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# Lee Ju-Hann June 22, 2012 ASSIGNMENT WEEK 1 PUMPS 1. Provide the classification of pump diagram.

Lee Ju-Hann June 22, 2012 2. a. b. c. d. e. f. Provide definition of your own on the terms below: Discharge Pressure pressure generated on the output side of the pump. Suction Pressure pressure generated on the input side of the pump. Pump Head - pump head is the pump pressure expressed in terms of height of fluid. Net Positive Suction Head the difference between suction head and the liquids vapor head. Minimum Continuous Stable Flow refers to the lowest flow rate at which a pump can operate continuously without exceeding the vibration limits System Curve a graphical presentation of the energy equation, describing the relation between head and flow rate.

Lee Ju-Hann June 22, 2012 3. For each type of pump, do a comparison table to show the following: a. Centrifugal i. Design Centrifugal pumps make use of centrifugal force to work. The liquid to be pumped is usually water. The construction of the housing is such that water is piped in at the centre of the impeller. The impeller is then rotated at a high speed so that the water is thrown outwards with high velocity. The housing of the impeller is usually constructed in the shape of a volute such that the volume is gradually expanded until the placed the water is led out as the discharge. The gradual expansion of the volume has the effect of converting the velocity of the water into pressure. Some centrifugal pumps make use of diffuser fins at the housing to achieve the same change of state. ii. Advantages iii. Disadvantages iv. Applications b. PD i. Design Positive displacement pumps make use of a mechanical object to displace the liquid. The liquid to be pumped can be water, oil, or other thick liquid. The mechanical object can move in a reciprocating manner or a rotary manner. Examples of the mechanical object are: pistons, gears, screws, lobe, vanes. The liquid is literally pushed aside by the object. Some pumps need to have inlet and outlet non-return valves fitted to work. Examples of this are piston pumps. Others like gears, screws, lobe, and vanes rotating at high speed need not employ valves to work. One characteristic of these pumps is the fact that the pressure can build up in time if it is not released. Usually a pressure relief valve is fitted at the discharge side of the pump to prevent over pressure. ii. Advantages 1. Produces same flow rate regardless of discharge pressure. 2. iii. Disadvantages 1. Cannot operate iv. Applications

Lee Ju-Hann June 22, 2012 4. a. Provide types of pump protection for: Centrifugal i. Minimum Flow Protection 1. Low flow can cause overheating, hydraulic instabilities (suction and discharge recirculation) and mechanical unreliability in centrifugal pumps. 2. Conventional Feedback Control System a. A check valve in the main pump discharge line to protect the pump from reverse flow. b. A flow meter/sensor in the main discharge line to provide indication of the pump flow rate. c. A flow controller or DCS input/output point to provide required bypass flow rate. d. An electrically/pneumatically actuated bypass valve to maintain required bypass flow rate. e. Valve automation equipment to convert bypass flow rate output signal to valve travel. f. All wiring for feedback control loop. 3. Continuous System a. Uses a restriction orifice in a return line. 4. Protection from runout & cavitation a. b. Positive Displacement

Lee Ju-Hann June 22, 2012 5. a. Provide typical pump curve and explanatory how to read a pump curve for: Centrifugal

Shut off head is the maximum head that can be developed by the pump operating at a set speed. Pump runout is the maximum flow that can be developed by a pump without damaging the pump. b. Positive Displacement