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CHAPTER II REVIEW REFERENCES

A. Averrhoa bilimbi 1. Status of Averrhoa bilimbi in Plant Systematics Systematics of plants (Averrhoa bilimbi L.) is: Division : Spermatophyta

Sub Division: Angiospermae Class Nation Tribe Marga Species : Dicotyledonae : Gerantales : Oxalidaceae : Averrhoa : Averrhoa bilimbi L. Picture1. Averrhoa bilimbi L

(Syamsuhidayat and Hutapea, 2001). 2. Morphology of plants Height of starfruit tree reaches 10 m with a trunk that is not so big and has a diameter of only about 30 cm. Planted as a fruit tree, sometimes growing wild and are found from the lowlands to 500 m. Starfruit has a bumpy coarse stems, branching slightly, leaning over her. Haired young branches smooth like velvet, the color is light brown. Leaves odd-pinnate compound leaf form with 21-45 pairs of leaflets. Children's short-stemmed leaves, ovoid to ellipsoid shape, pointed tip, base rounded, flat edge, 2-10 cm long, 1-3 cm wide, color is green, lower surface light green. Inflorescence a panicle, group, out of the trunk or large branches, tiny flower star-shaped reddish purple color. The fruit of Averrhoa bilimbi L. faceted oval, 4 to 6.5 cm long, yellowish green color, when ripe juicy, sour taste. Seeds ovoid shape, flattened. Sour fruit flavor, commonly used as a refresher syrup, flavoring dishes, clean the stain on the cloth, polish the items made of brass, and cleaning dirty hands or as an ingredient of traditional medicine. Propagation by seeds and grafts.

3. Chemical content and benefits Starfruit contain various chemical compounds, including saponins, tannins, glukosid, calcium oxalate, sulfur, formic acid, peroxide, and potassium citrate. The trunk contains Saponins, Tannins, glucoside, Calcium Oxalate, Sulfur, Formic acid, Peroxidase. While the leaves contain Tannins, Sulphur, Formic acid, peroxidase, calcium oxalate, potassium citrate. In Chinese pharmacology, the plant is believed to relieve pain, capable of as anti-inflammatory, and laxative urine, but it can make a cool sour taste. These plants also have various medicinal properties that are very helpful. In addition to lowering high blood pressure, the plant is also often used to cure cough, sore pains, mumps, rheumatism, ulcers, toothache, to treat acne and tinea versicolor. The following table part properties - the starfruit plants for health. No. Averrhoa bilimbi part Efficacy for health 1. 2. 3. Flower Leaves Fruit Cough, bleeding gums, and Thrush (stomatitis) Stomach, Mumps (parotitis), and Rheumatism Whooping cough, bleeding gums, canker, sores, cavities pain, acne, panu, high blood pressure, paralysis, Improve digestive funct, rectums inflamation

4. Young twigs Mumps (parotitis) Table 1. Efficacy Averrhoa bilimbi B. Hypertension Blood pressure is the pressure experienced by the blood in the arteries when blood is pumped by the heart to all members of the human body. Blood pressure was measured by taking two sizes and usually there are two numbers that will be called by the doctor. For example, doctors call 140-90, it means it is 140/90 mmHg. The first number (140) shows the upward pressure of the arteries due to cardiac pulsation or heart beat or beats time, and is called the systolic pressure or the pressure is often called upon. The second number (90) shows the pressure when the heart is resting between pumping, and is called diastolic pressure, or often called under pressure.

Tool to check blood pressure sphigmomanometer or also known as tensimeter. There are digital and there is also tensimeter mercury that is still commonly used for clinical examinations. High blood pressure or hypertension is a medical condition in which an increase in blood pressure is chronic (long-term). Someone who has at least the blood pressure exceeds 140/90 mmHg at rest is expected to have high blood condition. High blood pressure is always a risk factor for stroke, heart attack, heart failure and arterial aneurysm, and is a major cause of chronic heart failure. Hypertension usually occurs in the blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or above, measured in both arms three times in a few weeks. The following table classification of blood pressure in adulthood. Blood Pressure Category Systolic Diastolic Blood Pressure Normal Pre-hypertension Stage 1 <120 mm Hg 120-139 mmHg 140-159 mmHg (and) <80 mmHg (or) 80-89 mmHg (or) 90-99 mmHg (or)> = 100 mmHg

Stage 2 > = 160 mmHg Table 2. Classification of Blood Pressure In Adults

Increased blood pressure in the arteries can occur in several ways: 1. The heart pumps more powerful that drain more fluid on every second 2. Large arteries lose elasticity and become stiff, so it can not inflate when the heart pumps blood through the arteries. Therefore, the blood in each heart beat are forced to pass through narrow vessels, causing more pressure. This is what happens in the elderly, where the wall has been thickened and stiff arteries due to arteriosclerosis. In the same way, blood pressure also increased in the event of "vasoconstriction", if the small arteries (arterioles) to temporarily shrink due to stimulation of nerves or hormones in the blood. 3. Increased fluid in the circulation can cause blood pressure to rise. It happens if there are abnormalities in kidney function, so it is not able to throw some salt and water from the body. The volume of blood in the body increases, so that blood pressure is also increasing.

Conversely, if the heart's pumping activity is reduced, arterial widening experience. A lot of fluid out of circulation. Then the blood pressure will decrease or become smaller. Adjustment for these factors be implemented by changes in renal function and autonomic nervous system (part of the nervous system which regulates many bodily functions automatically). C. Candy According to Big Indonesian Dictionary, candy is sugar that smell and taste stimuli containing a mixture of oils (from plants). Candy loved by the children, as food everyday. In addition, the candy is also favored by all people whether young or old and any economic class. Only sometimes content in candy making candy is not good consumed continuously as excessive sugar content, the less good chocolate flavor and the amount of synthesis that is inconsistent with the required levels of the body. Even sometimes, candy using fruits as aroma flavor but only artificial flavors. Sweet and taste shocks can create disturbances in the body such as strep throat and heartburn. D. Framework Chart 1. Research Framework Averrhoa bilimbi is not interesting Seeing the previous experiment that the properties in Averrhoa bilimbi as diuretic that is Calium Oksalat If the way to cure hypertension is only eating fresh Averrhoa bilimbi, it is not interesting at all.

Candy is interesting food. So we packed Averrhoa bilimbi in the form of candy.

E. Research Hypothesis 1. Starfruit can lower blood pressure in mice. 2. Communities provide a positive response regarding the candy starfruit as lowering blood pressure for patients with hypertension and are willing to try. 3. Starfruit can lower heart rate or heart rate in mice. 7