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Development of a research framework

https://sites.google.com/site/nttchp/monthlyseminar-lecture-slides
Erlyn A. Sana, PhD (erlynsana@yahoo.com.ph) Professor National Teacher Training Center for the Health Professions University of the Philippines Manila

Session objectives
Discuss basic concepts and principles in developing a research framework, Relate these basic concepts and principles with the process of operationalization, Given sample research problems, formulate the appropriate research framework

June 25 session objectives


1. Discuss research, its rationale and processes, 2. Explore various areas that can be studied in health professions education, 3. Formulate these identified areas into research statements, questions and objectives.

The research process


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Review of related literature Development of research idea Statement of research problem Chapter 1: Introduction Formulation of research questions Formulation of research objectives Gathering of data Chapter 2: Methodology Analysis of data Presentation of results Summary, conclusion and recommendations

The research process & parts of a research proposal


Research Process
1. Review of related literature 2. Development of research idea 3. Statement of research problem 4. Formulation of research questions 5. Formulation of research objectives

Research Proposal
Chapter 1: Introduction
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Background of the study Review of related literature and studies Theoretical or conceptual framework (if needed) Statement of the research problem Statement of the problem, research questions, objectives Hypothesis or assumptions (if any) Definition of terms

The research process & parts of a research proposal


Research Process
1. Review of related literature 2. Development of research idea 3. Statement of research problem 4. Formulation of research questions 5. Formulation of research objectives

Research Proposal
Chapter 1: Introduction
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Background of the study Review of related literature and studies Theoretical or conceptual framework (if needed) Statement of the research problem Statement of the problem, research questions, objectives Hypothesis or assumptions (if any) Definition of terms

Types of references
1. General references 2. Primary references 3. Secondary references
1. Atlases, encyclopedias, maps, year books, annual reports, bulletins, newspapers, magazines, statistical: facts and figures reports, etc 2. Literature presenting general information, SONA, etc on practically all topics

Types of references
1. General references
2. Primary references
1. Accounts of principal investigators and researchers, reports of researchers on their areas of study 2. Journal articles, reports to editors, short reports, monographs.

3. Secondary references

Types of references
1. General references
2. Primary references
1. Accounts of scholars and authors on their own synthesis of ideas, making use of available theory, facts, concepts and principles 2. Textbooks, selfinstructional materials, manuals, other books

3. Secondary references

What to look for in the initial review of literature (ROL)?


1. What do the references say about the main concepts in the proposed research idea:
a. Do references support strongly? b. Or moderately and why? c. Or not at all and why?

2. What do the references claim about other related terms?

How to operationalize
1. Define your concepts 2. Concretize the concepts through specifying a procedure to measure or quantify them (constructs) 3. Clarify the measure/s to be used: variables

Operational definitions (Reynolds, 1971)


A set of procedures that describes the activities an observer should perform to receive sensory impressions (sounds, visual or tactile impressions, etc) that indicate the existence, or degree of existence of a theoretical concept.

Concepts (Lastrucci, 1967)


Denote the unique or distinctive characteristics of that which is being defined, Do not define the concept by using itself, Not defined negatively when it can be stated positively, and Stated in clear and unequivocal terms

Sample research idea and problem statement


Research idea
Passing rate in NLE continues to deteriorate There is increasing number of nursing schools (N=491) These schools vary in implementing the BSN CBC curriculum

Research statement
Nursing education in the Phil is deteriorating; performance in the NLE continues to go down while there is increasing trends in number of nursing schools and faculty and students. There is an urgent need to determine where this deterioration is coming from.

Sample research idea and problem statement


Research idea
Passing rate in NLE continues to deteriorate There is increasing number of nursing schools (N=491) These schools vary in implementing the BSN CBC curriculum

Research statement
There is a need to examine the curriculum and other related factors contributing to this trend.

Given this research statement, identify the concepts:


Nursing education in the Phil is deteriorating; performance in the NLE continues to go down while there is increasing trends in number of nursing schools and faculty and students. There is an urgent need to determine where this deterioration is coming from. There is a need to examine the curriculum and other related factors contributing to this trend.

Constructs (Kerlinger, 1973)


Are also concepts but they are consciously invented or adopted for a special scientific purpose: to describe a concept

Describe concepts through specific measures of quantifying them

From concepts to constructs


Research concepts
1. Nursing education in RP 2. Deteriorating performance 3. Where the deterioration is coming from 4. Curriculum 5. Other factors
1.

Constructs
2.
3. 4. The experienced curriculum in nursing schools n the Philippines Performance of schools in the LEN The BSN CBC curriculum Student factors: demographic, family, SES; Teacher factors: educational background, years of teaching ; School factors: type, size, years of existence, with or without CHED permit

Variables (Sana, et al., 2010)


Refer to concepts which take on certain values Also called nouns to describe measurements of given concepts Classified according to:
Relationships: dependent, independent, intervening Existence variables Scales of measurement

Classification of variables
According to values (scale of measurement)

Qualitative (categorical) Quantitative


Discrete (ordinal) Continuous (Interval and ratio)

Scales of measurement
1. Categorical: names, categorizes variables 2. Ordinal: names, categorizes, ranks, orders variables 3. Interval: names, categorizes, ranks, orders, gives accurate distance between values but with arbitrary 0 values, e.g. temperature 4. Ratio: names, categorizes, ranks, orders, gives accurate distance between values and with absolute 0 values, e.g. Test scores

Determine which type of variables and scale of measurement are the following concepts:
1. Sex: male and female 2. Age: actual age in years and months 3. Civil status: single, married, separated, widowed, annulled, others 4. Year level: first, second, third, fourth, etc 5. Level of performance in a written examination: actual test scores 6. Attitudinal profile: scores in an attitudinal rating scale

From constructs to variables


Constructs
1.

Variables
The curriculum as implemented in selected schools Board examination ratings The BSN CBC See right column

2.
3. 4.

The experienced curriculum in nursing schools n the Philippines Performance of schools in the LEN The BSN CBC Student factors: demographic, family, SES; Teacher factors: educational background, years of teaching ; School factors: type, size, years of existence, with or without CHED permit

What to appraise in research


1. The science in the study 2. Consistency among the parts from introduction to recommendation (use of concepts, constructs and variables) 3. Cohesion of organization of concepts constructs and variables

What is a research framework?


A logical arrangement of concepts derived from your review of literature and your understanding of these concepts. Represents the summary of your research presented in a diagram Guides your research and determines what things you will measure, and what statistical relationships you will look for.

What is it not?
It is not a picture you downloaded from the internet and pasted on your research paper.

It is not a diagram of the steps you did while doing your research.

Is it necessary to have one?


If the journal you wish your research to be published in requires you to make one, then make one. If it is one of the thesis requirements If the author wishes to represent his ideas into a framework If the objective of the research is to make one

Types of literature used in developing research frameworks


1. Theoretical : refers to those universally accepted explanations about a given phenomenon; usually challenged or further explored in primary references 2. Conceptual : defines, describes, illustrates and explains variables in a theory and how they are applied in many extensive studies 3. Operational: discuss how certain concepts and theories are explored and studied in given institutions; concepts are broken down into constructs

Sana, et al., 2010

Literature that can be reviewed for sample problem


1. Theoretical 2. Conceptual 3. Operational 1. Basic theories and philosophies on curriculum planning and development, focusing on certain trends like CBC; discuss its rationale

Literature that can be reviewed for sample problem


1. Theoretical 2. Conceptual 3. Operational 2. Studies like journal articles dealing with health science schools that made use of the features of CBC like outcomes based learning, competencies acquisition or mastery learning, etc

Literature that can be reviewed for sample problem


1. Theoretical 2. Conceptual 3. Operational 3. Studies like journal articles dealing with specific health science schools that made use of CBC in their actual curricula, how it affected their students, schools and teachers

Types of research frameworks


1. Theoretical 2. Conceptual A structure that can hold or support a theory of a research work. It presents the theory which explains why the problem under study exists. A theory that serves as a basis for conducting research.

Guidelines in formulating the theoretical framework


1. Specify the theory used as basis for the study

2. Mention the proponents of the theory


3. Cite the main points emphasized in the theory 4. Support your exposition of the theory by ideas from other experts 5. Illustrate the theoretical framework by means of a diagram 6. Reiterate the theoretical proposition in the study.

R.E. Khan; Cited in Mendoza, 2011

Types of research frameworks


1. Theoretical 2. Conceptual
Represent ways of thinking about a problem or a study, or ways of representing how complex things work. The researchers own position on the problem and gives direction to the study.
Khan, Bordage, 2009

Types of research frameworks


1. Theoretical 2. Conceptual
An adaptation of a model used in a previous study, with modifications to suit the inquiry. Shows the direction of the study, as well as the relationships of the different constructs to be investigated. Khan, Bordage, 2009

Guidelines in formulating the conceptual framework


1. Cite your conceptual framework or paradigm
2. Identify your variables; 3. Point out the dependent and intervening variables; 4. Show the direction of the study.

R.E. Khan

Suggested framework for sample problem in nursing


Board performance Factors affecting implementation School factors

BSN CBC

Student factors

Teacher factors

Suggested framework for sample problem in nursing

BSN CBC

Factors affecting implementation Student Teacher School

Board performance

Sample problem statement 2


Formulate the rest PBL aims and of the section prepares students to from research become SDL, statement, problem solvers objectives to UERMMMC shifted framework
Research idea

to PBL PBL did not succeed in UE

The research process & parts of a research proposal


Research Process 1. Gathering of data 2. Analysis of data Research Proposal
Chapter 2: Methodology 1. Research design 2. Population of the study 3. Sampling procedures 4. Data collection procedures 5. Analysis of data