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Original Title: IX CBSE PHYSICS Motion Notes and Problems

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Rest and Motion 1. If the position of an object does not change with time, it is said to be at rest. 2. If the position of an object changes as time passes, it is said to be in motion. 3. Reference point is a fixed point with respect of which a body is at rest or in motion. 4. Rest and Motion are relative terms. Distance and Displacement 5. Distance is the length of actual path travelled by a body in a given time. 6. Displacement is the shortest distance between the initial and final positions of the body in a known direction. 7. A physical quantity which has both magnitude and direction is called as vector quantity. 8. A physical quantity which has only magnitude is called as scalar quantity. 9. The S.I unit of distance and displacement is metre. Uniform and non-uniform motion 10. A body is said to be in uniform motion, if travels equal distances in equal intervals of time. 11. A body is said to have non-uniform motion if it travels unequal distances in equal intervals of time. Speed , Average Speed , Velocity and Average Velocity 12. Speed is the ratio of distance travelled to the time taken to cover that distance. 13. In non-uniform motion, speed of an object is not constant. The S.I. unit of speed is m/s or ms-1. 14. Average speed of a body is the total distance traveled divided by the total time taken. 15. Velocity is displacement per unit time. The S.I. unit of velocity is meter per second. 16. Average velocity is displacement divided by the time taken. 17. Speed is a scalar quantity and velocity is a vector quantity. Graphical Representation of Motion 18. Time is independent variable, plotted along X-axis. Distance is dependent variable, plotted along Y-axis. 19. Graphs are designed to make it easier for the reader to interpret and understand numerical data. (i) Distance time graph 20. The distance-time graph is a straight line parallel to time axis when the object is at rest. Slope of a straight line = Slope of position-time graph is zero if the object is at rest. 21. The nature of distance-time graph is a straight line when the object is in the state of uniform motion. 22. Slope of the distance-time graph gives the speed of the object. 23. A more steeply inclined distance-time graph indicates greater speed. The nature of distance-time graph is a curve having varying slope when the object has non-uniform motion. (ii) Velocity time graph 24. If the velocity of a body remains constant, the velocity-time graph is a horizontal line parallel to the time axis. 25. If the velocity of the body changes uniformly at a constant rate, the velocity-time graph is a straight line. 26. If the velocity of the object changes non-uniformly, the velocity-time graph is a curve having increasing slope. 27. The area enclosed by the velocity-time graph and the time axis represents the displacement. 28. The slope of the velocity-time graph gives the acceleration

Circular Motion 29. When a body travels along a circular path of constant radius with a constant speed v then its motion is uniform circular motion. 30. In a uniform circular motion, velocity of a particle is not constant but its speed is constant, hence it is an accelerated motion.

Formulae

1. Average Speed = If an object travels a distance s in time t then its speed v is given by v/t

2. Average Velocity (Vav) = 3. Acceleration = If the velocity of an object changes from an initial value u to the final value v in time t, the acceleration 4. Three equations of motion

Where u is the initial velocity of the object which moves with uniform acceleration a for time t. v is the final velocity, and s is the distance traveled by the object in time t. 5. We know that the circumference of a circle of radium r is given by 2r. If a person takes t seconds to go once around the circular path of radius r, the velocity v is given by

1. Which physical quantity is denoted by the slope of velocity time graph? 2. An object covers a distance in direct proportion to the square of the time elapsed. Is its acceleration constant or increasing or decreasing? 3. A 150 m long train crosses a bridge that is 850 m long in 100 seconds. What is the total distance travelled by the train? What is the speed of the train? 4. Is it possible for a body to have its velocity & acceleration pointing in opposite directions? If Yes, give an example. If No, give reason why it is no possible? Plot the velocity-time graph in case the answer is Yes. 5. Consider this situation: A car moves with a velocity of 2 m/s for 10 seconds, and then its velocity increases to 10m/s in the next 5 seconds. Thereafter its velocity decreases at a uniform rate until it comes to rest after 10 seconds. a. Express this entire run of the car on the velocity time graph. b. From the graph identify the

i. time interval when the car was accelerating ii. Displacement travelled while the car was decelerating 6. a. Under what condition(s) is the magnitude of average velocity of an object equal to its average speed? b. Identify one example each of the following types of motion from everyday life. (i) acceleration is in the direction of motion, (ii) acceleration is against the direction of motion, (iii) acceleration is uniform, (iv) acceleration is non-uniform. 7. Gracy travels the first 7 km of the distance with a speed of 40 km/hr. The later 6 km of the travel is undertaken in a time interval of 30 minutes. Determine the average speed of Gracy. 8. a. What type of motion is represented by each of the following graphs?

b. Is it possible for a body to be in circular motion with constant velocity? Give reason.

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