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Apple inc.

Apple Inc. ( formerly Apple Computer, Inc.) is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. The company's best-known hardware products are the Macintosh line of computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad. As of July 2011, Apple has 364 retail stores in thirteen countries,[5] and an online store.[6] It competes with ExxonMobil as the largest publicly traded company in the world by market capitalization, [7] [8] , as well as the largest technology company in the world by revenue and profit, more than Google and Microsoft combined.[9][10] As of September 24, 2011, the company had 60,400 permanent full-time employees and 2,900 temporary full-time employees worldwide;[4] its worldwide annual revenue in 2010 totalled $65 billion, growing to $108 billion in 2011

History
Steven Wozniak and Steven Jobs had been friends in high school. They had both been interested in electronics, and both had been perceived as outsiders. They kept in touch after graduation, and both ended up dropping out of school and getting jobs working for companies in Silicon Valley. (Woz for Hewlett-Packard, Jobs for Atari) Wozniak had been dabbling in computer-design for some time when, in 1976, he designed what would become the Apple I. Jobs, who had an eye for the future, insisted that he and Wozniak try to sell the machine, and on April 1, 1976, Apple Computer was born. Hobbyists did not take the Apple I very seriously, and Apple did not begin to take off until 1977, when the Apple II debuted at a local computer trade show. The first personal computer to come in a plastic case and include color graphics, the Apple II was an impressive machine. Orders for Apple machines were multiplied by several times after its introduction. And with the introduction in early 78 of the Apple Disk II, the most inexpensive, easy to use floppy drive ever (at the time), Apple sales further increased. With the increase in sales, however, came an increase in company size, and by 1980, when the Apple III was released, Apple had several thousand employees, and was beginning to sell computers abroad. Apple had taken on a number of more experienced mid-level managers and, more importantly, several new investors, who opted to take seats on the board of directors. Older, more conservative men, the new directors made sure that Apple became a real company, much to the dismay of many of its original employees. In 1981, things got a bit more difficult. A saturated market made it more difficult to sell computers, and in February. Apple was forced to lay off 40 employees. Wozniak was injured in a plane crash. He took a leave of absence and returned only briefly. Jobs became chairman of Apple computer in March.\

Introduction
After the death of Steve Jobs , the former Ceo of apple inc , the stakeholders of the company were uncertain about apples future . In this article how Tim cook is changing apple we will see how the new Ceo of apple is managing the challenges arising from the death of late Steve Jobs and how he is trying to take Apple to a new era of success .

Functions of management Leading


Leading involves influencing others work behavior to reach organizational goals. Tim cook is setting forth an example of how a leader should be by showing exemplary qualities of a leader such as the following :-

Motivation :

He is doing this by setting future goals for Apple and giving his employees a new direction

Leadership: He is showing many qualities of a leader complete self confidence , complete


control and intelligence as quoted by one of the inverstors . This can be seen when he personally visited the factory outlet in china .Whats clear is that cook is behaving like his own man . He seems , at the end of the day , to be honoring one of steve jobss dying request : that Apple mangment not ask what would steve do and instead do whats best for apple

Managerial communications and managing groups : Tim cook posses unique


managerial abilities , under his leadership the apples net worth has increased by 14 billions .( Taken together -- his rapport with Wall Street as well as government officials, his decision to grant a dividend to shareholders, the creation of a program to match employee gifts to charity - Tim Cook's stewardship of Apple is beginning to come into focus. In some cases Cook is taking action that Apple sorely needed and employees badly wanted. It's almost as if he is working his way through a to-do list of long-overdue repairs the previous occupant (Jobs) refused to address for no reason other than obstinacy.)

Planning
Planning is the management function involving goal setting and deciding how to achieve goals best. Tim cook has Planned to take Apple to new heights by attracting new investors to the company. We have seen a major increase in investment through after Tim cook has taken over

External Environment
There are two types of external environment. The types are listed below:

Mega Environment:
The broad conditions and trends in societies in which an organization operates.

Technological Element:
Apple inc is one of the leading firms in technology. Its profits and revenues are more than the combined profits of Microsoft and Google . Even thou Tim cook has not announced any new products , he has indicated in several of his interviews for new devices that will give them a technological advantage over others

Task Environment:
Specific outside elements with which an organization interfaces in course of conducting its business. The world is turned into a global village and the modern world has made people depend upon technology. It has become a basic need and the market has the potential to invest in it. Therefore bringing The iPhone 4S, which features the Siri voice-activated assistant, and an iPad with better screen resolution, both iterations of previous devices

Customer and Clients:

Clients of Apple includes Intel Corp., Advanced Micro Devices Inc., Nvidia Corp., Qualcomm Inc. and Texas Instruments Inc. Apple imposed a condition on them to select one hardware maker

for development of Ipad. Moroever this time around Apple is lifting the restriction of hardwares that can make devices.

Competitors:

Competitors of Apple inc include Microsoft and Google. Apple has contiounsly proved itself against these competitors since the revenues of ,after Tim cook has taken over, has exceeded the revenues of Microsoft and google combined

Managing Environmental Elements


Major Environmental elements include following points: Adaptation Favorability Influence Domain Shift.

In this article however two of them are applied. Breif explanation is given below:

Adaptation:
Its about how the organization make changes, in order to adapt in the environment . Tim cook has made a significant number of changes that the organization required at the time . the biggest and most prominent of all is that Apple had been a product orientated company concentrating on its products more than the market itself but now Apple inc is increasingly seen as becoming market orientated .

Favorability Influence
Strategic Alliances:

Arrangements where two or more independent organizations form two or more independent organizations form a co-operative partnership to gain mutual strategic advantage. The multinational company has made many new strategic Alliances and attracted many new investors

Domain shifts

Changes in the product and services mix offered so an organization will interface with more favourable envoirmental elements. The company's market value, for example, is up some $140
billion since Cook took over. At a market cap of about $500 billion, Apple is more valuable than Exxon Mobil (XOM) by $100 billion -- despite Apple's shares being down 15% from their peak. In the three quarters since Cook become CEO, Apple has reported $31 billion in profits and shipped 89 million iPhones and 38 million iPads, all exceeding Wall Street's expectations and continuing, by and large, to delight an adoring customer base. "By any quantitative measure, so far his performance is phenomenal," says Bill Shope, a Goldman Sachs research analyst.

Decision making
The process by which managers identify organizational problems and try to resolve them.

Steps in effective decision making


Identifying problem
Apple had a very conservative and narrow approach under steve cook which was criticized my many research analyst . for example a very product orientated approach , Steve cook never listened to his investors , he was more feared in organizational structure than respected
Scanning stage

After evaluating the conditions they came up with explanations that Apple is product oriented because had an organizational culture which stated that if our product is good people will like it and didnt consider market research of much importance
Categorization

The problem is a major one because Apple didnt consider the demand in the market before it launched its product which has lead to several failures.

Diagnosis

Inorder to solve the problem Tim cook has changed Apple approach and now a significant market approach is done by the research department before launching a new product .

Promoting innovation: technological, or qualitative, forecasting


Type of forecasting aimed primarily at predicting long term trends in technology and other environmental aspects. The world is becoming mobile and global people are mostly now depending upon technology the change in technology will make organizations to move towards change and technological advancement. They are focusing on Ipads , iphone , and other products by Apple.

Major components of planning


The organization cannot function without some goals and plan. Future target or end result an organization wishes to achieve are goals . Tim Cooks main aim is to increase the market share of Apple , increase the production and demand for its products throughout the world .

Managing change
In todays fluid environment, success demands a competitive advantage. To achieve this, effective managers see change as basic to organizational survival.

Diagnosing the need for change


Cook is maintaining, by words and actions, most of Apple's unique corporate culture. But shifts of behavior and tone are absolutely apparent; some of them affect the core of Apple's critical productdevelopment process. In general, Apple has become slightly more open and considerably more corporate. In some cases Cook is taking action that Apple sorely needed and employees badly wanted. It's almost as if he is working his way through a to-do list of long-overdue repairs the previous occupant (Jobs) refused to address for no reason other than obstinacy.

Conclusion
Operational efficiencies have been an underappreciated factor in Apple's success for the past decade; all the attention has been on its beautiful designs and snazzy marketing overseen by Jobs. If anything, Apple under Tim Cook will embrace efficiency to an even greater degree, especially as the company grows bigger and more complex .

How Tim Cook is changing Apple

Presented by Hannan Saleem