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35 

). Generally, jibt has three possible ad loc.; see   ; 
meanings: it is used to describe any false   ). Still other authorities
object of belief or worship (see   maintained that jibt means sorcery or divi-
), an individual who exceeds all nation while āghūt means a sorcerer or
bounds of propriety (see ) or a diviner (Zamakhsharī, Kashshāf, i, ; Ibn
state of oppression (q.v.) and injustice Ādil, Lubāb, vi, -). The influential pre-
(Lisān al-Arab, ii, ; Tāj al-arūs, iii, ; modern jurist and theologian, Fakhr al-Dīn
see   ). It is men- al-Rāzī (d. ⁄; Tafsīr, v, -), as-
tioned in  : in the context of con- serted that the expression has come to
demning those People of the Book (q.v.) describe any condition of extreme evil (see
who gave credence to the unbelievers (see   ) and corruption (q.v.).
  ) and attempted to
incite them against Muslims. Khaled M. Abdu El Fadl
Some early authorities asserted that the
word passed into Arabic from the language Bibliography
of the abasha (i.e. Ethiopic: that of the Primary: M. Abd al-Raīm,Tafsīr al- asan al-
Barī,  vols., Cairo n.d.; Ibn Ādil, Abū af+
former inhabitants of today’s Sudan and Umar b. Alī, al-Lubāb fī ulūm al-kitāb, ed. Ā.A.
Ethiopia; see ;  - Abd al-Mawjūd and A.M. Muawwa-,  vols.,
; cf. Jeffery, For. vocab., -; Beirut ; Ibn Kathīr, Tafsīr; Lisān al-Arab, Bei-
Suyūī, Muhadhdhab, ), where, report- rut ; Māwardī, Nukat; Qāsimī, Tafsīr, Beirut
; Qurubī, Jāmi; Rāzī, Tafsīr,  vols. in ,
edly, it meant “sorcery” or “a demon” (see Beirut ; abarī, Tafsīr, ed. Shākir; Tāj al-
; ). Other authorities main- arūs, Beirut ; Zamakhsharī, Kashshāf,  vols.,
tained that the word was derived from the Beirut n.d.
Secondary: T. Fahd, Le panthéon de l’arabie centrale
Arabic term jibsun, meaning “a person of
à la vielle de l’hégire, Paris ,  n.  (on jibt
ill repute and character” (Māwardī, Nukat, and āghūt ); G. Hawting, The idea of idolatry and the
i, -; Abd al-Raīm, Tafsīr, i, ). In emergence of Islam, London , -; T. Nöldeke,
the Qurān and in numerous theological Neue Beiträge zur semitischen Sprachwissenschaft,
Strassburg , - (for an Ethiopic origin of
works, jibt is most often correlated with the jibt; āghūt is disussed on p. ); Paret, Kommentar,
word āghūt (al-jibt wa-l- āghūt), an expres-  (discussion of an Ethiopic origin of jibt).
sion that means divination (q.v.), sorcery or
idol worship (see   -
). Some commentators on the Qurān Jihād
(see    : 
 ) claimed that jibt and āghūt Struggle, or striving, but often understood
were the names of two idols worshipped by both within the Muslim tradition and
the Quraysh (q.v.) in Mecca (q.v.; Qurubī, beyond it as warfare against infidels (see
Jāmi, v, -; Qāsimī, Tafsīr, iii, ). ; ;   ).
Others claimed that jibt referred to a spe- The term jihād derives from the root j-h-d,
cific person named uyayy b. Akhab denoting effort, exhaustion, exertion,
while āghūt referred to Kab b. al-Ashraf, strain. Derivatives of this root occur in
two Jewish leaders who, after the battle of forty-one qurānic verses. Five of these
Uud (see   ), contain the phrase jahd aymānihim, meaning
went to Mecca in order to conspire with “[to swear] the strongest oath,” which is
the Quraysh to destroy the Muslims in irrelevant to the present discussion (see
Medina (q.v.; abarī, Tafsīr, viii, esp. -, ), and not all the remaining verses
- [ad  :]; Ibn Kathīr, Tafsīr, refer to warfare.
 36

Since the concept of jihād is related towards unbelievers, fearlessness and j-h-d;
to warfare, discussions of the subject  :, where “enemies” [q.v.] and depart-
often contain explicit or implicit value- ing for jihād are mentioned);
judgments and apologetics. In fact, the (c) when the context of the verse indicates
subjects of jihād and warfare in Islam are a military significance. Textual context is
always treated as one. There are, however, difficult to use because of the methods of
two reasons to discuss them separately. assembling the text to which the history of
First, jihād is a concept much broader than the collection of the Qurān (q.v.) attests.
warfare. Secondly, the doctrine of warfare As indicated in this history, verses that
can be derived from the Qurān without were revealed on different occasions (see
resorting to the term jihād at all. There-   ; 
fore, in this article the derivatives of the   ) were placed in sequence.
root j-h-d in the Qurān will be discussed Sometimes, fully contradictory verses were
first, followed by a survey of the doctrine placed together, apparently because they
of warfare as expressed in the Qurān. deal with the same topic (e.g.  :-;
:-). Occasionally, however, the continu-
The root j-h-d and its derivatives in the Qurān ity between sequential verses is clear and
The root j-h-d does not have bellicose con- the textual context may be used to clarify
notations in pre-Islamic usage (see - the warlike intention of a verse ( :, the
    ). Judging context being :-;  :, the context
by linguistic criteria alone (see  being :-; these two verses also fall
    ), without hav- under category (a) above;  :, the con-
ing recourse to qurānic exegesis (see text being :-);
   :   (d) when j-h-d in the third form is fol-
), only ten out of the thirty-six lowed by a direct object. It denotes, liter-
relevant qurānic references can be ally, two parties, each trying to exhaust the
unequivocally interpreted as signifying other, hence the notion of combat ( :
warfare. The rest are unspecified, some = :; but cf.  :, wa-jāhidhum bihi
of them clearly denoting efforts or strug- jihādan kabīran, where the Prophet is
gles other than fighting. The following instructed to combat by peaceful means,
guidelines help determine whether or not namely, by the Qurān; see  
the term j-h-d in a given verse refers to ).
warfare: In sum, there are only ten places in the
(a) when the term is juxtaposed with a Qurān where j-h-d definitely denotes war-
military idiom, such as “shirkers” (mukhal- fare. To these may be added four verses
lafūn, qāidūn,  :; :, ) or “go on that establish the status of “those who
raids” (infirū,  :; see   believed, emigrated (see ) and
). Verses in which j-h-d is con- exerted themselves” (inna lladhīna āmanū
nected to “asking leave⁄finding excuses” wa-hājarū wa-jāhadū,  :, ; :; cf.
(istidhān) also seem to be dealing with war- :). Since warfare is strongly advocated
fare ( :; cf. :, which combines both in the Qurān, it stands to reason that ref-
“ask leave” and “shirkers”); erences to the high status of the “strug-
(b) when the content of the verse dis- glers” (mujāhidūn) are, in fact, references to
closes its military significance ( :, warriors. It is clear, however, that in these
where there is a linkage between harshness verses the reference is to the Emigrants
37 

(muhājirūn, see   ). It Qurān (see    ;
may be pointed out that sometimes j-h-d    ;   ).
occurs as the counterpart of hijra, “emigra- The qurānic concept of jihād was not
tion,” presumably the Muslims’ emigration originally connected with antagonism
to Medina (q.v.;  :; :-; :; between the believers and other people.
:, cf. :). Strangely, there is no The semantic field of the root j-h-d as well
qurānic reference to the military contribu- as its use in the Qurān suggest another
tion or warlike attributes of the Helpers provenance. It may be an expression of the
(anār, i.e. those Medinans who helped the ancient and ubiquitous notion that the
émigrés; such references do, however, believers must prove to the deity their wor-
abound in the historical and adīth litera- thiness for divine reward (see  
ture; see    ). ; ). This proof is
There is one case where j-h-d is applied to achieved by enduring various kinds of
an impious struggle, namely, the struggle of hardships and self-mortification. Fasting
disbelieving parents (q.v.) to prevent their and pilgrimage belong to this category as
offspring (see ; ) from do celibacy and poverty. Conversely, hard-
adhering to the true religion (q.v.;  :). ships that befall the believers are under-
But in many verses it is not possible to stood as divine tests designed to provide
determine the kind of effort indicated by the believers with opportunities to prove
j-h-d. There are many commentators who themselves worthy (see ). These
leave the terms unspecified in these ancient religious ideas found expression in
instances, whereas others interpret also the Qurān. God announces many times
these ambiguous cases as warfare against that he subjects the believers to tests and
infidels (see commentaries to  :; he reprimands those who are not able, or
:; :; :, , , ; :; :, not willing, to endure (e.g.  :-, ;
; :; :). Still others understand the :; :; :; see   ;
doubtful cases in one or more of the fol-   ;  ). In
lowing ways: (a) combat against one’s own Islam, in addition to giving the believers
desires and weaknesses (see ,   the opportunity to prove themselves, the
), (b) perseverance in observing the tests also help establish the distinction
religious law (see    ), between the true believers on the one
(c) seeking religious knowledge ( alab al-ilm, hand, and the pretenders and the unbeliev-
see   ), (d) obser- ers on the other (see  
vance of the sunna (q.v.), (e) obedience ). The tests also help determine
(q.v.) to God and summoning people to the relative status of the members of the
worship him, and so on (see e.g. Khāzin, community (see   
Lubāb, v, ; Ibn Abī ātim, Tafsīr, ix,   ). One of the means of test-
). All these meanings, however, are ing is jihād. In this capacity jihād may
never explicit in the Qurān. Also, the mean participation in warfare, but also any
phrases denoting the “greater” jihād (i.e. other effort made in connection with
one’s personal struggle to be a better Mus- adherence to the true religion (see  :;
lim) that are common in later literature, :; :; cf.  :, , . Only  :
namely, “struggle of the self ” ( jihād al-nafs) and : certainly refer to warfare, judging
or “struggle with the devil” ( jihād by the context. See also  :-, -;
al-shay ān, see ), do not occur in the :-; :-; :; :-; :, .).
 38

Sometimes not jihād but death (see  ries and regulations, aspects which were
  ) or battle (qitāl) “in the way discussed at length by the jurists (who
of God” are explicitly mentioned as a test often, however, used the term siyar instead
( :-; :; cf. :-; :; :, of jihād). Also the parallelism between the
-). qurānic phrases jihād “in the way of God”
Very little of the peaceful sense of j-h-d ( fī sabīli llāh) and qitāl “in the way of God”
remained in Muslim culture and the may have contributed to the equation of
understanding of jihād as war became pre- j-h-d with terms of warfare. In fact the
dominant. Nevertheless, there are verses in phrase “in the way of God” itself came to
the Qurān that attest to other significa- mean “warfare against infidels,” although
tions. The best example is  :. By lin- it is not necessarily so in the Qurān (see
guistic and contextual criteria, the phrase e.g. “emigration in the way of God” in
“exert yourself in the way of God as is his  :; :; :; :).
right” (wa-jāhidū fī llāhi aqqa jihādihi)
clearly does not refer to warfare, but to The doctrine of warfare in the Qurān
other forms of effort made by way of obe- Islam is a system of beliefs, ritual and law
dience to God. The verse is part of the (see ;    ) and
doctrine of the “religion of Abraham” its legal system covers all spheres of life,
(millat Ibrāhīm), which regards the patriarch including warfare. Many rulings and atti-
as the first, original Muslim (see  :-; tudes relating to warfare are scattered
see ; ).  : instructs throughout the Qurān, mainly in the
Muslims to perform the religious duties Medinan sūras. Yet, derivatives of the root
originally prescribed to Abraham. While j-h-d are absent from the majority of these
asking the believers to exert themselves and verses. Forms of the root q-t-l are used
to do their utmost to this end ( jāhidū), the forty-four times in relation to warfare
verse points out that the requirement (although derivatives of this root are also
should not be deemed too much to ask, used in other contexts). In addition, there
since God “has laid no hardship on you in are many verses relating to this subject in
your religion.” The theme of war is not which neither j-h-d nor q-t-l occur.
touched upon at all in this verse. In the The qurānic rulings and attitudes
same vein,  : deals with definitions of regarding warfare are often ambiguous
belief and the phrase “those who strive” and contradictory so that there is no one
(alladhīna… jāhadū) apparently refers not to coherent doctrine of warfare in the
warriors but to those who perform all the Qurān, especially when the text is read
divine ordinances (cf. Bay-āwī, Anwār, ii, without reference to its exegetical tradi-
). Yet many commentators (including tion. These contradictions and ambiguities
al-abarī, d. ⁄) insist that in these resulted from historical developments and
two cases the term refers to participation were later amplified by differences of opin-
in warfare. ion among exegetes. The Prophet led a
The warlike meaning of jihād thus pre- dynamic career, having been at war for
dominates, to the extent that q-t-l, “kill,” years with various enemies and under
was sometimes glossed by j-h-d (e.g. changing circumstances. Such variations
Bay-āwī, Anwār, i, , ad  :). This and developments are doubtlessly reflected
predominance is perhaps to be explained in qurānic verses and account for some of
by the fact that in this sense of “war,” jihād the contradictions. The course of these
was given a legal definition, legal catego- developments, however, is not clear, for
39 

the same reasons that obstruct a decisive This is done by establishing that the verse
reconstruction of the Prophet’s biography in question only applies to a definite group
(see    ;  ). In or to a specific event in the past. In con-
addition, differences of opinion eventually trast to abrogation, specification often
arose due to the various possibilities of occurs without the use of the technical
interpretations. The language of the terms āmm and khā.
Qurān is often obscure and, even when A rarely applied, but very significant de-
not so, many terms, phrases and sentences vice, is the assignation of differing qurānic
have more than one possible meaning or rules to different situations. Whereas the
implication. For example, the sentence “we techniques of abrogation and specification
have our endeavors (amāl), you have aim at distilling one absolutely binding rule
yours” ( :; :; cf. :; :) may out of a number of possibilities, the tech-
be interpreted in several ways: (a) it enjoins nique of assignation leaves open a number
tolerance towards other religions (see of options and allows the authorities the
    ), power to decide which of the mutually-
(b) it merely states a fact, (c) it constitutes a exclusive qurānic rules applies in a given
threat, or (d) it employs “endeavors” but situation. There are other exegetical
means “reward for the endeavors,” in devices used in order to resolve contradic-
which case it is also merely a statement of tions, such as denying linguistically possible
a fact, not an implied imperative. The first implications (e.g. for  :), “supplement-
of these interpretations contradicts the ing” verses (taqdīr, e.g. for  :) and
qurānic order to initiate war against the assigning appropriate contents to qurānic
infidels ( :, , ; :; :, ,  words (e.g. equating the term silm⁄salm,
etc.; see e.g. Ibn al-Jawzī, Nawāsikh, -, “peace,” with Islam, for  : and :,
; abarī, Tafsīr, xi, -). Another see abarī, Tafsīr, ii, -; x, ).
example is  : (cf. :). It contains The verses relating to warfare may be
the seemingly clear phrase “fight in the classified under the following headings:
way of God those who fight you and do (a) the order to fight, (b) exhortations (q.v.),
not trespass” (see   - (c) the purpose of warfare, (d) conscription,
). This may be taken either as pre- (e) permission to retreat, (f ) the treatment
scribing defensive war or as an instruction of prisoners (q.v.; see also ;
to refrain from harming non-combatants ), and (g) booty (q.v.). There are
(see e.g. Ja++ā+, Akām, i, ). The former also miscellaneous practical and tactical
contradicts the above-mentioned qurānic instructions. The first topic is covered by a
order to initiate war. These are only two of large number of verses, whereas the rest
a multitude of examples. are confined to a few verses each.
Commentators developed special tech- The order to fight involves the issue of
niques to deal with qurānic contradictions, attitudes towards the other. Muslim schol-
chief among them abrogation (q.v.; naskh) ars considered more than one hundred
and specification (āmm wa-khā, literally verses as relevant to this topic. Even an
“general versus specific”). Abrogation seeks address to the Prophet such as “you are
to replace the rulings of certain verses by merely a warner” (q.v.;  :) was some-
others, on the grounds that the latter were times understood as an implicit instruction
revealed to the Prophet later than the for- to leave the infidels alone. Thus the verses
mer. Specification is designed to restrict or expressing attitudes towards the infidels
ban certain injunctions and prohibitions. include explicit or implicit instructions to
 40

the Prophet, or to the Muslims, which may of the problem of contradictions in the
be defined as follows: (a) to be patient and Qurān was to consider  : and : as
to stay aloof from the infidels ( :; abrogating all the other statements. Schol-
:, ; :-; :, ; :, , , ars seem sometimes to have deliberately
; :, ; :, -; :-; expanded the list of the abrogated verses,
:; :, -; :; :; :; :; including in it material that is irrelevant to
:; :; :; :; :; :; the issue of waging war (e.g.  :, see
:; :; :; :; :; :; Ibn al-Bārzī, Nāsikh, ; Ibn al-Jawzī,
:; :; :; :, ; :, ; Muaffā, ; id., Nawāsikh, -; Bay-āwī,
:; :; :; :; :; :, , Anwār, i, ; abarī, Tafsīr, i, ; other
; :; :; :, ; :, ; :-; examples:  :; :; :; :;
:; :; :), (b) to forgive them or :; :; :; :). The number of
treat them kindly ( :; :; :; verses abrogated by  : and : is some-
:; :; :-; :; see - times said to exceed  (Ibn al-Bārzī,
; ), (c) to tolerate them ( :, Nāsikh, - and passim; also Powers, Exe-
; :, but cf. :; :; see  getical genre, ). Several verses are con-
 ), (d) to preach or argue sidered as both abrogating and abrogated,
with them peaceably ( :; :; :, in turn, by others. The Muslim tradition,
; :; :; see ), and (e) followed by modern scholars (see -
to fight them under certain restrictions     
( :, -, ; :; :, ; :; ), associated various verses with
:-). There are also qurānic refer- developments in the career of the Prophet.
ences to treaties with infidels and to peace It is related that, in the beginning, God
( :; :; :; cf.  :; :; see instructed the Prophet to avoid the infidels
  ). All these are and to forgive them. The Prophet was
in conflict with the clear orders to fight, actually forbidden to wage war while in
expressed in  : and : (cf.  :). Mecca (q.v.). After the emigration to
 : instructs the Muslims to fight the Medina (hijra) the Muslims were first per-
idolaters (mushrikūn) until they are con- mitted to fight in retaliation for the injus-
verted to Islam and is known as “the sword tice (see   ) done them
verse” (āyat al-sayf, see   by the Meccans ( :-). Then came
).  : orders Muslims to fight the order to fight the infidels generally, yet
the People of the Book (q.v.) until they con- certain restrictions were prescribed. Even-
sent to pay tribute ( jizya, see  ), tually all restrictions were removed and all
thereby recognizing the superiority of treaties with infidels were repudiated by
Islam. It is known as “the jizya verse” (āyat  :-, and the ultimate divine orders
al-jizya, occasionally also as “the sword were expressed in  : and :. (There
verse”). The Qurān does not lay down are many versions of this scheme, see
rules for cases of Muslim defeat, although Abdallāh b. Wahb, Jāmi, fol. b; Abū
there is a long passage discussing such an Ubayd, Nāsikh, -; Bay-āwī, Anwār, i,
occurrence ( :-, see also :; see ; Khāzin, Lubāb, i, ; Shāfiī, Tafsīr,
). -; Ja++ā+, Akām, i, -; cf. Ibn
A broad consensus among medieval exe- al-Jawzī, Nawāsikh, .) This evolutionary
getes and jurists exists on the issue of wag- explanation relies on the technique of
ing war. The simplest and earliest solution abrogation to account for the contradic-
41 

tory statements in the Qurān. Although the expulsion from Mecca and for the vio-
details are disputed, this explanation is not lation of treaties ( :; :, ; :;
a post-qurānic development constructed :-; :-; :, cf. :). In one
retrospectively (see Firestone, Jihād, esp. case, defense of weak brethren is adduced
chaps. -). In addition to its obvious ( :; see   ).
rationality, this evolution is attested in the On the basis of the “sword verse” ( :)
Qurān itself ( :). Many exegetes, how- and the “jizya verse” ( :) it is clear that
ever, avoided the technique of abrogation the purpose of fighting the idolaters is to
for theological and methodological rea- convert them to Islam, whereas the pur-
sons, but achieved the same result by other pose of fighting the People of the Book is
means (e.g. Ibn al-Jawzī, Nawāsikh). Thus, to dominate them. Many commentators
in spite of differences of opinions regard- interpret  : and : (“fight them
ing the interpretation of the verses and the until there is no fitna”) as an instruction to
relations between them, the broad consen- convert all the polytheists to Islam by force
sus on the main issue remained: whether if need be (e.g. Khāzin, Lubāb, ii, ;
by abrogation, specification or other tech- Ja++ā+, Akām, i, ). It appears, however,
niques, the order to fight unconditionally that fitna (see ;  
( : and :) prevailed. Some commen- ) originally did not mean polythe-
tators, however, argued that the verses ism, but referred to attempts by infidels to
allowing peace ( :; :) were neither entice Muslims away from Islam. Such
abrogated nor specified, but remained in attempts are mentioned in many qurānic
force. By the assignation technique, peace verses (e.g.  :; :; :-; for
is allowed when it is in the best interest of  : see e.g. abarī, Tafsīr, ii, ; see
the Muslims (e.g. in times of Muslim weak- ). Thus the purpose of war in
ness, see e.g. Ja++ā+, Akām, ii, ; iii,  : and : would be not conversion
-). In fact this was the position of infidels, but the preservation of the
adopted by the four major schools of law Muslim community. Conversion as the
(see Peters, Jihād, -). purpose of Muslim warfare is also implied
Exhortations to battle occur many times by some interpretations of  : and
in the Qurān and the Prophet is told to :. In later literature the formulation of
urge his followers to fight ( :; :). In the purpose of war is “that God’s word
addition to the verses that contain various reign supreme” (li-takūna kalimatu llāhi hiya
instructions, there are those that promise l-ulyā), but in the Qurān this phrase is not
reward to warriors and reprimand shirk- associated with warfare ( :; cf. : =
ers, threatening them with God’s wrath :; :).
( :; :; :, ; :-, -, The verses relevant to conscription are
; :-; :-; :-; see also  :; :; :-, -, , ; cf.
 :-, which encourages the Muslims  :. The verses implying that only a
after a defeat). The verses that establish part of the community is required to par-
the distinction between true believers and ticipate in warfare prevail over those that
hypocrites (see above) may also serve the stipulate or imply general conscription (see
same end. Abdallāh b. Wahb, Jāmi, fol. a-b; Ibn
In a few verses, the cause or purpose of al-Jawzī, Nawāsikh, ; Bay-āwī, Anwār, i,
Muslim warfare is mentioned as self- ; Shāfiī, Tafsīr, -, , ; Zuhrī,
defense, and retaliation for aggression, for Nāsikh, -; see also Paret, Kommentar,
 42

-; id., Sure , ). In post-qurānic erty (e.g. abarī, Tafsīr, xxviii, ).  :
legal idiom it is stated that warfare ( jihād) is was adduced as proof that no enemy-
a collective duty ( far alā l-kifāya). children should be killed (e.g. Shāfiī,
Permission to retreat occurs three times. Tafsīr, ).
In  :- retreat is forbidden unless it is Finally, the origins of the notion of the
intended to be temporary and is done for sacredness of Islamic warfare should be
tactical reasons. These verses are consid- mentioned. Although jihād and warfare
ered by some scholars to have been abro- are disparate concepts, only partly overlap-
gated by  :, which permits retreat only ping, both are endowed with sanctity. The
if the enemies outnumber the Muslims by sanctity of jihād was discussed above. The
more than ten times. This rule was, in sacredness of warfare derives, first, from
turn, replaced by  :, which reduces the causative link between warfare on the
the proportion to two to one (Bay-āwī, one hand, and divine command and divine
Anwār, i, ; abarī, Tafsīr, ix, -; Ibn decree on the other. Another source is the
al-Jawzī, Nawāsikh, -; Abū Ubayd, association of warfare with divine reward
Nāsikh, -). This issue is sometimes dis- and punishment. The roles of warring as a
cussed in relation to  : as well. divine test and as a pledge that the believ-
The taking of prisoners is forbidden in ers give to God ( :, ) add another
 : (see also  :-). This verse is con- dimension to the sacredness of warfare.
sidered as abrogated by  :, which Finally, God’s direct intervention in the
allows the Muslims to take prisoners, to military exploits of his community sancti-
free them for no compensation at all or to fies these exploits ( :, -; :-,
do so in exchange for ransom (Qurubī, -, ; :, -, ; :-, -;
Akām, iv, -; vii, -; Ja++ā+, Akām, :-; see ).
iii, -; Abū Ubayd, Nāsikh, -;
abarī, Tafsīr, x, -). Nowhere in the Ella Landau-Tasseron
Qurān is there a reference to the permissi-
bility (or otherwise) of executing prisoners. Bibliography
There is, however, disagreement among Primary: Abdallāh b. Wahb, al-Jāmi, die
Koranwissenschaften, ed. M. Muranyi, Wiesbaden
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tradiction between  : and the categori- l-Qurān al-azīz, ed. M. al-Mudayfir, Riyadh
cal order to kill the idolaters in  : (Ibn ; Bay-āwī, Anwār; Ibn Abī ātim, Abd
al-Jawzī, Nawāsikh, -; abarī, Tafsīr, x, al-Ramān b. Muammad, Tafsīr al-Qurān
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-; Ja++ā+, Akām, iii, -). Booty is Nāsikh al-Qurān al-azīz wa-mansūkhuhu, ed. ..
discussed in  :; :, , -; :- al- āmin, Beirut ; Ibn al-Jawzī, al-Muaffā
bi-akuff ahl al-rusūkh min ilm al-nāsikh wa-l-
and other practical matters relating to war
mansūkh, ed. .. al- āmin, Beirut ; id.,
occur in  :; :-; :-, ; :. Nawāsikh al-Qurān, ed. .S. Asad al-Dārānī,
In the legal literature qurānic verses are Damascus ; Ibn Shihāb al-Zuhrī, al-Nāsikh
sometimes cited which appear to be irrele- wa-l-mansūkh, ed. .. al- āmin, Beirut ;
Ja++ā+, Akām; Khāzin, Lubāb,  vols., Cairo ;
vant to the discussions. Thus  :- Qurubī, Jāmi,  vols., Cairo n.d.; al-Shāfiī,
were adduced in the discussion of non- Muammad b. Idrīs, Tafsīr, comp. and ed. M. b.
discriminating weapons (ballista, manjanīq, Sayyid al-Shūrā, Beirut ; abarī, Tafsīr, 
pts. in  vols., Cairo -.
e.g. Ibn Abī Zayd, Kitāb al-Jihād, -).
Secondary: T.J. Arnold, The preaching of Islam. A
 : was used in the discussion of the history of the propagation of the Muslim faith, London
permissibility to destroy the enemy’s prop- ; H. Busse, The Arab conquest in revelation
43 

and politics, in   (), -; R. Firestone, (see   ) that God, in the
Jihād. The origin of holy war in Islam, New York fullness of his lordship, succeeds in making
; M.K. Haykal, al-Jihād wa-l-qitāl fī l-siyāsati
l-shariyya, Beirut ; A.A. Jannatī, Defense and
disappear ( :, “They are but names
jihad in the Qurān, in al-Tawīd  (), -; which you have named”), the jinn survive
M.J. Kister, An yadin (Qurān IX⁄). An attempt at the heart of the new religion. The
at interpretation, in Arabica  (), -; Qurān limits itself to denying them the
A. Morabia, Le Ǧihād dans l’Islam médiéval. Le
“combat sacré” des origines au XIIe siècle, Paris ; greater part of their powers — those, at
M. Muahhari, Jihad in the Qurān, in M. Abedi any rate, that they could have claimed
and G. Legenhausen (eds.), Jihād and shahādat. from the lord of the Qurān. In particular,
Struggle and martyrdom in Islam, Houston ,
they are shorn of their primordial function
-; A. Noth, Heiliger Krieg und heiliger Kampf in
Islam und Christentum, Bonn ; H.T. Obbink, relative to humankind, that of uncovering
De heilige oorlog volgens den Koran, Leiden ; the secrets (q.v.) of destiny (ghayb), thereby
Paret, Kommentar; id., Sure , , in   (), possessing knowledge of the future and of
-; R. Peters, Islam and colonialism. The doctrine
of jihad in modern history, The Hague ; the world of the invisible (see  
D. Powers, The exegetical genre nāsikh al-Qurān  ; ; ). In the
wa-mansūkhuhu, in Rippin, Approaches, -; account of the death of Solomon (q.v.;
Abdallāh b. Amad al-Qādirī, al-Jihād fī sabīli
 :), the jinn, having failed to grasp
llāh. aqīqatuhu wa-ghāyatuhu, Jeddah ;
U. Rubin, Barāa. A study of some qurānic that the king is dead, continue to serve him
passages, in   (), -; A. Sachedina, in humility and abasement — thus demon-
The development of jihād in Islamic revelation strating their ignorance of the ghayb. But
and history, in J.T. Johnson and J. Kelsay (eds.),
Cross, crescent and sword, New York , -;
the very fact that the Qurān dispossesses
A. Schleifer, Jihād and traditional Islamic con- them, allows, at the same time, for recogni-
sciousness, in   (), -; id., Under- tion of their former role as mediators be-
standing jihād. Definition and methodology, in
tween the invisible world and humankind.
  (), -; F. Schwally, Der heilige
Krieg des Islam in religionsgeschichtlicher und The Qurān finds itself in the surprising
staatsrechtlicher Beleuchtung, in Internationale position of having to come to terms with
Monatsschrift für Wissenschaft, Kunst und Technik  the jinn, i.e. subjecting them to its God, so
(), -; W.M. Watt, Islamic conceptions
of the holy war, in T.P. Murphy (ed.), The holy
powerful is the image they conjure up in
war, Columbus, OH , -; A.L. Wismar, popular imagination and local beliefs. In
A study in tolerance as practiced by Muammad and his doing this, the text of the Qurān permits
immediate successors, New York . us to confirm part of what has been sug-
gested concerning the way in which the
desert Arabs (see ; ; -
Jinn     ) of the
sixth century .. viewed their relationship
A category of created beings believed to to the jinn.
possess powers for evil and good. Although Regarded as having lost their faculty of
their existence is never doubted, the jinn familiarity with the invisible, the jinn were
(Eng. “genie”) are presented in the Qurān also seen as having lost their “power” or
as figures whose effective role has been “faculty of action” (sul ān, e.g.  :).
considerably curtailed in comparison to Sul ān is the exclusive preserve of the God
that accorded to them by various forms of of the Qurān, who dispenses it to whom-
pre-Islamic religion. soever he wishes ( :; :; etc.; see
Unlike their rivals, the rabb and the rabba,   ). He never dele-
the “lords” and “ladies,” supernatural pro- gates complete mastery to anyone, how-
tectors and “allies” (awliyā) of the tribes ever, since omnipotence remains one of