and climatic information. Information about the production and sale capacity of the organization; detailed information about the members of the staff, their academic and professional qualifications, their efficiency and reliability, their limitations, etc. Information about the rival companies and their products, their strong and weak points, their past and presentperformance.

Sources of information: A great deal of internal information is readily available in the old files of the organization. Past performance of the organization as well as its employees can be easily known from the old files. Valuable information about the efficiency and reliability of the employees can be gained from personal observation. Mass media of communication like the radio, television, cinema, newspapers, and journals are all the time throwing information. It is very important to expose ourselves to these media. Apart from magazines meant for general reading, there are journals exclusively devoted to specialized fields. These journals constitute a very important source of information. A good library is a storehouse of information. It is only in a library that we can gain access to reference books, research publications, files of old journals, pamphlets, government publications of various kinds, statistical reports, etc. Now there are libraries of tapes, records and films also. The membership of chambers of commerce is supposed to be very useful these days. They keep their members abreast of all developments that have any bearing on their activities. Large business houses often sponsor national and international seminars and conferences. Participation in such seminars and conferences proves to be a very educative experience. Information can also be gathered through personal interviews with prominent people in the political field, experts in professional fields and the members of general public. Information about the popularity of a companys products and their general perception in the market is often collected by circulating carefully prepared questionnaires among the consumers and the retailers. Trade fairs and exhibitions have become a regular feature of the twentiethcentury life. They are organized with one particular theme at the center. They may highlight agricultural development, book production, electronic industry, or any other such theme. All information related to that theme is collected at one place. In this way they become an important source of information. Current electronic communication media, in particular, internet computer network now offers access to latest information on all subjects under the sun almost at the flick of your finger.

1.2.2 Education Education is an import ingredient of the process of communication. It involves both teaching and learning and extends over considerably long periods. The main purpose of education is to widen knowledge as well as to improve skills. It is carried on at three levels: (a) at the management level (b) at the level of the employees; and (c) at the level of the outside public. Education for the management: Knowledge is multiplying fast. Each new day brings with it innovations, which if suitably applied can revolutionize the working of an organization. Managers are required to keep abreast of the latest innovations. In other words, they have to be educated. Their education can take place through books, lectures, seminars, case studies, study tours, etc. Junior managers have to be educated to assume responsibility when they succeed to higher positions. Education for the employees: Just as the managers are required to keep abreast of the latest innovations in the field of commerce and technology, when these innovations are introduced in the office or the factory, the employees have to be educated to use them. Such a programme of education is called re-orientation. Employees can be educated through talks, demonstrations, bulletins and house organs. Education for the outside public: The outside public needs knowledge on the new products being introduced into the market, the relative merits of the various brands already existing, the availability of the substitutes, complementary and supplementary products, comparative prices, concessions and discounts, if any. This useful knowledge is offered through advertisements, specially sponsored features in the newspapers, information talks and articles. 1.2.3 Advice Giving advice is another important objective of communication. Information is always factual and objective. But advice, since it involves personal opinions, is likely to be subjective. Information is neutral in itself. When it is offered to a person, he may use it as he likes. But advice is given to him either to influence his opinion or his behavior. It may prove helpful, but it may also lead to disaster.

Commercial activities in the modem world have become extremely complex. Each individual activity needs specialized handling, which cannot be expected from people working single-handed. However competent a businessman may be, he cannot have specialized knowledge of all branches like finance, taxation, publicity, engineering, public relations, etc. If he wants to run his business successfully, he will have to seek expert advice quite frequently. Within the organization, the supervisory staff is required to advise the junior employees. Supervisors being in close contact with their superiors (usually the board of directors) are well familiar with the policies and functioning of the organizations. They are, therefore, in an excellent position to guide, counsel or advise their subordinate staff. Advice, by its very nature, flows horizontally or downwards. Expert advice from outside flows horizontally. The boards of directors advising one another on some policy matter are also engaged in a kind of horizontal communication. But advice soon starts flowing down to the management personnel, the supervisory staff and the subordinate staff or the operatives. While offering advice, the adviser should keep the following points in mind: Advice should be both man-oriented and work-oriented, i.e. it should be related to a specific piece of work, and should be given in such a way that it suits the individual needs of the recipient. It means that while explaining the complexities of a job, the adviser ought to keep in mind the understanding power of the person he is advising. Advice should not be given to a person to make him feel conscious of his inferior knowledge or skill. If the adviser assumes a patronizing tone, the other person is bound to recent it. So the adviser ought to be very friendly in his attitude. The only justified motive of giving advice is the betterment of the worker. The adviser should genuinely feel this motive. And he should give this very feeling to the worker. He should so mould his tone and phrase his language that he makes the other person feel absolutely at ease.

1.2.4 Warning If employees do not abide by the norms of the organization, or violate the rules and regulations, it may become necessary to warn them. Tardiness, negligence, tempering with the records, mishandling equipment, lack of regularity and punctuality, gossiping, pilfering office stationery and material, spreading rumors, misleading new employees are some of the actions that call for a reprimand or a warning. Warning is a forceful means of communication, for it demands immediate action. But in order to retain its effectiveness, it should be used sparingly and discreetly. While issuing warnings, the following points should be kept in mind: Some warnings are general. No smoking, No talking, Beware of the dog are general warnings. They are not aimed at any particular person, nor are they likely to hurt anybodys feelings. Such warnings are usually given in the form of notices. They are almost akin to information. More often, warnings are given to particular persons. They involve disciplinary action in the form of reprimand. Reprimands are very demoralizing; they may also evoke resentment. Before reprimanding an employee, it is very important to ascertain the truth of the charges leveled against him. Reprimand should never spring from personal prejudices. Reprimand should not be administered to a person in the presence of others. It will make him feel humiliated and nobody likes to be humiliated. The worker should be summoned in the privacy of the supervisors room and dispassionately talked to. It is also useful to investigate the causes of the workers undesirable behaviour. He may be burdened by some domestic or personal problems. Or he may be nursing some personal grudge against the supervisor or the organization. If the supervisor can succeed in taking him out of his problems, the warning given to him will become constructive. The aim of giving a warning should be the betterment of the organization. It should not be used to cause disruption. It is very important to be judicious in the choice of words used in administering warnings and reprimands.

1.2.5 Order Order is an authoritative communication. It is a directive to somebody, always a subordinate, to do something, to modify or alter the course of something he is already doing, or not to do something. Whatever be the nature and size of an organization, orders are absolutely necessary for it. The downward flow of information is dominated by orders. We can classify orders in various ways:

(a) Written and oral orders


Written orders are usually given when: 1. The order is of a highly responsible nature; 2. The task is repetitive in nature, and it is cumbersome and inconvenient to issue oral orders every time the task is to be done; 3. The person being ordered is remotely situated and it is not possible to give him oral orders. Oral orders are given when: 1. The job is required to be done immediately; 2. It is an ordinary job and there is no need of maintaining any written record; 3. There is a kind of permanent superior-subordinate relationship between the giver and the receiver of the order and the order-giver does not feel the need of entering into the cumbersome process of issuing written orders.

(b) General and specific orders


If orders are related to one particular activity, they are specific. If there are a number of activities having operational similarities, general orders may be issued to cover all of them.

(c) Procedural and operational orders


Procedural orders specify procedures to be adopted. They are general by nature. Operational orders are more closely related to the job in hand. They specify how a particular job is to be done.

(d) Mandatory and discretionary orders


Mandatory orders have to be obeyed. Discretionary orders are usually in the nature of recommendations. They suggest what is desirable, what should be done. But it is up to the receiver to see their feasibility and to decide whether he ought to carry them out or not. The Head Office may issue discretionary orders to the branch manager, for the branch manager, being present on the spot, knows better whether the orders are to be carried out or not. An effective order must possess the following characteristics: It must be clear and complete. Its execution should be possible. It should be given in a friendly way.

Steps in the order giving operation Paul Pigors has outlined the following seven steps in the complete order giving operation Planning: Before an order is given, the order-giver should be sure about the following points: Exactly what action is required? Is it feasible? Who is to perform it? In how much time is it to be performed?

Preparing the order-receiver: This should, in fact, be considered a part of planning. Preparing the order-receiver is necessary for the satisfactory accomplishment of any specific order. But it also requires continuous education of the receiver so that he receives the order in the right spirit and correctly interprets the intention and motives behind issuing it. Presenting the order: This is the stage at which the order is to be written (if it is a written order) and issued. At this stage it is ensured that the order is clear and complete.

Verification of reception: After the order has been issued, the order-giver should watch out for the reaction of the receiver, whether the order has been properly understood and the receiver is going in the right direction. Action: If planning and presentation of the order have been done correctly, the orderreceiver is likely to execute it in the correct spirit. Follow-up: But the order-giver should not remain content with the information that the order is being executed. He should confirm whether it is being executed correctly. Sometimes, during the process of execution, the person entrusted with it may run into some unforeseen difficulties. If proper follow-up is being conducted, the order-giver will take steps to remove those difficulties or issue fresh orders on adopting a different course of action. Appraisal: When the order has been executed and the work is over, it is time to appraise or assess it to see whether it has been done satisfactorily or there has been something wrong with its execution.

Order is a directive to a subordinate to do something in a particular way.


Orders may be written or oral, general or specific, procedural or operational, mandatory or discretionary.

1.2.6 Raising Morale Morale is the sum of several qualities like courage, fortitude, resolution and confidence. High morale and efficient performance go hand in hand. It acts as a kind of lubricant among people, binds them with a sense of togetherness and impels them to work in cooperation with one another in the best interest of their organization. Factors conducive to the creation of a high morale Every worker gets work suited to his physical and intellectual caliber. He feels his work is important and it is appreciated by the authorities. He is free to do his work as he likes. He is encouraged to give suggestions. The atmosphere in the premises is congenial. The superiors are efficient and their attitude is constructive. They enjoy the workers respect. Promotional avenues are available to the workers. Genuine grievances of the workers are promptly removed.

1.2.7 Suggestion Suggestion enjoys one great advantage over other means of communication like advice or order. Advice comes from an expert; order comes from a higher authority. In either case, the recipient of the communication is slightly conscious of his inferiority and may resent it. Accepting a suggestion is at his discretion, so a suggestion is usually welcome. Suggestion is supposed to be a very mild arid subtle form of communication. Still, since it flows horizontally or vertically upwards, it may hurt someones ego to recognize its utility and readily accept it. But enlightened executives should set aside the ridiculous notions of false self-importance and welcome positive, constructive suggestions with an open mind. Some business houses make a provision for suggestion boxes, which are placed at some convenient place in the office or the factory. Workers are encouraged to drop their suggestions into these boxes. Sometimes these suggestions have to be written on specially prepared cards. If an employee does not want to reveal his name, there is a provision for it. These suggestion boxes are opened at regular intervals, the suggestions received are scrutinized and the employees offering the best suggestions are awarded prizes. 1.2.8 Motivation Motivation energizes and activates a person and channelizes his behavior towards the attainment of desired goals. Motivation and behavior are intimately related to each other. In order and persuasion, the communicator enjoys an upper hand. But in motivation he keeps himself in the background. He does not order his employees to work; he motivates them so that they work wil1ingly and eagerly. A motivated worker does not need much supervision. He does his work as if it were his own, as if his own interests were closely tied up with the successful performance and completion of the work entrusted to him. An office or factory that enjoys the support of motivated workers shows much better results than another office or factory in which workers are commanded to work.

Monetary incentives are perhaps the most effective form of motivation. People working on contract basis are always motivated to work, for their earnings increase in proportion to their work. People work reluctantly during the office hours but willingly stay back to work overtime. However, it may not be always possible or even desirable, to offer monetary incentives. Such a practice is likely to set unhealthy precedents with the implication that whenever such, motives are absent, the workers will just refuse to work. Though earning money may be the most important motive for working harder, it is not the only motive. Other factors like job satisfaction, prestige, a sense of belonging to a great organization can also induce or motivate workers to work sincerely and efficiently. Motivation as a form of communication deals with these factors. 1.2.9 Persuasion Persuasion is an important objective of communication. It may be defined as an effort to influence the attitudes, feelings, or beliefs of others, or to influence actions based on those attitudes, feelings, or beliefs. Buyers have often to be persuaded to buy a particular article available with the seller in place of the one they actually wanted to buy. In the office or the factory, the lazy, the incompetent and the disgruntled workers have to be persuaded to do their work. It is better to use persuasion than compulsion. But even persuasion seeks to change beliefs and attitudes, which people do not like at all. So in order to be successful, persuasion has to be indirect and suggestive. The buyers and the workers should be so manipulated that they change their mind without getting conscious of the change, or if they are conscious, they believe that the change is to their advantage. Persuasion is an art, which has to be learnt with great care. Persuasion needs conviction on your part. You should be genuinely convinced that the alternative course of action being suggested by you is in the interest of the organization as well as in the receivers interest. You must not try to persuade others from a purely selfish motive. Do not impose yourself on the receiver of your communication. Give indirect hints and subtle suggestions. Bring yourself to the level of the other person. Try to look at the issue from his point of view and mould your arguments accordingly. The art of persuasion consists of four important steps:

Analyzing the situation: This is the preparatory step. The communicator analyses the situation to find out why the need of persuasion has arisen and what will be the advantages and disadvantages of the new course of action being suggested. He also studies the psychology of the man to be persuaded in order to plan a suitable strategy. Preparing the receiver: It is but natural that people resent being persuaded to change their views or behavior. The receiver has to be prepared for it. This can be done by putting him in a pleasant frame of mind. He may be complimented on some of his outstanding qualities and achievements. An appeal may be made to his adaptability and open-mindedness. Delivering the message: The third step is to deliver the message. The message should be delivered stage by stage, with the help of forceful arguments, beginning with those parts of the message, which are easier to accept and delaying the unpleasant parts as much as possible. Prompting action: If the first steps have been taken carefully, the receiver of the message will be easily persuaded to adopt a different course of action (or hold a different view). 1.2.10 Counseling Counseling is very similar to giving advice. Only, counsel is objective and impersonal. The counselor is an individual of greater skill or knowledge on some specific subject and he or she offers counsel without any personal interest or involvement. Advice has a personal touch about it; counsel is almost professional. Advice is often unsought and is unwelcome; counsel is eagerly sought. A number of large business houses now have their counseling departments, which offer the employees advice on domestic or personal problems. Even an efficient employee may become tardy and indifferent if he is facing some personal problems at home. This may adversely affect the working of the organization. It may also affect other employees and lower their morale. Such employees are encouraged to consult the counseling department, which has on its staff a panel of doctors, psychologists and social workers. These experts hold a series of sittings with the employees and thrash out their problems. The employees are restored to their mental and physical health and the conditions in the organization are brought back to the normal.

1.2.11 Control A mechanism that ensures that both management and executive information system to provide aggregate information to support decision making and control within the organization and outside of it. 1.2.12 Influence Information is power, and thus, provides support and integrating all facets of the business and industry. Also it enables the people to communicate, collaborate and coordinate with each other. Much more, the business, trade, commerce enforce systems that ensure, planning, manufacturing, sales, marketing, advertising, public relations and so on. 1.2.13 Decision making An effective tool of communication provides input for effective decision making. In the organizational set up, each level has different responsibilities and therefore, there are different informational needs. At the operational, managerial, and executive level of the organization there will be the need to consult, cooperate, coordinate and communicate on a constant basis. The decisions at all these levels, separately or together, deal with complex problems with broad and long term ramifications for the organization. 1.2.14 Problem Solving Problems are doubtful or difficult matters as well as situations requiring brainstorming and finding solutions. In organizational environments the different stages involved in problem solving are situation-based communication, information gathering, synthesizing, problem identification, solution formulation, comparison and choice. All these can only be possible through an effective communication model. 1.2.15 Facilitating change Change stands for corrective action, particularly when there is a need for change. There is an increasing realization that in order to avoid chaos and breakdown within the organization it needs to take drastic measures to manage change. Communication and change are two sides of one coin and to be used for efficiency, effectiveness and competitive advantage.

1.2.16 Group building Building relationships that enable people to communicate collaborate and coordinate with each other. Team based organizations, where a culture of open communication prevails, have shown dramatic improvement in the levels of performance. 1.2.17 Organizational learning There is a need to develop the ability of an organization to learn from the past behavior, its style and method of communication and improve as a result. Its purpose will be to enable managers to accomplish intended mission and gain or sustain competitive advantage over rivals. At a higher plane, accumulated knowledge and wisdom allows executives to understand how to apply concepts and experience to new situations or problems. 1.2.18 Gate Keeping This is a process of filtering messages from source to receiver. Some messages are allowed to pass through while others are changed or not allowed to pass through at all. At the other end, the management backed by its assigned roles as also by tradition, has the task of coordinating the work behavior of groups of individuals so that they function like one communicating person. 1.2.19 Integrate Large business organizations have different business units, departments and territorial divisions. Each of them pursues different goals, sub-goals and target sections. Communication provides the means for an integrated approach in pursuing organizational goals. Effective communication is a must to ensure that people working in different functional and geographical areas are integrated into well-knit teams that eschew working at cross-purposes and continue to achieve organizational goals as envisaged. Communication binds together people working for a common objective and helps team building.

1.2.20 Relate and connect Good business relationships are a must for the continued success of any business organization. It is communication that provides the means for building and nurturing mutually beneficial relationships. These relationships are both internal and external. They may be among and / or between employees, supervisory staff, top management, customers, suppliers, other players, press and other media. As part of the larger community progressive organizations make it a point to relate themselves with the community at large. It demonstrates that they are sharing and caring organization. All this is achieved through a well-organized communication strategy. 1.2.21 Promote Promotional efforts are a must for any organization to fully achieve its objectives. One of the Ps of marketing, promotion relates to various activities such as advertising, publicity, public relations and communication which aim at customer information, education, communication, and retention. Communication constitutes the basic plank on which promotional strategies are built. 1.2.22 Entertain Every business is not necessarily a serious business. Even serious businesses are not serious at all the times. Whatever may be the nature of business there is a time for entertainment. Communication facilitates entertainment. It facilitates social bonding and brings in lighter moments that help in releasing tension, fostering camaraderie and getting rid of negative feelings. Humor when used effectively can play a vital role in fostering positive behavior. In the entertainment industry, communication has a much bigger role to play. Communication can serve to achieve the objective of purposeful entertainment.

1.3 Process of Communication Essentially there are two processes of communication, one is the Linear Model and the other model is known as the Interpersonal Model. We may identify the stages in each process as Linear Model: In this model the communicator gets an idea, encodes the message and transmits it to the receiver, the receiver decodes it. Interpersonal model: The process is the same in this, the only difference being that the receiver provides a feedback. This feedback helps the sender know whether the message has been interpreted in the same way that the intention had been. A feedback is a tool for further response and for communicating messages in the future. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION The concept of communication flows out of three essential elements: Communication is a process: This denotes a course of action or proceeding in particular, as a series of stages. It is exactly like the process of growing old and like human beings, or other living beings it is always changing. It also implies that communication is dynamic and continuous. Many people however, are resistant to rapid and discontinuous change especially in adopting new ways of communication. They do as they used to do in the past. Communication is systematic: Even though the historical changeability of communication itself is well acceptable, communication presupposes a few conservative elements. The elements and components, existing always are a communicator, a message, a receiver and the feedback. Elimination of any or one of these basic components would prevent communication from occurring or at least make it less effective. Communication is both interactional and transactional: Interaction allows a two way flow of information between the sender and the receiver. Both have to be reciprocally active in the exchanging of messages. Transaction views communication between people as a simultaneous sharing event.

The main steps of this cycle are as follows 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Input: the information or ideas the sender wants to give the receiver. Channel: Letter, Fax, Phone call, Electronic mail etc. Message: The actual message that is sent. Output: The information the receiver gets. Feedback: The receivers response (or non response) to the message. Brain Drain: The possibility of misunderstanding at any step (or breakdown)

1.4 Importance of Communication in Business Communication is the lifeblood of a business organization. No organization can succeed or progress, build up reputation, and win friends and customers without effective communication skills. In fact, successful communication is the foundation of strong and pleasant relationships between the seniors and subordinates, between the workers and the management, between the customers and the sellers. Efficient system of communication helps in better coordination and efficient control of all the activities that take place in the organization. Communication leads to clear understanding, good production, healthy climate and willing cooperation among the various levels of employees. Therefore communication is very crucial for the smooth running of the organization. Consequently, effective communication affects the profit and prosperity of firms, organizations and shop keepers. Poor and ineffective communication system may result in mismanagement, bad business and sure show down. Communication can build or destroy trust, depending on the use of words. On the other hand, planned and well meant communication helps in better service, removes misunderstanding and doubts, builds up good will, promotes business and earns favorable references. We can understand the significance of business communication from the following points:

Healthy organizational environment


The organizations are the social systems formed on the basis of mutual interest. The mutual interests are safeguarded by various activities of planning by the management. They must skillfully apply the communication systems to keep the healthy organizational environment. It must be remembered that the activities of the management and the employees in any business organization are governed by social as well as psychological laws. If the management has to keep the healthy organizational environment and healthy relations with the individuals from outside, other business houses, government authorities, etc., it must use the communication channels and media effectively. Sociologically, organizations are social systems in which people have their individual as well as social roles and status.

Management-employee relations
A genuine interest in other people, their groups and organizations is required for strong and stable personal relations and for the success of business activities of the businessman who is genuinely interested in others, shares their hopes, aspirations, successes and disappointments. As organizations need people and people also need organizations, people can use organization and organization can use people to reach their objectives by communication properly with each other. When the objectives of the organization are made clear to the employees, the workers are motivated to work in that direction. It should be made clear that the organization cannot survive, if its objectives are not reached; and if the organization does not survive, there would be no chances of employment opportunities in it. The employees and the management should develop the link of communication for better mutual understanding and encourage each other to achieve their self-interests.

The external and internal communication network


Every business finds it necessary to maintain both the internal and external communication. The communication between the management and the workers is an internal communication. The management must be well-informed about the internal activities of the organization.

They require the information about the efficiency, qualifications, capabilities and the training of the workers and also about the production, marketing and sales capacity of the organization. The progress and profitability of the organization depends upon how well the management and the employees are informed about these matters and what steps are taken by them in order to improve the situation. When the management is informed about some faults related to job assignments, exact designation of the officers and their decision-making, the responsibilities of the employee, etc., the management making, the responsibilities of the employee, etc., the management will make necessary changes and the business can thrive after the relevant changes are made. The dynamics of the internal system influence the activities of the external system. Communication about the product studies and market analyses flow smoothly between persons of .equal status, between friends and between persons who support and encourage one another. The conflicts growing out of the internal system of the group can binder the communication regarding external activities. The manager must give attention to both the internal and the external group systems. The effective internal network of communication is essential today because of the large size of the business houses. They have their branches and sub-branches, which are further divided into functional departments. Some business organizations are spread over the different places in the country. These divisions and branches maintain a link with the management of the central organization. The appointments, designations, relationships, responsibilities, objectives and all the activities and duties determined by the division of work are communicated and assigned to the branches by the central management of the organization. The branch manager who is appointed by the board of directors accepts the responsibilities and assignments, which are assigned by the parent body. Through him, the center gets reports about the various activities of the branch. He has to accept the directives of center, which are given by center after receiving the reports. He acts as the delegate of the board of directors and has to clarify the objectives and directives of the organization to his subordinates. In some of the multinational corporations, the directors and the managers spend their ninety per cent time in maintaining communication links.

Functionalisation
The division of work into different kinds of duties can be called functionalisation. For example, the difference between an office supervisor and an operators assembly or machine shop supervisor is a functional one. This idea of functionalisation is found in most of the business organizations today. Functionalisation naturally leads to specialization. The most salient feature of this age is specialization. There are specialists who acquire a vast knowledge and experience in their limited subject. This specialized knowledge, training and experience will be useless if it is not communicated. The accountants, engineers, scientists and the experts of many kinds must be able to communicate their knowledge to the management and the employees. The company may get benefit by the advices, suggestions and information provided by these experts.

The complexity of business activities


Though specialization has brought great benefits to the business organizations, it has rendered modern business activities into an extremely complex phenomenon. As the specialization is most fundamental to modem civilization, the industrial society cannot exist without it. In an organization, planning, finance, accounts, purchase, production, advertising, marketing, stores, sales, labour-welfare, cultural activities, adjustments of complaints and claims and a number of other activities are handled by the people who have developed unique skills and knowledge in their fields. As these functions are assigned to different departments, they have to coordinate among themselves by communicating with one another horizontally. They must communicate with the management to which they are responsible for organization is more complex and difficult to coordinate than the original group of workers, which is not divided into different kinds of duties. The managers and the supervisors must be well versed in communication skills in order to bring coordination among the functionalized group. The productivity gains of the specialization can be achieved only if the harmonious human relationship and coordination of departmental activities are well maintained.

Trade unions: labour problems


The businessmen are mostly after productivity gains and other economic and technical benefits. Sometimes, this tendency of the businessmen comes in conflict with the problems, which are primarily human. The employees are now more conscious of their rights than before. They are organized into trade unions, which continuously demand for rights of the employees, better working conditions and dignity of the labour. The progressive employers are convinced that there ought to be some ways of effective communication between the management and the workers to develop better employee satisfaction and a sense of security. If the insecurity and frustration of employees is successfully dispelled by the management, the employees feel motivated for better working. In order to satisfy the security needs of employees, a number of companies have started welfare programmes based on custodial model of organization, which is popularly known as paternalism by which employees depend on the organization for their security and welfare. As the success of the custodial approach depends on the economic resources of the organization, the management must be able to communicate with the employees regarding the financial state of the organization and should motivate them for better work in order to make the organization financially strong enough to support its employees.

Globalization and the language problem


Modem business relationships have spread worldwide and the communication links play a significant role in establishing and strengthening such relationships. Multinational business can help the economic as well as social development; therefore, it can also be regarded as a social institution. When a business expands beyond national boundaries, it is also a step into different legal, political, social, economic and educational environments. With the expansion of business, the communication links are also lengthened because of which the control of the multiple business activities becomes more difficult. It is hard enough to run a multinational business in one language. When there are number of other language in a country and the overall languages are used as a medium of communication, the management faces the compounded difficulties. The complexity of the business increase to the maximum. Under these circumstances, the management has to put its communication skills to their limits.

Competition
Businessmen seek to obtain profit from the sale of their goods and services and the consumers seek the satisfaction of their wants by buying them in the market. In a free market economy, production is for profit and consumption is for the satisfaction of wants. Both the producers and the consumers naturally try to promote their own interests. This system works fair/when free competition is present in the market place. The products of common consumption are available in the market in many brands and the buyers are free to buy any of them. As the decision to buy depends on their own initiative, they cannot be forced to buy a particular product or service. The similar products with different branding from different companies cannot enjoy equal demand from the buyers. A businessman, who wants to survive in this world of free competition, should know his competitors, the quality and the prices of their products, the discounts, terms and conditions of sale, the policies of advertising, government laws, etc. If they are not able to communicate better in this respect, their sale will not be satisfactory. A good salesman is efficient communicator who can attract the customer, induce him to buy his goods and services.

Participation and delegation


Participation, cooperation and team-work of the management and employees can yield best results because of their common commitment to goals that encourage better performance. Participative managers communicate with their employees. They ask for the opinions, views, suggestions and recommendations of the employees in the decision making process so that they work together as a team. But the benefits of participation in decision-making process may not be substantial if the superiors neglect the delegation of authority. The delegation of authority trains and develops the efficiency of the subordinates and reduces the managers burden of performing the duties of routine nature. The delegation of authority can be communicated in oral or written form, but it is always better to use the written form in order to avoid the conflict and confusion. In participatory management, the manager retains the ultimate responsibility of his unit, but he shares the operating responsibility with the employees who actually perform the work. This gives a sense of involvement and satisfaction to the employees who work with high morale to achieve the objectives of the organization as the manager seeks participation of the employees in policy matters and decision making.

1.6 Barriers to Communication At every stage of the communication process however there are barriers, which hinder or dilute the flow of communication. The barriers to communication in an organizational context may arise out of authority structure, status difference, reporting relationships, culture and background of individuals. The barriers to communication may arise out of behavioral differences, difference in skills and understanding as well as physical factors. While some kinds of barriers like behavioral differences and differences in skills may be commonly applicable to all methods of communication adopted. Some barriers which are specific to the written communication are handwriting, spellings and legibility. Similarly barriers to oral communication would include of felicity of expression, accent, and speed of delivery and appropriateness of the language. Understandably, there are frequent errors and misunderstandings in communication. Several types of barriers prevent us from transmitting our ideas meaningfully. It is hard to identify these barriers. The reason is obvious it is difficult to realize fully whether the message we get is complete and correct, or distorted. The feedback gives only a partial clue for determining whether the communication has succeeded or failed. Another problem is the identification of the criteria on the basis of which one should assess the effectiveness of communication. However, despite these problems, one must identify the barriers that hinder the process of effective communication in order to be able to keep in check their negative effect. Studies have revealed certain common barriers and suggested ways to remove them. Some of the common barriers to communication are LANGUAGE AND SEMANTIC BARRIERS ORGANISATIONAL BARRIERS PHYSICAL BARRIERS SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS

1. 6.1 Language and Semantic Barriers Lack of common language: Language uses oral or written arbitrary symbols to transmit meanings from one person to another. Every human language has its own vocal symbol system and its own grammatical structures. If the communicator and the receiver belong to different language groups, their ignorance of each others language or the lack of a common language will be a barrier to communication between them. It is not possible for them to communicate with each other unless they know some common language which is properly understood by both of them. An English speaking boss and a Tamil speaking worker will not be able to communicate without a good knowledge of each others language. If both of them know a common language, say Hindi, their knowledge of Hindi word, inflections, phrases, clauses and sentence-structure should be up to mark to express their thoughts and feelings. Semantic Barriers: Most of the communication is carried on through words, whether spoken or written. Words are said to have no meaning but they represent arbitrary meaning associated with it. A word may have a variety of meanings and the meaning attributed to a word by the communicator may not be the same as that of the receivers attributed meaning of that word. A word can have different meaning to different people at different occasions. It is found by the experts that people attribute thousand different meanings to a few hundred commonly used English words. Therefore, the sender and receiver are many a time likely to attribute different meanings to the same word. Sometimes, they may use different words to communicate the same meaning. There are many words in English such as light, cheap, etc. which can be used with favorable as well as unfavorable connotations. A word can stand for its positive or negative connotations. Sometimes, the intended meaning of the senders word is wrongly entered by the receiver by attributing negative meaning to it. Poor Vocabulary: Poor vocabulary makes our message more complicated. Our pen falters and tongue fumbles when we probe into our brain for a suitable word or phrase. The words have different connotative and denotative meanings. The communicator needs to know them clearly in order to use them with clarity and precision. Words stand not only for their meanings but they are also charged with action and emotions when the communicator and the receiver understand these word-associations, they are capable of using them as living entities. Poor vocabulary does not allow the communicator to write or speak effectively.

It does not allow the receiver to understand the message clearly and completely if the receiver does not understand the words, the sentences cannot be properly comprehended by him. Poor knowledge of grammar and punctuation: Poor knowledge of grammar and punctuation is a barrier to verbal communication. A good vocabulary is of no use unless the communicator acquires the knowledge of how to use it in a sentence. More than ever before, the job applicants, business report writers, business correspondents and all those who are involved in written and oral communications today must have superior grammar skills because an understanding of grammatical structures provide excellent basis for effective writing, speaking, listening and reading skills. If the communicator is not able to choose the correct verb form that agrees with a given noun or pronoun; if, he is not able to use nouns and pronouns precisely to indicate who does what; if he is not able to select exact adjective or adverb; if he is not able to use conjunctions and prepositions to join words correctly, he will not be able to communicate his ideas, thoughts and feelings fully and correctly. In addition to a good grammar, knowledge of punctuation is essential, for effective communication. Many of us do not pay adequate attention to it. But it must be remembered that the faulty and improper punctuation can change the intended meaning of the sentences. Roundabout Verbiage: Roundabout verbiage consists of the usage of overworked, troublesome and exhausted words and phrases which usually cause a considerable amount of misunderstanding and confusion. It is a long winded way of saying the meaningless padding. By avoiding such roundabout verbiage, we can add a good deal of liveliness and simplicity of expression to our written as well as oral communication. For example, instead of saying in the majority of cases or in a number of instances, we can say some or usually; instead of saying commence, we can use start or begin; instead of saying prior to, we can say before. Roundabout verbiage should be avoided to achieve clarity and simplicity of the message.

1.6.2 Organizational Barriers Hierarchical Barriers: In an organization, communication transmission must flow through certain formal channels which are established by the organizational hierarchy. The employees are expected to contact the superiors and the subordinates through their immediate superiors or subordinates. This often results in hardships and difficulties in maintaining free flow of communication. Some managements disapprove with the barriers of hierarchy and propose the everyone in the organization should be free enough to communicate directly with anybody else who can help him to solve his problems. Usually, the subordinates do not find it easy to communicate their problems to their superiors. They experience an awe of authority in communicating with their superiors. Sometimes, the upward communication is deliberately distorted and suitably edited in order to make it pleasant and acceptable to the reputed officer. Frustration is caused among the employees when their communication is restricted to the formal channels only. They try to find the resources of the informal groups which communicate through informal channels of communication like grapevine. Increasing specialization of the workforce: Increasing specialization of the workforce is posing a serious barrier to effective internal communication in large-size business organizations. The tasks are specified and the procedures are structured in such a way that the workforce can hardly come out of their compartments to communicate with the people in other functional groups. They look only at those things that need to be done by a functionalized group. Everyone of them is assigned with a special kind of job. This makes it increasingly difficult to see and converse with the people outside ones specialization. So far as possible, the works of each employee is confined to a single function. But this is not always possible. Therefore, generally the people who are involved in related functions are grouped together in the form of a functional department which is headed by a common superior. This separates the group of people belonging to one department from the other departments in the same organization.

Wrong Choice of Medium: As we know there are various media of communication like oral, written and non-verbal communication. All these ways or media of communication are suitable for communicating at different times and for different purposes. Therefore, it is essential to think about their relative merits and limitations, before selecting one of the media for communication. The sales manager must think over if it would be better for him to hold a face-to-face talk with the prospective buyer than talking to him on the telephone. The oral communication may be a wrong medium for the smuggler at certain occasion and he may communicate safely and quickly by flashing a torchlight as a signal. Again, the oral media will be wrong one for a policeman who should blow his whistle or use hand gestures to stop the vehicles. Audio-visual media vehicle better to instruct the uneducated workers, especially in rural area rather than using the written media for that purpose, which is merely an audio-aid to communication. Sometimes, it is better to communicate on telephone than to write a letter but there are certain messages which are more effective if they are communicated through written media. Amount and complexity of messages: Amount of messages received by the receiver is one of the major barriers to communication. The increasing complexity of the modem business world has resulted in ever growing needs of boundless information. Through the astonishing variety of communication media, we are continuously bombarded with messages from morning till night. In a busy organization, a person who is connected with all the formal and informal channels of communication is bound to be very busy in receiving and imparting the messages rather than a person who is supposed to receive the messages through a single channel. He has to process a large amount of information. He can handle an abundance of information, provided it consists of routine and simple messages, but it is very difficult to handle the information, which is relatively more complex and unpredictable. Even communication under-load can be a barrier to communication. An employee who is under-communicated gets bored because of his non-involvement and finally starts communicating with the help of gossip, rumor, etc., which may prove harmful to the organization.

1.6.3 Physical Barriers Noise: Noise is quite often a barrier to communication. It interferes with the transmission of the signals. It also refers to the unwanted signals of messages which interfere and disturb the reception of the wanted signals. This disturbance is usually in the form of sounds, but it need not be always the sounds. It can be in visual, audiovisual, written, physical or psychological form also. There are many people who communicate with a little signal and much noise. In fact, they communicate extraneous matters which may diminish the interest in the receivers or may even annoy them. In manufacturing organization, oral communication is rendered difficult by the electronic noise like blaring noise of the stereo and such other noises often interfere in communication. Visual noise can be experienced when a committee member arrives late at the meeting hall and all the committee members are distracted by his arrival. Poor telephone connections which interrupt conversations, mudged typescripts and bad handwriting are some examples of the technical noise. Time: Time also act as barriers to the smooth flow of communication. If the employee does not communicate with his superiors for a long time, or if husband and wife stay away from each other for a long time, it may create a communication gap between them which may affect their relationship. Time can act as a barrier to communication in some over ways also. A guest who arrives at midnight will not be able to communicate well with the host who might feel embarrassed or disturbed in his sleep. Time will now allow two communicators to talk with each other if they work in different shifts. A phone call at midnight can irritate or embarrass the receiver. A husband who keeps his wife waiting for a long time will not find it easy to communicate with her. Distance: Sometimes the distance between the transmitter and the receiver becomes a mighty barrier. It can happen if the technical devices of communication such as telephone, telex, etc. are not available to link them. Faulty sitting arrangement in the office can create a kind of communication gap which can be eliminated by adjusting the distance. Distance between the workbenches in the offices or in the modem production departments and half partitions between them are the distance barriers which severely limit the communication among the employees.

Age and Educational Background: The age, maturity, educational background and the eras in which a person grows up make a generation which inevitably comes in the way of human communication. The generation gap becomes obvious in their use of vocabulary and style of speeches and the values of life which they adhere. Considering his age and maturity, we tend to apply different standards of judgment to judge the statements of the speaker. In an organization, older workers gradually form their social groups, which often remain apart from the younger workers. Their likings and interests are different and they take less interest in sports, cocktail parties and movies. Sex: When men and women work together in a group, men tend to be more assertive, acquisitive, self-confident and aggressive than the women. The sex stands as a barrier to a direct, honest and appropriate expression of a females thoughts, opinions and beliefs. On the other hand, man is more assertive of his thoughts and opinions. It is also found that women are more likely than men to express their emotions and feelings about a situation. But, it must be noticed that these are general tendencies of sex-typed communication behavior and not the rules. The girls tend to be less aggressive because they receive negative results such as rejection, criticism for such behavior. They are brought up with the feeling that assertiveness is unfeminine. A girl who is brought up with such feminine conceptions about herself may try to avoid a frank eye-contact with the interviewer and may even speak in a voice that is almost inaudible. 1.6.4 Socio Psychological Barriers Status Barriers: Status consciousness exists in every organization and is one of the major barriers to effective communication. Status is a position or social rank of a person in a group. It depends on the persons abilities, amount of pay, job-skills, seniority, type of work assigned, age, etc. The high status employees within a group enjoy more power and influence the low status employees. Thus, status reflects the degree of power, authority, importance and responsibility placed on an individual by the other people in the organization. The subordinates are usually afraid of communicating unpleasant and unfavorable information to the high status people. They get scared of entering into the airconditioned cabins with runs on the floor and a number of telephones on the table. They become conscious of their own status in relationship with the status of their superiors. This status consciousness is harmful in the process of upward communication.

The employees fear that the unpleasant facts communicated to their superior might bring adverse effects on them, if the information displeases the superior. They are reluctant to communicate their problems, shortcomings, mistakes and other unfavorable information to the higher-ups. They do not show courage of offering suggestions and plans of improving the organizations and its procedures for the fear of being called arrogant by their superiors. In order to safeguard the dignity of their status, the high-ups avoid accepting suggestions from the subordinates and presume that their higher status stands for better knowledge and competence than any of their subordinates. These assumptions may prove to be serious barriers to communication between them. Therefore, it is essential that every superior should encourage his subordinates to talk freely. Attitudes and Values: Personal attitudes and opinions often act as barriers to effective communication. The attitudes serve the personal needs of the people. They provide need satisfaction to the individuals. The messages are interpreted by the people in terms of their attitudes and values. Their attitudes and values are different not merely because they are physically different but also because they have different backgrounds. They deal with the individuals and events according to their attitudes and assumptions. Their personal attitudes, values and opinions are the barriers to an effective communication. The most agreeable information for anybody of us is the one which is favorable and palatable to our opinions, values, norms and attitudes. The message which runs contrary to our views and beliefs is not easily acceptable to us even when it is factual and true. We promptly accept the government policy if it is favorable to our business, but we express our strong resentment if it adversely affects our business. Different comprehension of reality: The reality of an object or a person is different to different people. Reality is not a fixed concept; it is complex, infinite and continually changing. The individual experiences and. their interpretations are never identical because their perceptions are different. On account of different abstractions, inferences, and evaluations, they perceive realty in a different way. If two friends see a movie together, their interpretation, of the events and the characters in it will certainly be different. The communication barrier arises as a result of different selective perceptions of the same object or idea by two or more people.

Our physical senses like hearing, sight, taste, touch and smell are our contracts with the physical world. Some people have limited range and power of their senses, whereas some people have very acute and strong senses. These physical differences are also responsible for different perceptions of the existing things. Human needs are strong motivating factors which can very easily alter his perceptions. We create our own reality through selective perception which hides certain things that are there and see certain more things than are there. Interference: What we directly see, hear, smell, taste, feel or can verify and conform immediately constitutes a fact. However, the statement that go beyond facts and the conclusions based on facts are called inferences. When we sit down at a table to write, we infer that the chair will support our weight and ink will flow from the pen. Thus, the statements which are based on the facts and go beyond the facts are inferences. We may have good reason to expect that our inferences will be correct, but they may prove incorrect due to some unpredicted probability. As inferences go beyond the facts in making certain statements, they can give wrong signals also. We are to interpret symbols on the basis of assumptions which usually prove correct, but we must be aware of the probability that they may sometimes prove incorrect. The inferential statements involve certain amount of risk, but in every imaginable context, we cannot avoid them. The inferences drawn by the specialists are many a time reliable because they are based on verified facts, but the inferences of the non-experts should be accepted after receiving more feedback from the concerned people. Abstracting: Abstracting may be defined as the process of focusing attention on some details and omitting others. It is both necessary and desirable in many cases as it may save our valuable time. We use language to communicate our experiences and feelings, but we cannot communicate every detail of it. We cannot communicate every detail of our experience to others. We focus our attention on some details and do not bother about the rest. We prepare a business report on our observation of the various events in the market. While preparing it, we abstract the reality and report only the valuable characteristics of the market. We observe partially and communicate practically because our experience of the event is also partial. When we try to convert our observations and experiences into words, we further abstract it by using selected words, which involve leaving out the details. If we try to completely describe a simple object like pen, we would require several volumes for it which would still be insufficient to describe the object.

Closed Mindedness: A person with a closed mind is very difficult to communicate with. He is a man with deeply ingrained prejudices. It is very difficult to communicate with such a person. He is not prepared to receive any message on a subject about which he assumes to know everything. His mind is closed to new ideas facts and revelations. If an employee approaches his closed-minded boss with some suggestions to improve the work of a business unit, the boss would not entertain the suggestion, but, on the other hand, he would retort the employee by saying that he knows better than the latter regarding what should be done for the betterment of the organization. Perhaps, he may further warn the employee that the latter should never try to teach him again. Thus, he completely rejects the information and recommendations of the communicator even before he knows the real facts. The reason behind his Closedmindedness is his deeply rooted prejudices. He may preclude all possibility of communication unless he humbles hirilse1f down and admits that he has a great deal to know about himself, his occupation and also about the other people and their occupations. Distortion, Filtering and Editing: A message is not communicated from one person to another in its entirety. The legally worded resolutions made in the management committee meeting cannot be transmitted in the same words to the operator on the machine. It requires translation of it into simple language. It does not exactly replicate the idea of the message on the receivers mind, but, on the other hand, it interprets and simplifies the message for him. The accuracy of the message is lost and the transmission becomes imperfect as the message goes through the filters of translations and simplifications. Further the employees are reluctant to communicate the information, which might expose the faults and inefficiencies of their loss. The horizontal channel is also subjected to such distortions and filtering. The negative effects of the informal channel like grapevine are due to distortions and filtering. No one mows where it begins, but everybody seems to be anxious to repeat and impart it to others. The message in grapevine receives fresh additions with every repetition until it gets worst. Thus; often the original information communicated through formal or informal channels gets lost or distorted to a large extent and very little of it is retained.

Background of Experiences: Our experience in the past influences our attitudes and values. Every human being has his own set of experiences. His style and way of living and, personal background separates him from the rest of the society. If the individuals do not have similar experiences and expectations concerning and given communication situation, they will not attribute similar meaning to the symbols of the message. The experience and expectations attached to the language symbols are bound to be different of a doctor, banker and a scientist. Bad Listening: Some people often become inattentive while receiving a message, in particular, if the message contains a new idea. The adults, many a time, resists change. So the moment a new idea is presented to them, they unconsciously become in attentive. One of the major reasons for bad listening is an individuals continual thinking about his own problems and worries. The poor listeners always feel that the thought in his mind is more interesting than what the speaker is saying. Bad listening can also be due to some strong reason for worrying. An employee may get engrossed in worrying about the sickness of his daughter rather than listening to the instructions given by his departmental manager. Some listeners mentally argue with the speaker before comprehending the complete message. This usually leads to misunderstanding and conflict. Their impatience to talk out their thoughts and their lack of interest in the message contents are strong barriers to communication. Emotions: Emotions of a person play an important role in the act of communication. Emotions are our feelings about the world around us. Usually, the positive emotions such as joy, love or affection do not interfere with communication, but the negative emotions act as strong barriers to effective communication. Emotionally excited communicator is unable to organize his message properly. His excited or nervous state of mind does not allow him to think clearly. He expresses his blurred thoughts with gesticulations and keeps on repeating the same words. He cannot even grasp the message sent by the communicator in its true sense. Almost anybody who comes across such an irritated person becomes a victim of his unfocused negative emotions. Resistance to Change: The new idea is rejected consciously or sometimes unconsciously if it conflicts with beliefs, morals; values, attitudes and opinions of the receiver. The average adult human mind ignores the new idea, especially when he feels insecurity and uncertainty about its aftermath. He feels that the things go along just fine with him and he would be insecure if the changes are introduced.

He is also suspicious about its success in future. Because of its uncertainty, he hastily concludes in his mind that the proposal would not be successful. He even further feels that the proposal would make things worse for him. Thus, the average human mind which resists changes does not accept the new ideas from the communicator. The Source of Communication (Halo effect): Trust is an essential dimension of all human encounters. What two people would say to each other and how they would interpret it depends on the level of trust between them. If the psychological climate between two people is uneasy, there would be more distortions and misinterpretations of the messages communicated between them. Distrust distorts mutual understanding and takes away pleasurable and acceptable aspects of communication. It may even interfere with the efforts of introducing attitude changes and motivating actions. If we trust the speaker, we may change our attitudes easily and readily according to whatever the speaker proposes. Our readiness to, change, our views and values is a result of our acceptance of the speakers statements as reliable truths or whites. If we distrust the speaker, everything that he says can motivate no action from us, nor can it bring any change in our attitudes, views and values. The picture of our life is multi-colored and it should not be painted just in black and white. We must be sensitive to its mixed tones and tunes. We must try to see and understand the grey tones (the halo effect). Summary Communication is a process. Communication has some purposes. There are various steps in a communication process. Communication plays a vital role in any business organization. There are differences between general and technical communication. There are barriers to communication, which can be overcome.

Self-Assessment Questions 1. Write any five objectives of business communication? 2. Business communication always has a specific purpose of achieving something. True 3. Process is a systematic series of actions or operation of a series of changes directed to some end.

4. Message the encoded idea transmitted by the sender making the formulation of the message extremely important, for an incorrect patterning can turn the receiver hostile making him lose interest altogether. 5. Technical communication can be understood by laymen. False 6. Format for general communication is flexible and casual. True 7. Tone used in technical communication is casual and informal. False 8. In technical communication without feedback, the communication is useless. True 9. Three barriers to communication Language, Cultural and Interpersonal

UNIT II - Types of communication


Introduction At what situation, which type of communication is required? What is the difference between verbal and non-verbal communication? How do you differentiate written and verbal communication? What may be advantages and limitations of verbal, non-verbal and signal communication? These simple questions are answered in the present lesson. In an organization there exist a number of possibilities of relationships among different components. Organizations are made of human beings who are social in nature. Hence, based on the needs and purposes, there are interactions amongst various elements of the organization. The interaction is possible only through formal or informal interaction which is oral in nature. On the other hand, written communication is done in black and white. There are some other types of communication which require neither oral wordings nor written details. These are different body language, where different parts of body and its movement play a significant role in exchange of information and ideas. Each type of communication has its own advantages and disadvantages. 2.2 Types of communication Communication can occur via various processes and methods. Depending on the channel used and the style of communication, there can be various types of communication. Types of communication based on communication channels Based on the channels used for communicating, the process of communication can be broadly classified as verbal communication and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication includes written and oral communication, whereas the non-verbal communication includes body language, facial expressions and visual diagrams or pictures used for communication.

2.2.1 Verbal Communication In an organization, as in everyday life, both formally and informally, we communicate more verbally than in writing. It is primarily oral communication that builds up human, relationships. It is the use of the art of speech, or talking that brings the members of a family, neighbors and friends, and likewise, colleagues in an organization together. Without oral communication any organization will become just lifeless. Its importance, therefore, cannot be overemphasized. Oral communication is of two types- formal and informal. In a business organization there are ample opportunities for both formal and informal oral communication. But, in fact, a lot more time is spent in informal oral communication. The simple reason is that communication is essentially conversational in nature and has a social purpose. Whenever people get together there is bound to be face-to-face communication in which they will share all sorts of ideas, feelings, etc. The origin of the grapevine lies here. In addition to, the informal oral communication, various kinds of formal oral communication take place in an organization. Very often people in business have to make formal presentations before a group that may be large or small. At other times they have to participate in meetings and group discussions. Time to time they have to appear for or conduct interviews. Most of the letters and reports are largely dictated. All these are formal kinds of oral communication. In this way we see that both formal and informal types of oral communication thrive together. Advantages of verbal communication Oral communication is the most frequently used means of sending messages. Some of its advantages are given below: Immediate feedback and clarification: It provides immediate feedback and clarification. People listening to the speaker can ask questions, makes comments, add to the clarification. People listening to the speaker can ask questions, makes comments, add to the information provided and so on. Both the speaker and the listener/listeners by turn can enter into a kind of short dialogue and make the whole communication event purposeful.

Build better relationships: It builds up healthy climate in the organization by bringing the superior and the subordinate together. This gives the subordinate a feeling of importance and the superior a better understanding of his mind. Informal or planned meetings can greatly contribute to the understanding of problems/issues in which they become partners. Helps to Save Time: Oral communication is a time-saving device. While a letter, dictate and typed, entered in the diary, put in the envelope and carried to the person addressed will take a long time, oral transmission of the message makes the communication immediately effective. Conflict resolution: It is the most effective tool of persuasion as it lends a personal touch to the whole business. Resolving a conflict will not be possible in the absence of oral communication. Unless a manager / supervisor talks to the workers in a persuasive tone, the conflict will remain there. No exchange of letters can achieve what a meeting can. Mass communication and Group Interaction: Oral communication is very effective in interacting with groups. The speaker can immediately understand the groups reaction and arrive at a satisfactory conclusion by putting his views across and exchanging points. Economy and efficiency: Oral communication is also very economical, both in terms of money and time. It saves the money spent on stationery in organizations in which the managers insist on every instruction, every message in writing. Ease of adaptation: Oral communication provides ample scope to the sender of the message to make himself clear by suitably changing his words, voice, tone, pitch, etc. On the other hand, the words once written cannot be changed. In other words, the message once transmitted in written form cannot be retracted. Oral communication on the other hand, has the advantage of on-the-spot adaptation/improvement.

2.2.2. Non Verbal Communication: Body Language We do not communicate through words alone, or only through writing, speaking and listening. There is another equally important aspect of communication the non-verbal (non-word) aspect. Depending on the situation we have to make a more or less conscious effort in the use/choice of words. The non-verbal part of communication, on the other hand, is less deliberate and conscious. But, compared to verbal communication, it is more subtle and instructive. It also forms the larger part of the overall communication activity. On scientific analysis it has been found that the different aspects of communication account for percentages stated like, Verbal communication 7%, Bodily movements, gestures 55%, Voice tone, and inflection etc. 38%. This shows the relevance and importance of body language. Thus, the non-verbal part of communication requires serious consideration. It can be defined as communication that involves neither written nor spoken words but takes place without the use of words. In it we are concerned with such things as body movements, space, time, and voice tone, general characteristics of the environment color and layout/design, and any other kinds of visual and/or audio signals that the communicator may devise. Since bodily movements, gestures etc. are so important for communication, they are being systematically studied as a subarea of non-verbal communication. It is worth mentioning that all bodily movements, postures, gestures etc. are guided by our thought processes, emotions etc. We send out signals and messages that often speak louder than words by nodding our head, blinking our eyes, waving our hands, shrugging our shoulders and various other ways. That is why this area of enquiry has been called body language. Just as language uses sets of symbols to convey meaning, our body, consciously as well as unconsciously, carries messages, attitudes, status relationships, moods, warmth/indifference, positive/negative feelings and so on. We have, however, to infer these meanings from body symbols. We look for these symbols in the face and eyes, gestures, posture, and physical appearance each of which has its own functions. It is a very prominent part of communication as distinct from both oral and written communication. It takes place extensively at various levels individuals, family, society and organization.

Non Verbal Communication is ancient and universal: Nonverbal communication is ancient and constitutes the earliest types of communication. It developed much before oral communication and languages came into being. Gestures, postures, signals and facial expressions were obviously among the earliest means of communication used by the preliterate man. The language of the hearing impaired which uses signs and gestures perhaps evolved from these ancient methods of communication. Another significant dimension of non-verbal communication is its universality. Unlike verbal communication, which has limitations in terms of reach, the non-verbal communication is universal in appeal. Non Verbal communication relies on observation and interpretation: It is closely associated with the power of observation. The receiver of the communication should be in a position to clearly see the face, the gesture, the tone, the dress, the appearance and also hear the voice of the communicator. Since it is through observation, non-verbal communication may be both intended and unintended. It is intended when the communicator tries to convey certain messages to the target group through conscious gestures, postures, attire and other forms of body language. Non-verbal communication is unintended when the body language, posture or appearance of the communication when the body language is interpreted by the receiver, even though it is not done consciously. Non-verbal messages may complement or contradict: Although non-verbal communication can take place independent of other methods of communication, it often goes along with oral or verbal communication by the speaker. Used appropriately, body language and non-verbal messages can supplement and complement the oral message. Together they can make the message loud, clear and forceful. On the contrary, if they are not consistent, the message that comes out would be ambiguous or garbled. When a speaker speaks it is not just through words, but through the speakers personality as well.

It takes conscious effort and keen attention on the part of both the communicator and receiver to appropriately convey and interpret the message. The required degree of awareness and consciousness on the part of both is of particular relevance for the effectiveness of non-verbal communication. 2.2.2.1 Components of Body Language: 1. Body shape and appearance The body conveys meaning even when it is not in motion. For example, although no proven connection exists between physique and behavior, people tend to expect such connections and base decisions on them, whether they realize it or not. Tall people are likely to be considered more credible than shorter people. According to one study found that taller employees tend to receive higher salaries even when their qualifications are equivalent to those of shorter employees. Skin color and gender also affect communication. For example members of upper class, predominantly white communities, perceive whites as more credible than African Americans. Dress is also a form of nonverbal communication. It would be impossible to list all the things that we can communicate through our clothing. The list would vary greatly with time, place and situation. 2. Posture A person who frequently stands around with weight back on the heels and hands in pockets may come to be seen as lazy. The male executive with his feet up on his desk may appear self-important or sloppy to others. Groups as well as individuals send messages through their posture. Posture often indicates the kind of interpersonal relationships that exists between people. Also the extent to which people in conversation copy or mirror one anothers postures can be a tip off as to their interest in an agreement with one another. Non congruent postures often signal differences and disagreement. Through their posture, interacting parties may also reveal the status differences that exist between them. We tend to relax most with a person of lower status, and least with someone whose status is higher than our own.

A superior who wishes to reduce a subordinates anxiety about the status difference between them may succeed by assuming an open relaxed posture. 3. Gestures Many gestures have widely misunderstood meanings. To many people, foot shaking and finger tapping signify nervousness, impatience or boredom. A clenched fist typically indicates hostility or anger. Opening ones hands to another typically suggests openness, sincerity and acceptance. Putting fingertips together to form a steeple can indicate confidence or superiority. Scratching, digging or picking at ones own hands or body often conveys nervousness, hostility or conflict. Because it acts to keep conversations going, head nodding is a gesture of special importance. It serves two functions: to reinforce the speaker and to control the flow of speech. Occasional nods signal the other person to keep talking, while rapid nodding indicates that the one nodding wishes to speak. However the gestures discussed above do not always mean the same thing in different cultures and language speaking zones. 4. Touching As infants, we all used touch to communicate. According to American culture a firm handshake typifies decisiveness, while a limp one usually conveys a lack of interest or vitality. A damp hand may be a sign of anxiety. A prolonged handshake usually suggests an unacceptable degree of intimacy. Again these meanings depend on context. Higher status people usually feel freer to touch lower-status people. Thus touching may indicate either the extent to which people perceive hierarchical distance between one another or the extent to which one person is, or is trying to be, dominant over the other. Research has shown a person is more likely to touch when giving information, advice or orders; when asking a favor; or when trying to persuade all situations that imply at least a brief period of dominance. Like other forms of nonverbal communication, touching carries the danger of misinterpretation. A manager attempting to reassure a subordinate about his or her chances for advancement may add a touch to strengthen the message but if the touching is stiff and nervous, it may act to contradict the message instead.

5. The Face Because it is the most expressive part of the body, the face is probably the single most important source of nonverbal communication. The many muscles within the face allow it to convey several emotions simultaneously. Faces are sometimes hard to read. Research by Paul Eckman shows that there is a set of facial expressions that most people can interpret with great accuracy. From his observation of simplified facial areas, he has developed a coding system for six emotions: happiness, sadness, surprise, anger, disgust and fear. His results indicate that (1) happiness is conveyed by the lower face and eye area; (2) sadness is revealed most by the eyes; (3) the eye area and lower face communicate surprise; (4) the lower face is most revealing of disgust; and (6) fear is conveyed most by the eye area. Although the face can communicate a great deal, its expressions also seem to be the type of nonverbal behavior that people are best able to control. People lie best with their faces, and since the face is so dominant in communication, it is difficult for a casual observer to determine whether or not a communicator is sincere. Thus while faces usually suggest clear meanings, we should interpret their expressions cautiously and in context. 6. Eye contact and Gaze Eye contact takes place when two people look at each others eyes. It tends to occur when we are seeking feedback about anothers reactions, when we wish to signal that the communication channel is open, and when we want to signal our desire for inclusion. We may also use especially prolonged or intense eye contact to put another under stress. Eye contact diminishes when we have something or are in competitive settings; where there is dislike, tension, or fear of deception; when we are physically close to those with whom we are communicating; during long utterances; or when we wish to break social contact. People tend to establish eye contact more often and for longer periods of time the more they like each other. Of course, the long, icy stare can also convey antagonism. The gaze is a nonverbal cue that both signals and works to maintain status differences.

7. Personal Space Personal space or the space between persons during their interactions with each other is another segment of non-verbal communication. Physical distance between persons can indicate familiarity and closeness or otherwise. In ancient societies, besides economic factors, class, community, color, profession, rank, education and other such factors constituted the basis for physical space. All these factors are relevant for the proper understanding of the spatial non-verbal language. 8. Timing Timing is another means through which non-verbal communication takes place. Who comes first, who sits first, who gets first and leaves first are all actions of non-verbal communication. Generally speaking the subordinates, the invitees, the students and the participants arrive early and occupy their seats in advance. They are expected to do so. On the other hand, the teachers, the speakers, the superiors, the special invitees and the chief guests generally arrive a little later. They are not made to wait. Time management has come to acquire great significance in modern day business management. It is well recognized that as business organizations pursue their multifarious goals as per clearly laid out time schedules, time management holds the key to success. Progressive organizations ensure that the value of time is well appreciated. Indifference to time schedules, on the other hand suggests a sloppy work culture. 9. Behavior Behavior refers to manners, conduct or treatment shown by a person towards others. People tend to interpret behavior. One talks about childish behavior, responsible behavior and dignified behavior. Behavior is governed by thoughts as well as feelings. The qualities of head and heart decide the behavior of person under given circumstances. Sometimes the mind of a rational approach dominates behavior. There are also occasions when the heart or emotions take an upper hand. The behavior of people gets closely watched by others in social, organizational and business interactions. Superiors who communicate through personal examples and deeds communicate effectively and carry conviction.

10. Smile A smile is a very potent form of facial expression. It opens the doors to communication. A natural, pleasant smile carries great significance in establishing and sustaining human relationships, be they in a family, society, community or a business organization. The significance of smiling is beautifully brought out in the saying you are never fully dressed unless you wear a smile. Smile speaks the language of love, compassion, sincerity, courtesy, confidence and dependability. A smile emits positive signals. All the same it is also true that all smiles are not genuine. 11. Paralanguage or Para Linguistics Paralanguage is closest to actual verbal (oral) communication. It is non-verbal because it does not comprise words. But without it words do not convey their intended meaning. Para means like. Hence paralanguage literally means like language. and paralinguistic is the systematic study of how a speaker verbalizes. While verbal communication consists of the what or the content of words, paralanguage involves the how of a speakers voice or the way/ways in which the speaker speaks. On careful observation and analysis we find that a speaker intentionally/unintentionally uses a vast range of hints and signals. The first signal we receive or use is our voice. Everybody knows how important voice is. It tells us so much about the speakers sex, background, education, training and temperament. There are all kinds of voices-clear, musical, raucous, cultivated, and pleasant/unpleasant and so on. Unless damaged by some injury to the vocal cords or some neurological problem, the human voice normally does a satisfactory job. In, other words it conveys the meaning or message. The clearer the voice, the more effective it will be in conveying the meaning/ message. That is why in certain jobs it is absolutely necessary for the applicant/ employee to have a clear and pleasant voice. For example, jobs involving the use of telephone, traffic control, tape-recording etc. require very clear voice.

Anthropologist George Trager coined the term paralinguistics to refer to something in speech beyond language itself. He divides the topic into four parts: Voice Qualities, Vocal Characters, Vocal Qualifiers and Vocal Segregates. Voice Qualities refers to factors such as pitch, range, resonance, rhythm and speaking rate. Vocal Characterizers include laughing, crying, whispering, groaning, yawning, whining, coughing and clearing the throat. Vocal Qualifiers are momentary variations in volume (ranging from overloud to oversoft) or pitch (ranging from very high to very low) Vocal Segregates are nonfluencies such as ah, un and um; silent pauses and intruding sounds. Advantages of Paralanguage 1. No oral message is complete without paralanguage as it is very closely allied to language. 2. Paralanguage speaks a lot about the speakers national/regional background. This information is of immense use to the receiver/organization in dealing with him. 3. Paralanguage gives us useful clues regarding the speakers mental state. 4. Paralanguage enables us to understand the speakers place in the organization. 5. Paralanguage tells us quite clearly about the speakers educational background. Limitations of Paralanguage 1. Paralanguage is non-verbal part of communication, therefore, cannot be fully relied upon. 2. The voice quality and pitch of the speaker may unnecessarily prejudice the receiver of the message. The listener/receiver of the message has, therefore, to be very open-minded. 3. Because of the reasons given above paralanguage may sometimes misguide or mislead. 4. As speakers belong to different speech communities it is difficult to achieve uniformity in oral communication.

2.2.2.2 Advantages of Body Language Body language is the most easily visible aspect of communication. It, therefore, helps the receiver of the message in decoding the message. Body language complements verbal communication. Body language adds intensity to the process of communication. In the absence of any gestures, change of posture, proper eye contact any face-to-face communication will look blank. Because people care for body language it goes a long way to improve the overall atmosphere and looks of the organization. A resourceful manager can make very effective use of it.

2.2.2.3 Limitations Of Body Language Being a non-verbal communication, relying on facial expressions, gestures etc., it cannot be wholly relied on. Words written or spoken can be taken seriously, but body language cannot always be taken seriously. People belonging to different cultural backgrounds sent out different body signals. They are, therefore, liable to be misinterpreted. Facial expressions, gestures, postures etc. become ineffective if the listener is inattentive. It, therefore, requires extra care in getting the right message. Use of body language is not very effective in large gatherings. It is effective in face-to-face situation that means there are just two or a small number of participants in the communication situation.

2.3 Written Communication While speech comes to us very naturally and spontaneously, writing comes after serious practice and careful organization of thought. The word write has been derived from the old English word writan that meant to scratch, draw or inscribe. It shows that man learnt writing through a long process of drawing, scoring or incising symbols on rock faces, dried skins, tree barks and clay tablets. The alphabet of any language is, therefore, a result of evolution. In the same way, the combination of the characters or letters of alphabet into words, words into sentences and sentences into paragraphs have gone through a long history of mans attempt to communicate, and give some kind of permanence or preservation to his communication.

For this purpose every language has evolved its own rules of grammar, though many languages grouped together have more or less similar rules. But, in writing these rules have to be rather strictly followed. Speech, on the other hand, is more flexible. It also does not have the permanence of writing. Unless there is a typescript or tape or simultaneously taken down notes, the speech is heard and sooner or later forgotten. Just as it is impossible to think of social life without oral communication, it is equally impossible to think of business or an organization without written communication. There are various reasons for it. In the first place, in an organization, people are too many to have face-to-face communication. They are generally spread over wide geographical distances, and are sometimes not even connected by telephone. The situation is changing fast. But, even then, exchange of letters remains as important as ever. Moreover, people have to function within defined limits of authority and responsibility. In the absence of written communication it till not be easy to determine responsibility. It is an essential part of any managers responsibility to communicate on paper. Written communication is, in this way, an essential part of organizational life. Telephone, telex, fax machines have not in any way affected the importance of letters. They have only changed the mode of transmission and made the exchange of letters or memos much faster. That is why written communication including letters, memoranda, agenda, manuals, handbooks, reports, etc., continues to flourish. 2.3.1 Advantages of Written Communication Accuracy: In business, all messages are not brief. A long and intricate message cannot be given over the telephone. It is quite likely a word or phrase may be misheard, a figure may be transposed, and a date or address may be incorrectly received at the other end. For these reasons you cannot reply upon telephone conversation. But a carefully written letter ensures accuracy. Record-keeping: Any information in a written form has another distinct advantage over an oral communication. Human memory is short and oral communication cannot always be remembered in all its details. But when the information is down in black and white and is signed, it becomes official and serves as a permanent record and is filled for future references.

Goodwill and image building: Invitations, seasonal greetings, thank you letters, congratulatory messages and condolences cannot just be conveyed over the telephone. A personalized message in writing goes a long way in building good human relationship, which is very essential in day-to-day life and it is more so in business. Goodwill letters are written to promote customer relationship. Besides communicating information and building goodwill, letters also help to create a favorable image of the company that sends them. Every letter that goes out of a company goes as a goodwill ambassador and speaks for its quality. Written communication is proved to be more effective than verbal communication and its effectiveness depends upon how it is written. Economy and Efficiency: In the first place, written communication is economical. A letter can do a better job at a less cost. A long distance trunk call has got to be brief because as the minutes tick away, the charge grows; and it is not always made unless urgent and unavoidable. A telegram is telegram where every word costs. The message is cut down to size to minimize the cost, perhaps even at the expense of clarity. A letter can be written at the convenience of the writer and read at the convenience of the receiver. In todays world of technological advancement email is the most convenient and easily adopted medium of written communication. 2.4 Significance of Non Verbal Communication: Refer to Text book for overview Summary We communicate by exchanging symbols to describe our ideas and experience. Language is a common symbol system, which we use for sharing our experience with others. Communication may be verbal or non-verbal. Verbal means That includes words and communication without words is known as non-verbal communication. Verbal communication may be oral or written. Based on the channels used for communicating, the process of communication can be broadly classified as verbal communication and non-verbal communication Verbal communication is further divided into written and oral communication Non-verbal communication includes the overall body language of the person who is speaking, which will include the body posture, the hand gestures, and overall body movements

Formal communication includes all the instances of free unrestrained communication between people who share a casual rapport with each other. Informal communication includes instances of free unrestrained communication between people who share a casual rapport with each other. Verbal communication allows you as the speaker to receive immediate feedback from others. Speaking can be looked at in two major areas: interpersonal and public speaking. Since the majority of the speaking is an interpersonal process, to communicate effectively, we must not simply clean up our language, but learn to relate to people. Any information in a written form has distinct advantage over an oral communication. Nonverbal communication occurs not only between people, but also internally. Paralanguage is a non-lexical vocal communication. It may be considered a type of nonverbal communication, in its broadest sense as it can suggest many emotional nuances. How one person touches another communicates a great deal of information.

Self-Assessment Questions 1. Verbal communication includes written and oral communication. True 2. We can communicate by exchanging symbols to describe our ideas and experience. True 3. Gestures like handshake, a smile or a hug cannot convey emotions. False 4. Verbal communication is the use of oral, unwritten words. True 5. Dialogue is another method of verbal communication that allows individuals to collaborate and exchange ideas with one another. True 6. Speaking can be looked at in two major areas: interpersonal and public speaking. True 7. Our communication is not affected by a variety of other variables such as clothes, makeup, and accessories. False 8. Cold clammy skin is one of the clues to physiological processes. True 9. Fatigued This is the way an action is done. True

Unit III - Listening Skills


3.1 Introduction More than an act, listening is a process. It is a lot more than hearing. It starts with hearing but goes beyond. In other words, hearing is a necessary but not sufficient condition for listening. Listening involves hearing with attention. Listening is a process that calls for concentration. Hearing refers to the perception of sound with the ear. Hearing is a physical effect. One hears a noise, whether one wants to or not. If hearing is impaired, a hearing aid is used. Hearing aids simplify the sound. Listening is more comprehensive than hearing. Listening is done not only with the ear, but also with the other sense organs. While listening one should also be observant. In other words, listening has to do with ears, as well as with the eyes and the mind. Hearing is physical, while listening is intellectual, involving both the body and the mind. Listening is to be understood as the total process that involves hearing with attention, being observant and making interpretations. Good communication is essentially an interactive process. Listening calls for participation and involvement. It is quite often a dialogue rather than a monologue. It is necessary for the listener to be interested and also show or make it abundantly clear that one is interested in knowing what the other person has to say. Good listeners put the speaker at ease. The listener can and should help the speaker in establishing a wavelength through which communication traverses smoothly. The listening process can be understood best by looking at various words which are associated with listening. These are hearing, decoding, sensing, understanding, comprehending, filtering, absorbing, assimilating, empathizing, remembering and responding. Each one of these plays a role in making listening complete and effective.

3.2 The process of listening The process moves through the first three stepsreceiving, attending, and understandingin sequence. Responding and remembering may or may not follow. For example, it may be desirable for the listener to respond immediately or to remember the message in order to respond at a later time. Receiving: For the sake of simplification take an analogy of email being sent. The sender sends a well composed and clear message. It is well organized. The recipient wants to receive the email but what he or she will not receive it till the time they do not log into their computer or laptop. Much human listening fails for the same reason. Receivers simply are not connected or tuned in to the senders. Sometimes, the problem is a physiological one; for example, the receiver has a hearing deficiency due to a congenital or inherited weakness. Or perhaps the deficiency resulted from an accident, a disease, or prolonged exposure to loud noises. Sometimes the problem can be corrected through the use of mechanical devices that restore hearing loss, or through hearing aids that amplify sound. Scientists and engineers are constantly developing new products designed to correct and help specific types of hearing loss. Remember that hearing and listening are not the same. Hearing is the reception of sound; listening is the attachment of meaning. Hearing is, however, a necessary prerequisite for listening and an important component of the listening process. Attending: Lets continue with the E-mail analogy. When the recipient turns on his or her computer on, it will receive the message transmitted by the sender. But for the process to continue the recipient of the message has to attend to it. If the receiver does not pay proper attention to the message the objective of that message is lost. Human listening is often ineffectiveor does not occurfor similar reasons. Receiving occurs, but attending does not.

At any given time, numerous messages compete for our attention. The stimuli may be external, such as words spoken by a lecturer or printed on paper, or events occurring around us. Or the stimuli may be internal, such as a deadline we must meet tomorrow, a backache we developed by sitting too long at the computer, or the hunger pangs we experience because we didnt take time to eat lunch. Whatever the source of the stimuli, we simply cant focus on all of them at the same time. We therefore must choose, whether consciously or unconsciously, to attend to some stimuli and reject others. Three factors determine how these choices are made. (a)Selectivity of attention: We direct attention to certain things to prevent an information overload. A common example makes the point. Suppose you are attempting to read a book and watch TV at the same time. Although some people claim they can do this, actually both activities sufferand usually one more than the other. The material that is most engaging or interesting will attract your attention. At other times, something may interrupt or disturb your attention. Selectivity of attention explains why you perk up or pay attention when something familiar to you, such as your hometown or your favorite hobby, is mentioned. In fact, you may have been listening intently to a conversation when someone in a different conversation mentions your name. Immediately, the focus of your attention shifts to the conversation in which your name was mentioned. (b)Strength of attention: Attention is not only selective; it possesses energy, or strength. Attention requires effort and desire. In the example of reading a book and watching TV, the receiver (reader/watcher) directed his or her primary attention toward either the book or the TV. Complete attention can be given to only one stimulus at a time and necessary attention to only a limited number of stimuli at the same time. If we spend too much energy on too many stimuli, we soon will not be paying attention to any of them. We are all familiar with aircraft accidents that were caused at least in part by controllers in the tower having to process too much information. Consider also how we can be so attentive to a newspaper, a TV program, a personal computer, a sports event, or another individual that we are oblivious to things around us. Watch a young couple in love sometime: Youll see a good example of intensity, or strength of attention. So the moral of the story is Strength of attention is important.

(c)Sustenance of attention: Just as attention is determined by selectivity and strength, it is affected by time of sustainment. Our attention wanes, and this fact is important to an understanding of listening. For example, we can listen to some public speakers far longer than we can listen to others. Duration may depend on the subject, the setting, the way the speech is packaged, and on the speakers delivery. But no matter how articulate and skilled the speaker, or how interesting the content, our attention finally ends. If for no other reason, the human body requires sleep or attention to other bodily needs. The mind can only pay attention for as long as the body can sit still. Selectivity, strength, and sustainment determine attention. Receiving and attending are prerequisites to the rest of the listening process. Understanding Someone has said, Communication begins with understanding. How true! A message may have been sent and received, and the receiver may have attended to the message yet, there has been no effective communication. Effective communication depends on understanding; that is, effective communication does not take place until the receiver understands the message. Understanding must result for communication to be effective. In the process of listening both verbal and nonverbal symbols are crucial to understanding. Lets understand the roles they play 1. Verbal Symbols: Verbal communication means communicating through the use of words, whether spoken or written. Two barriers obstruct our understanding of verbal communication. Barrier #1: The same words mean different things to different people. This barrier is a common one, and it may be experienced whenever any two people attempt to communicate. This difference of perception can have different implications which can be severe or minor in nature. When the same words mean different things to different people, misunderstanding occurs. But there is another barrier to effective verbal communication that can cause just as much trouble. Barrier #2: Different words sometimes mean the same thing. Many things are called by more than one name. For example soda is called Sparkling Water in Israel and Pop in South USA.

These two barrierssame words meaning different things and different words meaning the same thingcan be overcome if you realize the following fact: Meanings are not in words, meanings are in people. We listen more effectively when we consider the message in relation to its source. Good listeners always consider who the sender of the message is. Knowing something about the sender pays big dividends when it comes to understanding the message. 2. Nonverbal symbols: We use nonverbal symbols to transmit many times more information than our verbal symbols carry. We communicate nonverbally through action factors, no action factors, and vocal factors. Each suggests a barrier to listening. Barrier #1: Misinterpretation of the action. Eye contact, gestures, and facial expression are action factors that affect the meaning we attach to a message. For that matter, any movement or action carries meaning. When someone walks quickly away from a conversation or taps a pencil on the desk during a conversation, we may conclude that the person is in a hurry or is bored. Our conclusions may or may not be correct, however. We may conclude that speakers who twitch, or otherwise seem to us unsure, are nervous when, in fact, they may not be. Barrier # 2: Misinterpretation of no action symbols. The attire, the vehicle which is being driven the individual, the objects in ones office tells a lot about the person. The interpersonal body language between two office colleagues can be misinterpreted either by the individual themselves or by the people around them. Barrier # 3: Misinterpretation of the voice. The quality, intelligibility, and variety of the voice affect the listeners understanding. Quality refers to the overall impression the voice makes on others. Listeners often infer from the voice whether the speaker is happy or sad, fearful or confident, excited or bored. Intelligibility (or understandability) depends on such things as articulation, pronunciation, and grammatical correctness. But variety is the spice of speaking. Variations in rate, volume, force, pitch, and emphasis are some of the factors that influence our understanding of the speakers message. Receiving, attending, and understanding are all crucial if effective listening is to occur, for communication can accurately be defined as the sharing or understanding of meaning. Often, however, the steps of responding and remembering are part of the listening process. Responding and remembering are indicators of listening accuracy.

Responding: The listening process may end with understanding, since effective communication and effective listening may be defined as the accurate sharing or understanding of meaning. But a response may be neededor at least helpful. And there are different types of responses. 1. Direct Verbal Responses: These may be written or spoken. After a message has been received, attended and understood the recipient might respond verbally or send a written response. The receiver might respond immediately or seek permission for time before getting back. 2. Responses that seek clarification: There can be counter responses asking for more information or questions asked on the phone or an in person meeting. The responder can be very direct or just simply ask to tell him more about it. 3. Responses that paraphrase: A paraphrase gives the sender a chance to agree, or to provide information to clarify the message. 4. Nonverbal responses: Many times a nonverbal response is all that is needed; indeed it may even be the preferred type of response. The knowing nod of the head, an understanding smile, or thumbs up may communicate that the message is understood. Responding, then, is a form of feedback that completes the communication transaction. It lets the sender know that the message was received, attended to, and understood. Remembering: Memorization of facts is not the key to good listening. Yet memory is often a necessary and integral part of the listening process. Some would go so far as to say, If you cant remember it, you werent listening. This statement is often untrue. Think for example, of the times you heard a good joke but cant remember it long enough to get home and tell it; or the number of times you have gone to the grocery store and couldnt remember what you were asked to buy. And the most frustrating situation of allyou were introduced to someone and cant recall the name five minutes later. We often say, I can remember faces, but I cant remember names. At times, something will jog our memory, such as hearing another joke, seeing a similar product on the grocery store shelf, or meeting someone else with the same first name. What is the relationship between memory and listening? Understanding the differences between short-term memory and long-term memory will help explain the relationship.

With short-term memory, information is used immediatelywithin a few seconds, for example, as with a phone number that we look up. Short-term memory has a rapid forgetting rate and is very susceptible to interruption. And the amount of information that can be retained is quite limited, though it varies somewhat with variations in the material to be retained. For example, most of us can remember only very few random numbers (4, 13, 9, 53, 274, 6, 491, 713, 2810, 1, 7555, 111). But if there is a pattern (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048), the task is much easier. Long-term memory allows us to recall information and events hours, days, weeks even yearslater. You remember, for example, things that happened to you when you were growing up, songs you learned, and people you knew. You may have been unaware of those memories for long periods of time, and then the right stimulus caused you to recall them. Perhaps the aroma of a freshly baked pie called to mind your grandmother, who used to make great apple pies years ago. 3.3. Classifications of Listening Informative Listening: Informative listening is the name we give to the situation where the listeners primary concern is to understand the message. Listeners are successful insofar as the meaning they assign to messages is as close as possible to that which the sender intended. Informative listening, or listening to understand, is found in all areas of our lives. Much of our learning comes from informative listening. For example, we listen to lectures or instructions from teachersand what we learn depends on how well we listen. In the workplace, we listen to understand new practices or proceduresand how well we perform depends on how well we listen. We listen to instructions, briefings, reports, and speeches; if we listen poorly, we arent equipped with the information we need. Effective informative listening demands that you concentrate squarely on the messageand know its source. There are three key variables related to informative listening. Knowing these variables can help you begin to improve your informative listening skills; that is, you will become increasingly successful in understanding what the speaker means.

1. Vocabulary: The precise relationship between vocabulary and listening has never been determined, but it is clear that increasing your vocabulary will increase your potential for better understanding. And its never too late to improve your vocabulary. Having a genuine interest in words and language, making a conscious effort to learn new words, breaking down unfamiliar words into their component partsall these things will help you improve your vocabulary. Another good way to improve your vocabulary is to be sensitive to the context in which words are used. 2. Concentration:Concentration is difficult. You can remember times when another person was not concentrating on what you were sayingand you probably can remember times when you were not concentrating on something that someone was saying to you. There are many reasons people dont concentrate when listening. Sometimes listeners try to divide their attention between two competing stimuli. At other times, listeners are preoccupied with something other than the speaker of the moment. Sometimes listeners are too ego-involved, or too concerned with their own needs to concentrate on the message being delivered. Or perhaps they lack curiosity, energy, or interest. Many people simply have not learned to concentrate while listening. Others just refuse to discipline themselves, lacking the motivation to accept responsibility for good listening. Concentration requires discipline, motivation, and acceptance of responsibility. 3. Memory:Memory is an especially crucial variable to informative listening; you cannot process information without bringing memory into play. More specifically, memory helps your informative listening in three ways. 1. It allows you to recall experiences and information necessary to function in the world around you. In other words, without memory you would have no knowledge bank. 2. It establishes expectations concerning what you will encounter. You would be unable to drive in heavy traffic, react to new situations, or make common decisions in life without memory of your past experiences.

3. It allows you to understand what others say. Without simple memory of the meaning of words, you could not communicate with anyone else. Without memory of concepts and ideas, you could not understand the meaning of messages. Relationship Listening The purpose of relationship listening is either to help an individual or to improve the relationship between people. Therapeutic listening is a special type of relationship listening. Therapeutic listening brings to mind situations where counselors, medical personnel, or other professionals allow a troubled person to talk through a problem. But it can also be used when you listen to friends or acquaintances and allow them to get things off their chests. Although relationship listening requires you to listen for information, the emphasis is on understanding the other person. Three behaviors are important key to effective relationship listening: attending, supporting, and empathizing. Attending: Much has been said about the importance of paying attention, or attending behavior. In relationship listening, attending behaviors indicate that the listener is focusing on the speaker. Nonverbal cues are crucial in relationship listening; that is; your nonverbal behavior indicates that you are attending to the speaker or that you arent! Eye contact is one of the most important attending behaviors. Looking appropriately and comfortably at the speaker sends a message that is different from that sent by a frequent shift of gaze, staring, or looking around the room. Body positioning communicates acceptance or lack of it. Leaning forward, toward the speaker, demonstrates interest; leaning away communicates lack of interest. Head nods, smiles, frowns, and vocalized cues such as uh huh, I see, or yesall are positive attending behaviors. A pleasant tone of voice, gentle touching, and concern for the other persons comfort are other attending behaviors. Supporting: Many responses have a negative or non-supportive effect; for example, interrupting the speaker, changing the subject, turning the conversation toward yourself, and demonstrating a lack of concern for the other person. Giving advice, attempting to manipulate the conversation, or indicating that you consider yourself superior are other behaviors that will have an adverse effect on the relationship.

Sometimes the best response is silence. The speaker may need a sounding board, not a resounding board. Wise relationship listeners know when to talk and when to just listenand they generally listen more than they talk. Three characteristics describe supportive listeners: (1) discretionbeing careful about what they say and do; (2) beliefexpressing confidence in the ability of the other person; and (3) patiencebeing willing to give others the time they need to express themselves adequately. Empathizing: What is empathy? It is not sympathy, which is a feeling for or about another. Nor is it apathy, which is a lack of feeling. Empathy is feeling and thinking with another person. The caring, empathic listener is able to go into the world of anotherto see as the other sees, hear as the other hears, and feel as the other feels. Obviously, the person who has had more experience and lived longer stands a better chance of being an effective empathic listener. The person who has never been divorced, lost a child to death, been bankrupt, or lost a job may have a more difficult time relating to people with these problems than one who has experienced such things. Risk is involved with being an empathic relationship listener. You cannot be an effective empathic listener without becoming involved, which sometimes means learning more than you really want to know. But commanders cant command effectively, bosses cant supervise skillfully, and individuals cant relate interpersonally without empathy. Abraham Lincoln is reported to have said, I feel sorry for the man who cannot feel the stripes upon the back of another. Truly, those who cannot feel with another person are at a disadvantage in understanding that person. Empathic behavior can be learned. First, you must learn as much as you can about the other person. Second, you must accept the other personeven if you cant accept some aspects of that persons behavior. Third, you must have the desire to be an empathic listener. And you must remember that empathy is crucial to effective relationship listening. Appreciative Listening Appreciative listening includes listening to music for enjoyment, to speakers because you like their style, to your choices in theater, television, radio, or film. It is the response of the listener, not the source of the message that defines appreciative listening. That which provides appreciative listening for one person may provide something else for another.

The quality of appreciative listening depends in large part on three factors: presentation, perception, and previous experience. Presentation:Presentation encompasses many factors: the medium, the setting, the style and personality of the presenter, to name just a few. Sometimes it is our perception of the presentation, rather than the actual presentation, that most influences our listening pleasure or displeasure. Perception is an important factor in appreciative listening. Perception:Expectations play a large role in perception. Perceptions and the expectations that drive them have their basis in attitudes. Our attitudes determine how we react to, and interact with, the world around us. Like for example the computerization of various nationalized banks and their branches have not been done completely because in many places the junior staff does not want to get out of the age old tradition of manual maintenance of customer records and ledgers. Perceptions influence all areas of our lives. Certainly, they are crucial determinants as to whether or not we enjoy or appreciate the things we listen to. Obviously, perceptions also determine what we listen to in the first place. As we said earlier, listening is selective. Previous Experience:The discussion of perception makes it clear that previous experience influences whether we enjoy listening to something. In some cases, we enjoy listening to things because we are experts in the area. Sometimes, however, expertise or previous experience prevents us from enjoying a presentation because we are too sensitive to imperfections. Previous experience plays a large role in appreciative listening. Many people enjoy the sounds of large-city traffic. Perhaps their growing up in a large city was a happy experience for them. The blare of horns honking, the sound of roaring engines accelerating, even the shrill shriek of sirens piercing the airall these things may remind them of pleasant times in their lives. They appreciate hearing these sounds. Others, having grown up on a farm or in a small town, have learned to enjoy the sounds of nature. For them, a walk in the country produces sounds of enjoyment: the rustle of leaves in the breeze, the song of a robin, the babble of a brook.

Usually, if we associate a sound or other experience with pleasant memories, then we appreciate or enjoy it. However, if the sound or experience is associated with unpleasant memories, we probably will not appreciate or enjoy it. Critical Listening The ability to listen critically is essential in a democracy. On the job, in the community, at service clubs, in places of worship, in the familythere is practically no place you can go where critical listening is unimportant. Politicians, the media, salesmen, advocates of policies and procedures, and our own financial, emotional, intellectual, physical, and spiritual needs require us to place a premium on critical listening and the thinking that accompanies it. But there are three things to keep in mind. These three things were outlined by Aristotle, They are as follows: ethos, or speaker credibility; logos, or logical arguments; and pathos, or psychological appeals. 1. Ethos:Credibility of the speaker is important. The two critical factors of speaker credibility are expertness and trustworthiness. A speaker may be expert or competent and still not be trustworthy. For example, an autocratic dictator of a certain third world country might be an expert on the question of his countrys possession of nuclear arms; but I would not trust him to tell me. On the other hand a person might be trustworthy, but not be an expert on the subject. I trust my best friend; he would tell me the truth about nuclear arms in that third world country, if he knew and I asked him. But his information would be of questionable validity since he is simply not an expert in such things. When listening to a message that requires a critical judgment or response, ask yourself, Is the speaker a credible source, one who is both an expert on the subject and one who can be trusted to be honest, unbiased, straight forward? Remember that a person may have personality or charisma. But these do not take the place of credibility. A person may even be highly competent and an expert in one area and simply not be informed in another. Effective critical listening requires careful judgment about the expertness and trustworthiness of the speaker. In fact, ethos or speaker credibility may be the most important single factor in critical listening and thinking. However, ethos without logos is not enough.

2. Logos:Even speakers with high ethos often make errors in logic, not by intention, but by accident, carelessness, inattention to detail, or lack of analysis. Critical listeners have a right to expect well supported arguments from speakers, arguments that contain both true propositions and valid inferences or conclusions. When evaluating arguments, listeners should ask several questions about the proposition or statements made: a. Are the statements true? b. Are the data the best that can be obtained? c. Are the sources of the data known to the listeners? In other words do listeners know where the information came from? d. Is the data accurately portrayed? e. Is the data representative? That is, would all the data or at least a preponderance of it show the same thing? The above questions may all be answered to your satisfaction, yet the logic may be faulty. Or perhaps the data do not lead to or justify the inferences or conclusions drawn. Listeners should ask themselves the following questions: A. Is the conclusion a certainty or are exceptions possible? b. Were all cause-effect relationships established beyond doubt? c. Does the data justify the inference drawn or the conclusion given? d. Does the inference or conclusion follow from the data, or is there a non sequitur, which means literally, it does not necessarily follow? e. Is there evidence of strong logical thinking by the speaker? Both ethos and logos are crucial elements of critical listening. But reliance on just these two elements without consideration of pathos would be akin to attempting to sit on a three-legged stool with one leg missing. Pathos is the third leg.

3. Pathos:The psychological or emotional element of communication is often misunderstood and misused. Simply said, speakers often use psychological appeals to gain an emotional response from listeners. Effective critical listeners carefully determine the focus of the speakers message. Speakers may appeal to any one or several needs, desires, or values that are important to us including: adventure, thrift, curiosity, fear, creativity, companionship, guilt, independence, loyalty, power, pride, sympathy, altruism. There are many others, of course; the list is a long one. There are several questions critical listeners should ask themselves when assessing the pathos element: a. Is the speaker attempting to manipulate rather than persuade me? b. What is the speakers intent? c. Is the speaker combining logos with pathos? d. Am I responding merely to the pathos? e. Next week or next year will I be satisfied with the decision I am making today? Effective critical listening depends on the listener keeping all three elements of the message in the analysis and in perspective: ethos, or source credibility; logos, or logical argument; and pathos, or psychological appeals. Discriminative Listening The final type of listening is discriminative listening. It may be the most important type, for it is basic to the other four. By being sensitive to changes in the speakers rate, volume, force, pitch, and emphasis, the informative listener can detect even nuances of difference in meaning. By sensing the impact of certain responses, such as uh huh, or I see, relationship listening can be strengthened. Detection of differences between sounds made by certain instruments in the orchestra, or parts sung by the a cappella vocal group, enhances appreciative listening. Finally, sensitivity to pauses, and other vocal and nonverbal cues, allows critical listeners to more accurately judge not only the speakers message, but his intentions as well.

Although discriminative listening cuts across the other four types of listening, there are three things to consider about this type of listening. 1. Hearing ability. Obviously, people who lack the ability to hear well will have greater difficulty in discriminating among sounds. Often this problem is more acute for some frequencies, or pitches, than others. For example, a person may be less able to discriminate when the sound is coming from a bass voice than from a higher pitched one. 2. Awareness of sound structure. Native speakers become quite proficient at recognizing vowel and consonant sounds that do or do not appear at the beginning, middle, or end of words. For example, a listener might hear this sandal when what the speaker said was this handle; but since English words do not begin with sb, one would not mistake this bean for this sbean. Attention to the sound structure of the language will lead to more proficient discriminatory listening. A person who pays attention to sound structure would recognize that a rapidly spoken Idrankitfirst could mean either I drank it first or Id rank it first. Recognition of the two meanings would cause the listener to seek clarification. 3. Integration of nonverbal cues. The previous chapter pointed out how action, nonaction, and vocal factors were important in understanding messages. Nowhere is attention to these factors more important than in effective discriminative listening. Words dont always communicate true feelings. The way they are said, or the way the speaker acts, may be the key to understanding the true or intended meaning. Effective listening, whether informative, relational, appreciative, critical, or discriminative, requires skill. In some cases, the skills are the same for the various types of listening; in some cases, they are quite different.

3.4 Purpose of Listening It should be no surprise that poor listening is not entirely the fault of the speaker. A speaker alone gets an audience to listen. Wrong. All of us have had the experience of reading to the end of a page and not knowing what we have read. There are four reasons why we should listen 1. To gain new information and ideas:Throughout our lifetimes there are kernels of information that become a part of us through the spoken word. Lectures in class, for example can supplement and clarify a textbook; informative indoctrinations give new employees background to a company; persuasive statements to clients give both information and reason for buying. New ideas are received daily, via the oral medium, if one listens. In other words speakers select reliable evidence. A goal is to arrive at a conclusion that a true, workable and acceptable to many people. 2. To question and test evidence and assumptions:When a speaker presents a message, much of what is said consists of facts (variable data) or opinions. Good listeners test those facts and opinions against assumptions and then question the speaker. 3. To be inspired:Martin Luther Kings I have a dream speech inspired as did Patton in the film of the same name. Keynoters are selected to set the tone, the mood, the outline of where a group should go. Sales meetings are known for their rousing kickoffs, their enthusiastic openings occasionally with bands, vocalists, even stage shows, all seeming to motivate, to inspire the audience favorably. 4. To improve your own communication:Role models and mentors are valuable to young people entering the business world. If your role model is also an effective communicator, you are lucky. However if your mentor lacks some communication skills, and thus cannot serve as a resource, other excellent ways exist to study communicators: attending meetings, hearing speeches, or even observing from famous officials speaking on television. Choose the best techniques; listen for and adopt those that are done well. Add them to your list of desirable speaking attributes. Omit the unwanted ones.

3.4.1 Ten commandments of Listening There are certain well-accepted essentials for good listening. More specifically, there are ten commandments. The ten commandments of listening are as follows 1. Stop Talking: The first commandment of good listening is to stop talking. One cannot be talking and listening attentively, at the same time. The speaker cannot speak and get the message across if the listener continues to talk. Stop talking and start listening. 2. Put the speaker at ease: The speaker can really organize his thoughts and convey them meaningfully only when put at ease. The listener does so through several positive signals such as sitting down, turning to the speaker and observing. 3. Show you want to listen: This calls for a positive attitude on the part of the listener. The listener should indicate preparedness. The listener should make it clear that the listener is attentive and is keen to receive the message the communicator wants to convey. This may be done by appropriate body movement, right posture or b keeping the pen and pad ready. 4. Remove distractions: Communication between the sender and receiver cannot progress if there are distractions. The receiver of the communication should show interest in listening, just as the speaker is interested in speaking. The listener has to remove distractions, if any such as shut the door, switch off the cell phone and remove objects, if any placed between the speaker and the listener so that body movements can be observed. 5. Empathize with the speaker: An important requirement for effective listening is that the listener should show empathy or proper understanding. The speaker may not be perfect and may have shortcomings. As a listener one should learn to put oneself in the speakers shoes. 6. Be patient: This is an important attribute of good listening. A listener should not only be attentive, but also patient. One should wait for the speaker to complete the talk. The listener should refrain from making frequent interruptions, should avoid making derogatory remarks, cynical comments and distracting gestures. Every speaker has a train of thought, and gestures of impatience on the part of the listener may disturb the delivery of the speech. 7. Hold your temper: Good listening also calls for the right temperament. The listener may not appreciate what the communicator is conveying or the listener may decide that the speaker is factually incorrect. That does not give the listener a right to instant reaction.

8. Refrain from argument and Criticism: This is not an uncommon happening. Occasions are many when the listener picks up an argument with the speaker. The listener tries to challenge the speaker and criticizes the person. Any such argument or criticism would be detrimental to the flow of communication. The speaker and the listener have their respective roles to play and the listener should not make any verbal attack on the speaker. If there are many listeners or a large audience, any such act will deprive them of the benefit of the speakers message. 9. Ask questions and Elicit more: While negative interventions and interruptions as cited above should be avoided, positive interventions by the listener are desirable. The listener should ask appropriate questions at the right opportunity to elicit more information. In fact any speaker would welcome this for it not only provides the feedback, but also provides an opportunity to clarify the message and correct misconceptions, if any. In structured sessions in particular, the speaker provides for a question and answer session for facilitating greater understanding. By asking the right type of questions, relevant to the speakers topic, the listener helps himself as well as the other listeners to get those details which are pertinent, but which the speaker missed out or did not cover adequately. 10. Stop Talking Again: This aspect is so essential to the process of listening that it is repeated again as the tenth commandment. For speaking to progress smoothly, talking should be stopped not only at the beginning, but also throughout the message delivery process. Stop talking and keep listening.

3.5 Barriers to effective listening Communicating can be more of a challenge than you think when you realize the many things that can stand in the way of effective communication. Some of the principal obstacles to listening are the following 1. Environmental Distractions:Loud noises, physical movement, or other distractions can prevent a listener from attending fully to another person. The effective listener does not simply ignore or accept such conditions, but acts to change or overcome them, as by closing the door or window, moving to a quieter place, or asking the speaker to speak more loudly. 2. Physiological limitations:The average person speaks at a rate of 125 to 150 words per minute, but a listener can easily process 500 words per minute. Thus listeners tend to tune out and let their minds wander. Listeners can counteract this tendency by realizing that skillful listening requires intense effort and is a continuous, active process. 3. Preoccupation with words and facts:Many listeners attend to the other persons words while ignoring the feelings behind them; they scrutinize the facts the other states while disregarding the underlying meaning those facts may have for that other. A person describing his or her lack of success on a recent project may be concerned about his or her career, not just about the details of that project. The effective listener listens for the emotional tone the speaker is expressing and for the possible implications of what he or she is saying. 4. Avoiding difficult listening:To a listener raised on television drama, a co-workers complaints about difficult and complex aspects of his or her job may hardly seem worth attention. A good listener, however recognizes the challenge that listening to difficult subjects presents and may even practice such listening from time to time by talking to people with unfamiliar backgrounds or by listening to public radio news commentaries on complex current events.

5. Self-consciousness:A listener may be so distracted by personal concerns, such as a worrisome work of family problem, or so concerned about the impression he or she makes on the other person that the others message becomes distorted or lost. To overcome such problems the listener must be aware of his or her distraction and decide whether to continue the listening effort or postpone it. 6. The urge to debate:Since people have an inherent tendency to rapidly evaluate others, a listener may begin planning a rebuttal before the speaker has finished and thus miss the main point. Overcoming this problem requires the listener to develop a habit of listening completely before asking questions or raising issues. 7. Language barrier:It is the most common of all the barriers discussed because if the listener is unable to understand the language the speaker is speaking, he will not be able to interpret it correctly. The meaning of the message will be distorted and the listener would make a different meaning and send wrong decoded message to the speaker. This in turn, will lead to confusion and misunderstanding between both the speaker and the listener. 8. Cultural barrier:Cultural differences affect the listening capability of the listener. If both the speaker and the listener are from the same cultural background, then it becomes easy for both of them to understand and reciprocate their ideas. But if the cultural difference persists and the interpretation of the listener is wrong, then it would create misunderstanding between them. In order to avoid such cultural differences a listener should be sensitive to cultural gaps and give value to the speakers words.

3.6 Measures to improve Listening Skills 1. Be prepared: For a class, this means completing your reading and assignment responsibilities. For an outside speaker, you can learn something about the speaker, the topic, the audience, the situation even before tending. 2. Accent the positive: If you have to do it, do it with a positive attitude is a centerpiece of life. 3. Listen to understand, not refute: Respect the viewpoint of those with whom you disagree. Try to understand the points they emphasize and why they have such feelings (training, background, etc.). Dont allow your personal biases and attitudes regarding the speakers or their views to influence your listening to their message. 4. Focus your attention: Construct a mental outline of where the speaker is going, listen for transitions and the progression of ideas. 5. Concentrate on context: Self-explanatory. 6. Take Notes: Jot down ideas. Even incomplete sentences or single words will later be a memory jogger of what was said. 7. Curb the impulse to interrupt: This suggestion implies to interviews, conferences, job instructions, and meetings. Listen attentively until the speaker invites questions. 8. Summarizing and evaluate: Restate in your own words just what you think was said. You should also question evidence and mentally test the validity of evidence in support of a proposition. 3.7 Listening as an important as an important skill in work place Businesses thrive on listening: Development of listening skills at various levels is very essential for business success. As we are aware that every business has its stake holders and there is communication taking place all the time between the organization and the stakeholders and within the various groups connected with the business. If communication within the organization has to be purposeful, people need to listen to each other attentively. Hearing without listening is often a common refrain needing attention. Progressive organizations encourage the people within to learn and adopt active listening.

Listening contributes to knowledge up gradation We have entered an information era and modern day organizations are described as information processing units. There is so much that is happening that needs to be shared with the clients as well as the other interested parties. Similarly todays worker is being described as the Knowledge Worker. People have to constantly upgrade their skills and knowledge. While reading is undoubtedly an important source for skill and knowledge up gradation, active listening too can make a significant contribution. Listening organizations learn, develop and evolve Good listening skills are particularly relevant in dealing with customer complaints and employee grievances, in hearing the voice of the dissent and while seeking suggestions from customers and employees. Suggestions will be more forthcoming when people in authority lend a patient ear. The customers of today seek reassurance that they are being heard. When they come up with a complaint, the minimum that an organization has to ensure that there is someone there who lends a patient ear to what the complainants have to say. Moreover in most organizations, there are meetings and other interactive forums where business related issues are discussed and issues resolved. All these can be effective only when people learn to listen. Good listening is a must for effective service delivery Customers constitute an important segment of stakeholders for any business. They are the very purpose of any business. If there are no customers, there can be no business. The importance of customers gets further accentuated in a competitive environment. Goods manufacturers and service providers have to make conscious and continuing efforts to seek out and retain customers. One area where listening skills are becoming particularly relevant concerns the service industry, such as banking and financial services industry. In these organizations services are delivered in person. Service delivery takes place through person-to-person interaction. During such interactions with customers whether in person or over the telephone, listening becomes crucial. Good listening is a must to ensure satisfactory service delivery, be it a request, or a complaint, or a suggestion or a piece of advice, listening to the customer is a must. Unless the listening is active and purposeful, response to the customer cannot be effective. Indifferent listening results in customer annoyance and customer complaints

Helps to improve employer and employee relations Listening carefully helps a manager to know about the thinking process of the staff members regarding different policies, procedures rules and regulations being formulated in the organization. It helps the manager to frame better and conducive policies for the employees in future. It also helps to reduce the grievance among the employees. At times it is seen that employees who have grievance within themselves outburst in front of a patient and good listener. If a manager can be a good listener, he can solve the problem immediately. Listening helps to increase the productivity of the employees because once the problem is found and clearly explained to the concerned people, they work on the issue to find a suitable solution to it. Boosts team spirit within the organization Listening increases the confidence level of the employees because if an employee wants to work with his team and build a good rapport with them with better self-esteem, he has to hear their problem, keep himself cool and solve the problem accordingly. Increases Accuracy of work It helps the listener to recollect the information, which he has heard previously and then analyze them to find a suitable solution to it. Summary The listening process helps us to interact with the speaker more clearly and specifically. In other words, listening is a dynamic, interactive communicative process where the listener is required to pay attention, show interest to the speaker, take note of the body language, avoid distractions and respond and give feedback to the speaker non-verbally. It demands a lot of concentration and responsibility. When we talk about structured listening, we mean to say that the informations being shared and it should be logical enough to satisfy the wants of the speaker. We should not listen for the sake of listening because it results in no listening at all. It can be rightly concluded that hearing is sensation, listening is interpretation, the right way

Self-Assessment Questions 1. Listening requires no such great effort by a listener. It can be done easily. False 2. While receiving and interpreting the spoken words, the listener is not concerned with message decoding. False 3. Why is hearing a passive process? Because it is heard and can prove to be inactive and passive. 4. Listening skill is focused on communication, interpersonal relationship, emotional intelligence and transactional analysis. 5. In evaluative listening what does the listener actually do? Recollects and selects the appropriate information. 6. Listening to a radio programme while reading a newspaper is termed as superficial listening. 7. Lack of motivation to listen and Inaccessible and unfamiliar content do not help effective listening. 8. A speaker should have a good command over vocabulary, tense and phonetics 9. A good listener should not get irritated even if the facts are unclear or incorrect or the part of the speaker. 10. If the speaker uses ambiguous language, which is not open to several meanings, the listener keeps quiet and does not clarify his doubts. This is one of the major barriers for listening. 11. Cultural difference can cause the listening process to get miserable or distorted 12. People working in the same designations have psychological listening barrier while listening to their colleagues or subordinates. 13. An effective listener can also become a good decision maker if he can interpret what the speaker has said. 14. A good listener should be able to communicate freely with an open mind to provide positive feedback to the speaker. 15. Listening is not only about clarity of speech or good ambience, but also about showing respect, and increasing confidence of the employees.

UNIT V Communication in Organizations 5.1 Introduction:The definitions of organizational communication, like organization itself, are diverse. To understand organizational communication, it is necessary to appreciate that the organizations comprise different levels and functions. These different levels and functions require different types of communication and information systems to be effectively managed. We may provide a few acceptable definitions of organizational communication as applicable today: Wilson, Goodall and Waagen: Organisation communication is an evolutionary, culturally dependent process of sharing information and creating relationships in environments designed for manageable, cooperative, goal oriented behaviour. Tortoriello, Baltt and De Wine: The flow and impact of messages within a network of international relationships. Goldhaber: Organisational communication is the process of creating and exchanging messages within a network of independent relationships to cope with the environmental uncertainty. Any approach to studying organisational communication brings forth an array of diversified groups with varied purposes and goals. We also identify the fact of diversity among the members of an organisation at different levels. Thus we have also to realise that from that diversity must grow through the process of appropriate communication, some binding element of vision and purpose. Without such shared bonding organisations cannot exist. Organisational communication again is influenced by the existence of different hierarchical levels within the organisation. No doubt the communication challenges have changed today with much fewer hierarchical layers. And managers have come to share decision making responsibilities with quite a few others, including employees at lower levels.

5.1.1 Role and Importance of Communication in Organizations 1. Essential to the functioning of the organisations: All organisations exist through communication. Without communication there can be no organisation. Right from the steps involved in the setting up of an organisation, it continues to survive through communication. Just as vital to our existence in civilised society, communication is the essence of life of the organisation in our society. Any failure or disturbance in communication disrupts the process of the group influencing the behaviour of the individual. 2. Allows smooth working of the organisation: Communication is the most crucial as well as vital element that binds an organisation and the people. It acts as the binding element amongst the organisations also. 3. Basis of managerial function and effectiveness: The management of an organisation has to perform through the processes of supportive communication and human relationships. This involves the wider managerial areas as mentioned below (3a) Planning: is the most basic or primary function of management. All managers plan before they act. Planning involves determining the objectives and selecting a course of action to achieve them. It implies looking ahead and deciding in advance what is to be done, when and where it is to be done, how and by whom it is to be done. (3b) Organisation: is the systematic integration of independent parts to form a united whole. It is a structure of relationship among various positions or jobs. Essentially it is a system of cooperative activities of two or more persons or groups of people for the attainment of certain pre-determined purposes. (3c) Delegation: means to entrust responsibilities to subordinates but the subordinates must act with the limits prescribed by superiors. Delegation and leadership are interactive processes towards good performance. A leader delegates but at the same time he is sympathetic and friendly without being submissive or meek. A good leader encourages the members to accept the assigned responsibilities and gives credit whenever it is done.

(3d) Motivation: is stimulating the interest. It has been established that motivated employees do not need much supervision or persuasions at work. Effective communication fosters motivation by clarifying to employee what is to be done, and how well they doing and what could be done to improve performance. (3e) Coordination: is the management of interdependence in work environment. It is the orderly synchronization or fitting together of the interdependent efforts of individuals for attaining common goals. (3f) Authority and control: refer to power or right to enforce obedience but these are part of influence based on recognised knowledge and expertise. Authority is the key to any management job but the authority enjoyed by a position is not unlimited. At the same time control refers to task of ensuring that activities are producing the desired results. An effective control system requires to ensure that control is flexible, must be forward-looking, should lead to correct action an must suggest the ways of improving the performance. 4. Prompt decision and maintenance: For quick and just decisions a manager needs to have the information, conflicting and supportive views, and an insight into available alternatives. Much more than making the right decisions, is the ability to implement decisions. Sometimes the process may be painful but a smooth process of execution calls for a high degree of communication skills and interpersonal relationships. 5. Maximum production at minimum cost: In the context of the complexities of management employee communication, it should be necessary to review all the face-toface and upward communication within the organisation. Good employee communication can indeed contribute to job satisfaction and help to maximise production at minimum cost. Effective communication provides better understanding of what is to be done and how it is to be done. 6. Building human relations: Participation, cooperation and teamwork of the management and employees can yield best results because of their shared commitment to goals that encourage better performance. Participative managers communicate freely with their employees. They ask for their opinions, vies, suggestions and recommendations in the decision-making process so that they work together as a team.

7. Job satisfaction and good morale: Monetary incentive no doubt is one of the most effective form. But money can never be the only motive. Other things are job satisfaction, prestige, a sense of belonging which also act as inducements and motivating forces to raise morale. Appreciate the psychological needs. 8. Gatekeeping functions with the external people: Provides linkage with people in the outside world and performs the window functions for the total organisation. Some of the primary areas of constant interest are: consumer response, availability of raw materials, identifying markets, government rules and regulations, linkages with the news and advertising media, credit and finance, investor relations, developments in science and technology, community sentiments and public opinion and so. 9. Facilitating change: Clearly communicate the vision, mission and the objectives of the change effort. Help people to understand how these changes will affect them personally. Communicate the reasons for the change in such a way that people understand the context, the purpose and the need. In other words without communication organisations will crumble or collapse. 5.2 Internal Communication in organisations Internal communication is a subset of effective business communication, which is built around this simple foundation: communication is a dialogue, not a monologue. In fact, communication is a dual listening process. So Internal Communication, in a business context, is the dialogic process between employees and employer, and employees and employees. So many times that latter process is forgotten by strategists and PR professionals it should always be remembered that communication between employees is very often far more powerful than any communication from employer to employee. Whereas the top-down, employer-driven communication is great for setting a communication agenda or discussion point, it is the peer-to-peer employee communications that determine the tone of the response back to the employer. So, to sum up, Internal Communication is the conversations that businesses have with their staff and which the staff members have with each other.

5.2.1 Importance of Internal communications Smart organizations recognize that employees will always talk with each other, so it is better to set the agenda and informal discussion points than have them dictated by an uninformed staff. This is no different from external communications, where the role of the PR practitioner and business communicator is to engage with and reflect the position of the employer or business to that employer or business larger group of publics that is, anyone who may have any impact on or be impacted by the organization. A large number of studies by both professional management groups and professional communications bodies consistently finds that communicating with employees is a useful and powerful way of engendering greater engagement the propensity of the employee to want to come to work and want to contribute to the success of the company. Some professional employee consultants argue that engagement is at a lower level now than, say, twenty years ago (mostly due to the changes in job security, the shifting demographics of the workforce and the more fluid requirements of businesses to be able to change to meet the demands of their rapidly changing marketplaces). Smart employers realize that in environments where employees are able to move from one employer to another with relative ease, it is in the companys best interests to retain the smarter and more productive employees; doing all they can to communicate with them, inform them, influence them and enter into some sort of psychological contract with them is a wise move.
Equally, in environments where employees have less chance to move, smart employers recognise that an unhappy and trapped employee is a potential liability. 5.3 Stake Holders in Internal communication: Refer to the textbook 5.4 Channels of Internal Communication Channels are essential elements of any communication system. It is important to know all the channels available for internal communication system as also the bases on which appropriate channel can be selected for a particular communication. Formal channels available for internal communication can broadly be divided into four categories

Electronic: - Communications that are delivered and/or accessed electronically, either by computer, telephone, television or other devices. Examples include email, intranet, video and webcasts, DVD, electronic newsletters, podcasts, blogs, wikis, voicemail, conference calls, SMS text messaging, screensaver messaging, Desktop alert messages, desktop news feeds and internal social media tools (e.g.: internal Twitter-style sites such as Yammer) Print: - Paper-based communications. Examples include magazines, newsletters, brochures, postcards and other 'desk drops', posters, memos, communication packs or 'toolkits' for line managers, etc. Face-to-face: - One-to-one and one-to-many forums where people are physically present. Examples include a 'cascade' of team meetings or briefings, conferences, site visits, 'back to the floor', consultation forums, 'brown bag' lunches, roundtable discussions, 'town meetings', etc. Workspace: - the working environment. Examples include notice boards, plasma and LCD screens, accessories (e.g.: mouse mats), window decals, etc.

Informal channels reflect the non-linear dynamics of a social network and can be as influential, if not more so, than official channels, often more likely to stimulate and create discussion and dialogue. The channels may manifest themselves via the rumour-mill, water-cooler conversations, social networking, graffiti, spoof newsletters, etc. 5.5 External Communication The exchange of information and messages between an organization and other organizations, groups, or individuals outside its formal structure, the goals of external communication are to facilitate cooperation with groups such as suppliers, investors, and stockholders, and to present a favourable image of an organization and its products or services to potential and actual customers and to society at large. A variety of channels may be used for external communication, including face-toface meetings, print or broadcast media, and electronic communication technologies such as the Internet. External communication includes the fields of PR, media relations, advertising, and marketing management.

5.5.1 Need for effective external communication 1. The need for external communication arises from the necessity of keeping in regular touch with outsiders in order to carry on its business activities successfully. An organisation has to enter into numerous transactions with outside persons and organisations in connection with sales purchase, finance, marketing, collection of bills etc. 2. It must also be in touch with various external sources to secure information about market conditions, prospects of raising finance, changes in statutory laws and rules affecting business operations and other related matters. 3. Most importantly to project a good image to the investors, customers, public in general through publicity in order to promote business and goodwill. All these necessitate the continuous flow of external communication. 5.5.2 Benefits effective external communication (A)Increased prestige: among its investors, customers, suppliers and the general public. Neatly produced and promptly delivered communication invariably creates a favourable impression and enhances goodwill. (B) Improved public relations: by keeping public, including its investors, well informed about its activities. This helps in securing their understanding about the enterprise and its activities. (C) Improved Business: by creating favourable relationships with customers, suppliers and the general public. 5.6 Stake Holders in External communication An organisation needs to communicate with a variety of public including Investors (Share Holders): Investors have direct interest in the success or failure of an organisation. It therefore, is absolutely vital that the organisation communicates with them as is legally and ethically required. If any of the rights of share-holders to communicate are violated, he or she may rightfully take recourse to legal remedies. This is the reason why public companies publish financial statements in newspapers.

Suppliers: An organisation interacts with its suppliers frequently and intensively because its success is dependant largely on suppliers. Thus it invites quotations, receives and negotiates them further, places orders; receives challans, invoices and bills. Apart from these, suppliers also get important technical inputs. Distributors: Once the finished goods are ready, they are sold to distributors or whole sale agents. For this purpose an organisation needs to constantly communicate with them. They receive their requisitions, raise bills and receive payments Transporters and C & F Agents: An organisation maintains constant communication with the transporters and C&F agents for the raw/packaged materials to be received from the suppliers and also for the finished materials being dispatched to the distributors. As this has an important time dimension, need for appropriate and timely communication has to be kept in mind. Financial institutions and banks: Apart from seeking financial support through loans and overdrafts, an organisation carries out most of its transactions through banks and other financial institutions. All communication related to payment and withdrawal of money has to be undertaken with due diligence and care. Government and government agencies: All organisational work is regularised by state and central governments. There are matters related to taxes and duties, changes in rules and regulations, submission of timely information, seeking permissions, issuance and renewal of licenses and so on. It is crucial as any delay or inadequacy has legal repercussions. Customers/Clients: The most important public for any organisation in todays market-driven world are clients and customers. An organisation needs to maintain a continuous contact with its customers. It needs to make its customers aware of the products, generate interest, and induce trials, sales and release of its products. In this instance, there is a great possibility of customers not even voicing their experiences and feelings. Organisations therefore also need to be sensitive to the opinion, suggestion, inconvenience and needs for their customers. Hence they should enact mechanism of upward communication from customers to the organisation.

Summary Organizational communication is a process wherein mutually interdependent human beings create and exchange messages, and interpret and negotiate meanings, while striving to articulate an realize mutually held visions, purposes and goals. It is rather the essence of organized activity and is the basic process out of which all other functions derive. Internal communication refers to the communication that is within the organization and is designed to not reach outside the organization. It differs from the external communication in being confined to the organization, being less formal and in making use of terminologies that are regularly used in that organisation. Impact of poor internal communication results in spread of wrong information, loss of faith and confidence amonst employees, frequent conflicts within the organisation, wrong decisions and erosion of internal brand image. Stake-holders in internal communication are our superiors, subordinates and colleagues. There are four channels of internal communication face-to-face, electronic, print and office space. External communication refers to the exchange of information and messages with organizations, groups and individuals outside it. It enhances prestige, builds long-term good will. Stake holders in external communications include investors (shareholders), suppliers, distributors, transporters and C&F agents, Financial institutions and banks, Government and government agencies, Customers/clients, media and society in general. Channels of external communication are oral (face-to-face, telephonic communication, video conferencing, web conferencing) and written (correspondence, notice, circulars, memorandum-of-understanding, bills, invoices, purchase-orders, quotations and reports.

Self-Assessment Questions 1. Organizational Communication is an evolutionary, culturally dependent process of sharing information and creating relationships in environments designed for manageable, cooperative, goal oriented behaviour. 2. Internal communication refers to the communication that is within the organization and is designed to not reach outside it. 3. Impact of poor communication results in spread of wrong information; loss of faith and confidence amongst employees, frequent conflicts within the organization

4. Internal communication makes information available and encourages sharing it by motivating and sustaining an organizations short/long term objectives. 5. Only high level executives in an organization have a stake in the internal communication. False 6. Managers should develop respect for grapevine, as very often it is the most common and even reliable system of communication. True 7. Indications of sound, superior subordinate communication include openness, credibility, lack of distortion and bias. True 8. Personal visits are essential in case of (a) Important issues, (b) complicated issues, (c) sorting out misunderstandings. 9. Major criteria for selecting appropriate channel are: Availability, audience, objective, content 10. Notice is useful to reach out to: customers, share-holders and general public

UNIT VI Communication Network


6.1 Introduction A communication network is a group of individuals who may be identified as sharing regular lines of communication. These lines of communication can be described as: who talks to whom, about what, when, and where. A dominant theme in the network literature has been to distinguish between centralized and decentralized communication networks. A centralized network exists when information is funneled through a small number of individuals within an organization. A decentralized network exists when information is shared widely among and flows through many individuals within an organization. Decentralized networks are well-suited for managing turbulent and complex environments because organizational members can communicate the changes they perceive in the business environment and each member can contribute ideas and knowledge for managing these changes. Network forms have recently been adopted by a growing number of global organizations because they facilitate the rapid acquisition, processing, and dissemination of information. Network forms of organizations: Employ relatively flat hierarchies by relying on flexible emergent communication. Develop flexible working relationships with the network of organizations that go beyond the local-country bound network. Use information technology to coordinate units and members located in different geographical locations. Emphasize the use of autonomous, self-managing teams.

By emphasizing autonomous and self-managed task teams, local units can manage emerging crises quickly rather than needing to receive permission from a centralized location. The existence of information technology permits the rapid dissemination of information and allows differing units to coordinate their response within the global network.

6.2 Types of communication network 1. Wheel Network:In a wheel network information flows from one central member of the group to the rest of the members. Other group members may not have to communicate with each other to perform well. An example would be a group of independent makeup consultants who report to one regional mentor. The independent makeup consultants do not need to interact with one another in order to perform. Wheel networks do not exist in teams, since teams signify intense interaction between all members of a group. 2. Chain Network:If you are a part of a chain network, members communicate with each other in a preplanned sequence. An example of a chain network is an assembly-line group. In an assembly line, employees only communicate with a colleague whose work precedes or follows their own. Like wheel networks, chain networks do not exist in teams. 3. Circle Network:If you are in a circle network, members communicate if they share something in common, such as experiences, beliefs, areas of expertise, background or office location. For example, the people who you may informally socialize with in your office area may be a part of your circle network. Circle networks are not described as teamwork. 4. Wheel Network:Communication in this network is also described as moving upward, downward or horizontally within the hierarchical communication structure. In a hierarchical communication structure, upper-level management is on top and lower-level employees are on bottom. An organizational structure may appear to be a good summary of a business' communication network, but they only describe formal communication. Rather than moving up and down, communication can be informal and flow around issues, goals, ideas and projects. A great deal of communication occurs informally. The "grapevine" is typically the name given for an informal communication network where unofficial information travels.

6.3.1 Formal Communication Network:Formal network communication is where the information is passed from one person to another person in a structured and official form. It can also be said that the formal network communication is one which is determined officially by the management. It generally follows the scalar chain of management where the communication enforces into a relationship between different positions in the organization. It is concerned with the status and position of the individual. The common thing about this communication is that it consists of an order which has to be carried out by the subordinates in accordance with the instructions of his superior. This type of communication is a one way communication and is done to maintain certain type of protocols where the instructions are clear and understood by the juniors. But with the rise in importance of communication in todays corporate world, two way communication is always encouraged within the organizations by the managers, apart from military organization. According to Howard H. Greenbaum there are four kinds of formal networks. They are as follows Regulative network consists of the channels an organization uses to issue plans, regulations, policies, and procedures. For example through this network, a department manager receives the departments budget for the coming year. Innovative network This kind of network is concerned with the flexibility, adaptivity, and change. Suggestion systems, participative problem solving meetings, and new product development task forces show the operation of this network. Informative-instructive network It provides the information that personnel need to perform productively and effectively. Job function training, company publications, and bulletins are examples. Integrative network has the goal of maintaining or improving employee self-esteem, group cohesiveness, and organization morale. The organizations reward system is an important part of this network.

Advantages Of Formal Communication:Seeks to achieve goals using the most efficient means of communication Responsibility at each level of hierarchy is fixed. Ensures direct contact between the sender and the receiver of the message. Better relations are established. Solutions to problems easily found. System is more effective as a rational mechanisms for improving organizational performance. Disadvantages of Formal Communication:1. Unforeseen and unpredictable happenings cannot be formalized. 2. Managers are more concerned with rules, directives, jurisdiction and the like which tend to increase the workload. 3. As in bureaucracy, long line of superiors causes delay and consequent frustration. 4. Contact infrequent at personal level of different hierarchy in the organizational system. 5. No premium is placed on simplifying decisions and ensuring human relationship factors. 6. Cares only for limited, organizationally relevant behavior rather than on the larger social, cultural and technological context of the surrounding environment. 6.3.2 Informal Network Communication:Informal communication networks are vital in any hierarchical structures. Obviously a formal structure is quite rigid and indicates who is responsible for what and who communicates formally to whom. The informal structure is not exactly structured or documented in the organization, but it grows from the self-groupings that people naturally form. Within such formal structure, much communication occurs but it is mostly unplanned, oral interactions in organizations. Many such communications, operational or non-operational are of personal nature. All human beings are social animals. Whether they come in contact with each other there will be incidental exchange of feelings and information. Such communication is a part of the work situation and is integral with working lives of men and women. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Now the problem comes as to what extent such personal communication should be permissible at workstations. People want to have their basic rights to communicate. It is also true that their mutual interactions can have a direct bearing on their relationships with their organizations. This may have an immediate influence on their own productivity. Is also known as grapevine, takes place from social interaction among people. It usually tries to express their natural motivation to communicate. An informal network serves two main purposes: It permits employees to satisfy their needs for social interaction in the workplace and it also improves an organizations performance by creating alternatives, which is faster and more efficient form of communication. Grapevine is the most common form of informal communication which is natural and involves normal activity. It is an essential part of human environment by which it fills in the gap of the formal communication system. Although it can be the source of inaccurate rumors, it often functions positively as an early warning signal for changes. Advantages and disadvantages of informal communication Advantages:1. It helps in achieving better human interactions within the organization. 2. It does not follow any scalar chain of command from top down or bottom up approach. 3. As it is free from all barriers, it is faster to communicate. 4. It serves to fill the possible gaps in formal communication network. 5. It is flexible. Disadvantages:1. The name suggests it is informal; the information may not be absolutely true or may be distorted. 2. It usually leads to rumors in the organization. 3. Informal communication may not be always active and as such, it is not dependable. 4. It can sometimes lead to leakage of confidential information. 5. It does not hold any relevance to the status or position of the individual concerned.

6.4 Upward Communication The communication flow from subordinates or employees at the lower level to superior levels is upward communication. This covers feedback information as well as voluntary communication. Many organizations have introduced Suggestion Schemes for employees to come out with innovative ideas for work related issues. Good and acceptable ideas are rewarded suitably. Advantages:1. Management becomes aware about the attitude and pattern of behavior of employees. 2. Creates a sense of mutual trust and confidence. 3. Management gets to know the reactions of the employees to organizational practices and policies. 4. Lead to good decision making on the basis of factual and direct feedback from concerned person. 5. Helps in achievement of objectives at each level of working process. Disadvantages:1. Status differences inhibit communication on one-to-one basis, many times leading to distortion of messages at the middle management levels. 2. Juniors are mostly reluctant to communicate negative feedback that may reflect their own shortcomings for fear of reprisals. 3. Owing to lack of true participative culture, lower levels of people are suspicious or managers intentions and this affects the form and content of the messages upwards. 4. Employees do not have the skills to communicate oral or written which explains the general unwillingness to communicate to superiors above. 6.5 Downward Communication Vertical flow of communication from upper to lower levels passing through several hierarchical channels or originating at one hierarchy level is termed as downward communication. Several important categories of downward communication are: job specifications and instructions, informing rules and policies, persuading employees to adapt certain attitude and ideas, evaluating performance, obtaining feedback, queries and attempts to motivate disciplinary actions as well as personnel and technical requirements.

Advantages:1. Enable management to explain rules and policies and minimizing conflicts and dimensions. 2. Has the control mechanism for ensuring order and discipline. 3. Provides satisfaction and contentment that the management is alive and sensitive to the needs of the people. 4. Gives motivation for good work. 5. Clears communication gap and restricts grapevine situations. Disadvantages:1. Too many hierarchical or intervening levels create barriers and sometimes messages are not received. 2. Messages suffer distortions or change according to own judgment of the concerned hierarchy. 3. Many times subordinate officials are overloaded with downward messages and so they pay little or no attention. 4. Informal or oral downward communication suffers the most owing to message not having been recorded. 6.6 Horizontal Communication Sending messages between and among equals within the same organization is horizontal or lateral communication. In most situations there is no superior-subordinate relationship. They may be responsible for different functional activities but related functions require help and support. Horizontal communication is seen between department to department. For example production and finance inside the same unit of the organization. Advantages:1. Properly laid out horizontal communication can sort out problems easily. 2. Saves wastages and leads to efficiency and higher returns. 3. Team-based organizations value horizontal communication more as an instrument of morale building in rank and file. 4. Speeds up decision making and allows faster exchange of information at all levels.

Disadvantages:Difference in approach and own personal vision result in conflict and controversies. Assuming powers disproportionate to formal position by some may cause resentment and feeling of enmity causing productivity losses. Horizontal communication may not be so very effective unless rewards and appreciations are given for such efforts. 6.7 Diagonal Communication Diagonal communication has evolved in recent times with the changes in information technology and growing demand for equality and fraternity. It helps to quicken the flow of information, improve the understanding among employees and coordinate efforts for achievements or organizational objectives. It can be recalled that diagonal communication occurs between two individuals who do not follow any protocol; thus making the process more flexible and move towards any direction.

UNIT VII Writing a Business Letter


Introduction One of the most important forms of non-verbal written communication is Letter Writing. An effective letter can do wonders. A verbal communication may or may not be as effective as a small letter. Right from the past centuries, letters had been drafted and used as authenticated means of communication in the society. With the passage of time, the forms, styles, structure, purposes, presentation and technology have brought significant changes in the art of letter writing. In business organizations worldwide, the people from different cultural beliefs worktogether for common goal and letter binds them in unanimity of work-culture. Any letter whether it is personal, official or business reflects the personality traits of its writer. There are various principles and pre-requisites of effective letter writing. 7.2 Importance of business letters Business letters have certain distinct advantages as compared to verbal communication and these are detailed below 1. Written communication has an extremely wide reach, co-terminus with the literate world. 2. Written communication can be well organized to convey the precise message. 3. Written communication, generally speaking, can be prepared at the time when the communicator is best prepared to do so. 4. Written communication, unlike oral communication, can be effective as a standalone medium. 5. Written communication can be targeted to reach specific individuals/sections. 6. It can be composed in a language that the receiver can read and understand. 7. Written communication can carry the much desired personal touch. 8. It can be revised, re-written, and erased. 9. Written communication, when stored can be exactly reproduced or repeated. 10. Written communication, organized properly can be cost effective. 11. Written communication, very importantly creates records and reference sources. 12. It helps nurture business relationships.

7.3 Difference between Personal and Business Letters Personal Letter It is informal It is unstructured It chooses a personal style or pattern It depends on the mood, feelings and emotions of the writer It is written without any purpose It is generally lengthy It can be handwritten or typed in any font style and size It does not require to maintain a proper grammatical structure It can be written in any language Business Letter It is formal It is structured It chooses a prescribed style or pattern It depends on the conversation or on the requirement of the writer It is written with a purpose It is short and specific to the point It is always typed with approved font style and size It requires a good sense of grammar and tense It is written only in English or in any other language that is approved by the organization The vocabulary used and style followed are of high standards

The vocabulary used is simple and user friendly 7.4 Structure and Format of Business Letter

1. Heading: Most organizations have printed letter-heads incorporating the companys name, logo, address, telephone numbers, fax, email, and so on. The placement and design of logo, its colors, and the like, are generally decided once and for all and is subject of corporate identity. Continuation sheets are attached to cover the left out material of the main letter head sheet. The continuation sheets generally incorporate only the company name and its logo. 2. Date: can be written in two forms dd-mm-yyyy or mm-dd-yyyy. It is better to use the DMY format as it indicates the orderly sequence of the day , month and year. 3. Reference: Mention of reference in a letter helps to quickly identify the subject on receipt of a reply. Its all the more significant when a number of letters are going to be exchanged on the topic. 4. Inside Address: This is the address where the letter has to reach. The name, building and its number, street, city, state, country should be correctly written and as indicated in the source. Writing of full address is important particularly while using indoor envelopes.

5. Attention Line: This is to attract the prompt attention of the concerned person in case you have not mentioned about him in the inside address. You can either mention name or the designation. 6. Subject: The purpose of the subject line is to let the reader know immediately what the letter is about. Its placement is either relationship you hold with the person. 7. Salutation: Salutation is like greeting a person when you meet. What should be the salutation depends on how the addressee is mentioned in the inside address or attention line and also on the personal relationship you hold with the person. 8. Body: The main purpose of the letter is to convey a message and in turn generate a response. This is achieved through the body of the letter. Paragraph distribution is an important thing in the body of the letter. The first paragraph should cover the reference of an earlier dialogue or if its a fresh communication then nothing is required. The second paragraph should contain the main message. 9. Follow up paras: Any further details/points related to the subject are elaborated in the follow up paragraphs. Paragraphs are not given headings unless the letters are very lengthy and deal with several points. Participle endings are avoided. 10. Complimentary close: It depends on how you have addressed the person in salutation. 11. Signature: Is the signed name of the writer and it depends upon the type of the organization you represent. 12. Enclosures: If anything is attached to the letter, it may be indicated in terms of number / actual (document name). The abbreviation used is Encl. 7.5 Formats of Business Letters:Block: In a block format (1) All text is aligned to the left margin, (2) Paragraphs are not indented (3) Paragraphs are separated by double or triple spacing. Semi Block: In a semi block format (1) All text is aligned to the left margin (2) paragraphs are indented. Modified Block: In a modified block format letter (1) all text is aligned to the left margin, except for authors address, date and closing and (2) Paragraphs are not indented. The author's address, date, and closing are usually indented three inches from the left margin, but can be set anywhere to the right of the middle of the page, as long as all three elements are indented to the same position.

Modified Semi Block: In a Modified Semi-Block format letter, (1) all text is aligned to the left margin, except for the author's address, date, and closing; and (2) paragraphs are indented. The author's address, date, and closing are usually indented in same position. 7.6 Types Of Business Letters The various types of business letters mostly practiced by todays organizations are as follows 1. Letter of inquiry As the name suggests, an inquiry letter consists of requesting for information or seeking clarification from others. It tries to maintain a courteous and a correct tone, and explain the request or information clearly, ending with a goodwill expression at last. 2. Letter of placing orders This form of letter is simple and direct. The writer just has to write the message clearly mentioning the items, services, quantity, number, price, insurance, instructions, payment methods and delivery schedule. 3. Letter of giving instructions This type of letter is generally practiced by us every day. It may have been that you have already written such a letter unknowingly. The essence of this letter is that it consists of instructions or directions which are given to the reader. It should be well organized, otherwise the reader may interpret something else and the course of action would be something else. 4. Letter of Legal transaction This is a formal type of letter and the matter should be honest and fair. All the facts and details should be presented truthfully. 5. Letter of complaint In this type of letter the, content shows dissatisfaction of the writer. It depicts the problem statement, gives enough evidence with support data and closes the letter with a goodwill gesture. It tries to be more persuasive rather than vent the anger with the concerned authority personally or out of emotions. 6. Sales Letter Writing a sales letter is one of the toughest types of letter writing. The AIDA technique is introduced to write a perfect sales letter. AIDA stands for ATTENTION, INTEREST, DESIRE and ACTION.

The main objective of writing a sales letter is to Introduce a new product to the customer. Promote a new business or liaison with a new business organization. Promote goodwill of the product. Launch a new marketing campaign / advertisement. Introduce attractive gifts to increase the sales of the product. Increase the customer network. Introduce competitive price and benchmark of the product.

Careful analysis is done to attract the consumers with proper research and survey of the market. Self Assessment Questions 1. Business letters are written to convey a clear, concise, correct and simple message to the receiver. 2. A letter is formal when two individuals or organization communicate in between each other. 3. A personal letter represents informal and unstructured form. 4. Structure of a letter has Body, Closing and Heading. 5. Salutation is given in the letter only to show respect to the reader and not maintain a standard format. False. 6. CC is the abbreviation of Carbon Copy. 7. Signature and enclosure is not as important as salutation or the body of the passage. False. 8. A letter of instruction is a persuasive letter that contains the sales message. 9. Correct attitude is required for writing a letter because it has serious implications on the reader. 10. Legal letters are different from enquiry letter but they also have something in common. What is it? Action and Interest 11. Buying a commodity from the market or issuing a letter to purchase goods from a supplier is known as Letter of placing orders 12. A letter giving instruction to the reader should be purposeful, detailed and action oriented.

UNIT VIII Writing Memos, Circulars and Notices


8.1 What is a Memo? A memorandum is a written statement or record, especially one circulated for the attention of colleagues at work. It relates to a note of something to be remembered. The word memorandum comes from the Latin word Memorate which means to remember. In law, a memorandum means a document recording terms of contract. The plural of memorandum is memorandums or memoranda. It is commonly known by its abbreviation viz. memo. A memorandum is a means of inter-office correspondence. Memos are sent within an organization from office to office or department to department. In large organizations, memorandums are sent from head office to regional offices, branches, divisions and so on. Memos are intended to be read and acted upon by executives, branch managers, supervisors and all staff members as and when they are addressed to them. Memos may also be referred to as circulars or spiral communications. Large organizations spread across numerous financial departments and geographical areas regularly issue a variety of memos everyday or at frequent intervals. In a large organization like a bank, there are many departments such as personnel, credit, accounts, marketing, international business, planning and so on and all of them communicate with the branches, offices and staff through memos and such other internal communication. Memos may be typed or printed and dispatched to the target groups and offices across the country and even abroad. For easy reference, memos are often printed in different colours with different departments using specific colours. With the advent of the electronic communication, memos are now being sent across by email and are also put on the internal network or intranet for the use of the offices and staff. Large organizations like banks may also differentiate between memos and circulars and use them for specific messages. Memos contain vital details of relevance on functional areas and may have to be referred to frequently by the personnel working in the organization. Due to their importance and reference value, memos are often carefully indexed, filled and preserved, facilitating ready sourcing and reference. Although memos are like business letters there are some noteworthy differences.

1. Memos are addressed to people in general, to groups and to branches and offices. Memos are unlike business letters are not addressed to specific individuals. 2. Unlike a business letter, memorandum does not have salutation, complimentary close and signatures. 3. Memos, like letters, do have a date and a subject, and the name and designation of the authority issuing it. A memo is described as an informal letter without signature. 4. Memos are used to reach out to offices and employees and convey both information and instructions meant to be acted upon.

For the rest of the chapter refer to the book.

UNIT IX Report Writing


9.1 An introduction to Reports No business or no government can exist or continue its survival without reports. They all need reports of different types short or lengthy, formal or informal. The ultimate purpose of all such reports is to formulate a base or the foundation for making organizational decisions and to decide about the courses of action. Reports largely come under the category of upward communication from internal sources of the organization. Reports may come from external sources whenever certain tasks are assigned outside. Many reports are (B2B) types when one party seeks business assignments on contractual terms from another party. A report provides appropriate feedback to the authorities for judgment and verdict. Detailed reports mostly require a series of fact finding and research. The task will include interviewing persons internally as well as outside; using professionally structured questionnaires; visit to different places connected or unconnected with the issues involved; investigations, interpretations of findings and final recommendations. Many people think all the steps thus pointed out are somewhat of a frightening nature and prefer to keep away. But these are all inescapable aspects of organizational activities and those who have to get involved find the jobs stimulating as well as rewarding. Moreover, most reports are prepared by managers and above internally and outside experts to do so for organizational requirements. Therefore if properly done, reports are viewed in great esteem and the producers of the report have a sense of satisfaction as well as self fulfillment. 9.1.1 Meaning and Importance of reports In general, a business report presents an account of something, finds solution-to some problem and submits information in organised form to the authorised person. It describes the sources of information and also the procedure and significance of data collection. After analysing collected data, it reaches certain conclusions and if required, it includes suggestions and recommendations.

C.A. Brown defines report as a communication from someone who has to inform to someone who wants to use that information. It describes the events or individuals to someone who requires it. The business reports are written by the individuals or by the committees as a part of their regular duties. Many of them are objective factual and impartial in nature and they do not require interpretations or comments. But, some reports can be prepared only after careful investigation, experiments, research, surveys and logical thinking. Such reports often end with expert advice, suggestions and recommendations. The report helps the management for evaluation, assessment and appraisal of the employees and their organisational activities it forms a basis for their future planning and development. It helps the executives to secure efficient control over the situations and to improve the organisational structure. The large industries which employ thousands of workers in their various departments have to rely on reports furnished by different departmental heads and committees to bring coordination among them. A critical evaluation of their performance is essential for the progress, growth and expansion of the organisation. It depends on the detail and accurate reports which provide analysis and interpretations of the facts regarding the processes of purchase, production and sales. The progress reports of these processes .are compared with those of other similar organisations. 9.2 Characteristics of writing a good report:1. Precision - In a good report, the writer is very clear about the exact purpose of writing it. His investigation, analysis and recommendations are directed by this central purpose. Precision gives a kind of unity and coherence to the report and makes it a valuable document. 2. Accuracy of Facts The scientific accuracy of facts is very essential to a good report. Since reports invariably lead to decision-making, inaccurate facts may lead to disastrous decisions. 3. Relevance The facts presented in a report should be not only accurate but relevant also. While it is essential that every fact included in a report has a bearing on the central purpose, it is equally essential to see that nothing relevant has escaped inclusion. Irrelevant facts make a report confusing; exclusion of relevant facts renders it incomplete and likely to mislead. 4. Reader orientation A good report is always reader-oriented. While drafting a report, it is necessary to keep in mind the person(s) who is (are) going to read it. A report meant for the layman will be different from another meant for technical persons.

5. Objectivity of recommendations If recommendations are made at the end of a report, they must be impartial and objective. They should come as a logical conclusion to investigation and analysis. They must not reveal any self interest the part of the writer. 6. Simple and unambiguous language A good report is written in simple, unambiguous language. It is a kind of scientific document of practical utility; hence it should be free from various forms of poetic embellishment like figures of speech. 7. Clarity A good report is absolutely clear. Clarity depends on proper arrangement of facts. The report writer must proceed systematically. He should make his purpose clear, define his sources, state his findings, and finally make necessary recommendations. He should divide his report into short paragraphs giving them headings and insert other suitable sign-posts to achieve greater clarity. 8. Brevity A report should be brief. It is difficult to define brevity in absolute terms. Nor can brevity be laid down as a rule. All that can be said is that a good report is as brief as possible. Brevity should not be achieved at the cost of clarity. Nor should it be at the cost of completeness. Sometimes the problem being investigated is of such importance that it calls for a detailed discussion of facts. Then this discussion should not be evaded. Brevity in a report is the kind of brevity one recommends for a prcis. Include everything significant and yet be brief. 9. Grammatical Accuracy The grammatical accuracy of language though listed at number 9 in characteristics of a good report is of fundamental importance. It is one of the basic requisites of a good report as of any other piece of composition. Who is going to read a report if its language is faulty? Besides faculty construction of sentences make the meaning obscure and ambiguous. 9.4 Business report Vs. Technical Report Essentially the purpose and factors of all reports are almost the same. What then is a business report and what is a Technical report? Both reports have to be systematic and objective communication of factual information that serves specific business needs. Reports are logical and honest and provide information about what happened in the past, what is happening now and what may happen in the future. The producer of the reports examine the why and how factors of such happenings and suggest preventive actions in the form of recommendations.

There are many more reports in the business context like Annual reports of a companys progress and performance, Auditors reports of Balance sheet and Profit and Loss A/c, Production report, Sales report and a host of professional reports in the areas of Marketing, Sales, Public relations, Advertising and Promotions, and Research reports on all such activities. A report is a business document containing predefined data, information and relevant details which are organized and produced in printed formats. In other words viewing and subsequent decision making, A report may also contain specific information about decisions made and how such decisions are crucial for organizational performance and stability. Any technical report will have distinct similarities with a business report and purpose will be the same. A hardcore technical report, however will deal with industrial and technical problems of industry and business. Examples are: A project report about the proposed setting up of a large, medium or small scale industry Feasibility report of the proposed business or industry relating to location availability of raw materials and manpower, profitability and demand of produced items and so on Project Appraisal Report by another competent party. The entrepreneur would like to get the project reports vetted by an expert or a group of experts for final judgement and decision making.