Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

FERRORESENANCE PHENOMENA OF A STATION SERVICE TRANSFORMER DURING BLACK START AND ITS INVESTIGATION

Nitus Voraphonpiput, Ph.D. Technical Analysis – Foreign Power Purchase Agreement Branch Power Purchase Agreement Division Electricity Generating Authority of Thaiand, 11130, Thailand. nitus.v@egat.co.th

Abstract This paper reported the experience on ferroresonance phenomena of a 12.5 MVA 230 kV/7.2 kV station service transformer during black start exercise of a power plant in Thailand. The ferroresonance was found during switching operation of the power plant, causing a very loud noise of the transformer and generally creating over-voltage at transformer terminals which can make insulator failure. In order to solve this problem, the investigation and field test then were conducted by using analytical method and computer simulation. The outcome indicated that the ferroresonance will occur whenever de-energizes the transformer during black start as a result of system parameters. Efficient resolutions were proposed, but improvements of switching order to prevent the transformer from ferroresonance conditions became the final solution because of economic reason and limitation of substation area.

Keywords: Ferroresonance, Black start, Transformer, EMTDC

1. Introduction The power plant can start itself without any electricity requirement of the power system and energize transmission line to recover the power system back to service after blackout or partial blackout is called “black start”. The black start capability becomes one of the importance performances of power plants in connecting with the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) network and generally specifies in Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) as a necessary performance of the generators. To ensure the security and the reliability of the power system, the black start test will normally be exercised every two years. Testing procedure and switching order for black start test are issued by EGAT to the power plant. In March, 2007, the black start test of a 300 MW gas turbine and combined cycle plant (CC-GT plant) was conducted. One important procedure of the black start test was the complete shutdown of the power plant which all circuit breakers in the power plant area and switchyard had to be opened and no electricity supplied to the power plant. When the generator was completely started up from the shutdown state then generator circuit breakers were closed to energize the high voltage 230 kV main bus. Operator found a very loud noise at the station service transformer. Ferroresonance was a questionable cause of the very loud noise. As utility practice, overvoltage caused by ferroresonance can damage transformer, surge arrester and insulation. Therefore, analysis and computer simulation were done before the field test, which were conducted in July 14, 2007 to give an efficient resolution.

2. Ferroresonance Investigation Ferroresonance is a nonlinear oscillation phenomenon of a circuit consisting, at least, of a nonlinear inductance and a capacitance that are connected in series and supplied by an alternating current source. In the power system, it typically involves the saturate magnetic inductance of a transformer and capacitance, which physically presents in form of capacitive of cable, transmission line. The capacitance can also be grading capacitance of a high voltage circuit breaker. Ferroresonance is more likely in unloaded transformer and potential transformer. In this case, the high voltage circuit breakers (80142C) shown in Fig.1 were opened during black start. These circuit breakers were directly connected between 230 kV main buses and the station service transformer.

1

The station service transformer (KT2B) is an 230/7.2 kV oil type transformer which has capacity of 12.5 MVA as shown in Fig.2.

which has capacity of 12.5 MVA as shown in Fig.2. Fig. 1. High Voltage Circuit Breaker

Fig. 1. High Voltage Circuit Breaker (80142C)

in Fig.2. Fig. 1. High Voltage Circuit Breaker (80142C) Fig. 2. The Station Service Transformer (KT2B)

Fig. 2. The Station Service Transformer (KT2B)

The power plant consists of two units of gas turbines and one steam turbine. The simple one line of the power plant is also presented in Fig.3. The black start proceeded to power plant complete shutdown. At this state, all circuit breakers in the plant area and switchyard were opened. The gas turbine No.1 started up and achieved stable state. When excitation system of the generator regulated voltage at generator terminal to the target sep-point, the generator circuit breaker (No. 80112C) was closed to energize the 230 kV Main Bus. In a few second, plant operator observed an abnormal noise at the station service transformer (KT2B).

abnormal noise at the station service transformer (KT2B). Fig. 3. Simple One Line Diagram A U

Fig. 3. Simple One Line Diagram

A U S = U L U S = U C - U L VI-curve
A
U S = U L
U S = U C - U L
VI-curve of the
transformer
B VI-curve of the grading capacitor

Fig. 4. Graphical Analysis

In order too investigate the incident, graphical analysis was constructed to confirm operating condition of the transformer and grading capacitor of the high voltage circuit breaker (80142C). Neglecting high order harmonics in the voltage waveform, Voltage-Current characteristic (VI- curve) of the transformer (KT2B) and the grading capacitor could be presented in Fig.4 [1-2]. The grading capacitor comprises two capacitors connected in series. The capacitances are 2,454 pF and

2,469.6 pF respectively. All values were referred to secondary side of the transformer and presented only one phase. In Fig.4, the intersection in the first quadrant (point A) represents an operating point of the transformer when the circuit breaker 80142C is closed. The transformer is directly connected to the

230 kV Main Bus and the grading capacitor does not present in the circuit. When the circuit breaker

80142C is opened, the grading capacitor is presented in the circuit. It is connected in between the

230 kV Main Bus and the transformer. The circuit becomes a series connection of capacitances and

a nonlinear inductance. The operating point is now moved to the third quadrant. This operating point is an intersection of VI-Curve of the transformer and the VI-curve of the grading capacitor that is point B. It can be seen from Fig. 4 that ferroresonance will occur whenever the 230 kV Main

2

Bus is energized while the circuit breaker 80142C is opened because there is only one intersection (point B) in this operation condition. It can also estimate that fundamental component of the voltage and current waveforms of the point B are less than normal operation of the transformer (point A). Therefore, it can roughly explain why the ferroresonance phenomena did not damage the insulator, surge arrester and the transformer. Moreover, it was observed that the normal operation of the transformer was operated in saturation region instead of linear region as it should be in general. Normally, transformers shall maintain its linearity when supply condition is less than 115%.

3. Computer Simulation and Field Test Results

Even graphical analysis provided approximately results, voltage waveform of the transformer during ferroresonance occurrence were of interest because high order harmonics can create overvoltage which might cause surge arrester overloading. Therefore, computer simulation was performed and PSCAD/EMTDC was used as a simulation tool. One line diagram in Fig. 3 was employed as the simulation circuit. Voltage-Current characteristic of the transformer in Fig. 4 was used in a three-limb Unified Magnetic Equivalent Circuit (UMEC) transformer model of the PSCAD/EMTDC.

Secondary Voltage of RAT Voltage RAT Phase A 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 -2.0 -4.0
Secondary Voltage of RAT
Voltage RAT Phase A
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
-2.0
-4.0
-6.0
-8.0
Voltage RAT Phase B
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
-2.0
-4.0
-6.0
-8.0
Voltage RAT Phase C
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
-2.0
-4.0
-6.0
-8.0
0.900
0.950
1.000
1.050
1.100
1.150
1.200
Voltage [kV]
Voltage [kV]
Voltage [kV]
Fig. 5 Simulation Result (Tap 5) Secondary Voltage of RAT Voltage RAT Phase A 8.0
Fig. 5 Simulation Result (Tap 5)
Secondary Voltage of RAT
Voltage RAT Phase A
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
-2.0
-4.0
-6.0
-8.0
Voltage RAT Phase B
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
-2.0
-4.0
-6.0
-8.0
Voltage RAT Phase C
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
-2.0
-4.0
-6.0
-8.0
0.900 0.950
1.000
1.050
1.100
1.150
1.200
Voltage [kV]
Voltage [kV]
Voltage [kV]

Fig. 7 Simulation Result (Tap 10)

4. Resolutions

5. Conclusions

7 Simulation Result (Tap 10) 4. Resolutions 5. Conclusions Fig. 6 Field Test Result (Tap 5)

Fig. 6 Field Test Result (Tap 5)

Resolutions 5. Conclusions Fig. 6 Field Test Result (Tap 5) Fig. 8 Field Test Result (Tap

Fig. 8 Field Test Result (Tap 10)

The important factors found from computer simulation were the detailed model of the transformer was significantly important to confirm ferroresonance phenomena and initial voltage is also a very important in order to repeating the field test results. Modeling, initial condition and analytic method

3

will be discussed in detail. It is recommended that computer simulation should be performed before the black start exercise to prevent transformer damage.

Acknowledgements The author thanks Nation Control Center, Electrical Maintenance Section and EGCO for the field test. The author gratefully acknowledges Mr.Kittipon Chungaroon, EGAT and Dr.Dharshana Muthumuni, Manitoba HVDC Research Center for suggestion.

References

1. Allan Greenwood, “Electrical Transients in Power Systems” John Wiley & Sons, New York.

1991.

2. D. V. Razevig, “High Voltage Engineering” Khanna Publisher, Delhi. 1996.

3. Neville Watson and Jos Arrillaga, “Power Systems Electromagnetic Transients Simulation”, The

Institute of Electrical Engineers, London. 2003.

4