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Name:__________________________________________________________ Yr. & Sec.

:_______ Date:____________ Score:_____

Informal Theme DETERMINING CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS In each of the following paragraphs, look for the cause that has several effects. Draw one line under the cause and two lines under the effects. 1. According to the Department of Energy, the Philippines needs to exceed its targets for the displacement of imported energy by 2 percent. Because of the magnitude and complexity of foreign energy sources, efforts are being exerted to use indigenous fossil fuels, oil, and coal. 2. One of the Metro Rail Transits benefits is shorter travel time for passengers. Because it uses centrally generated electrical power, it will also help minimize pollution since it neither emits polluting gases nor disrupts the traffic. Using the information from the following article, write the missing cause or effect in the table given below. Logging Logging is one of the countrys top dollar earners. Millions of board feet of hard wood are exported yearly to Japan, the United States, Europe, and the Middle East. As a result, millions of dollars pour into the national treasury. Many Filipino logging businessmen also get rich. However, in the process of logging, forests are denuded. Life, property, and crops are lost due to flash floods.


Loss of property

Insecticides Insecticides affect life on earth in two ways. When sprayed on plants, they kill harmful insects like plant lice called aphids. However, they also harm other forms of life. Useful insects like earthworms are killed. Birds which feed on the plants get poisoned. People who eat fruits and vegetables which have been sprayed and unwashed also suffer. Rivers and creeks are polluted, and the fish in them die.

Insecticides Poison fruits and vegetables Kill fish

GROUP NAME:_______________________________________ Yr. & Sec.:______ Date:____________ Score:_____ Read the selection on floods and typhoons and complete the diagrams that follow. Floods are natural phenomena that usually occur during the rainy season and affect different parts of the world. The worst of these have been caused by unpredictable weather. Tropical storms, also called typhoons, hurricanes, or cyclones, whip up the winds over the oceans. As a result, these waves, called storm surges, race towards the shore and cause floods. After a severe flood, thousands of people and animals are drowned, and whole villages are demolished. Hundreds of thousands of square kilometers of farmlands are ruined as the crops and fertile soil are washed away and replaced by thick mud. Floods also cause massive destruction of roads, bridges, railway lines, and water and power supplies. Rescue workers have difficulty in bringing food and medical supplies to many people trapped by flood waters. Broken sewers and the lack of clean water can lead to the rapid spread of diseases like cholera. Sometime in the early 90s, a tropical storm struck the island of Leyte in the Philippines and caused the worst floods there in seven years. As a result, over 2,500 people died., thousands more were reported missing, and an estimated 50,000 were left homeless.


Effects Thousands of people and animals are drowned.


Broken Sewers

More than 2,500 people dead

Tropical Storm

GROUP NAME:_______________________________________ Yr. & Sec.:______ Date:____________ Score:_____

A. Read the following dialog, then complete the diagrams below: Rosa : Do you know the principal cause of famine? Grace : Its drought, or the continuous lack of rainfall. It can also result from other natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and plague of pests. Portia : Famine can lead to hunger and malnutrition. Rosa : What are the signs of malnutrition? Portia : Diarrhea and other symptoms like swollen faces and bloated stomachs. In addition, malnourished children have frail arms and legs that look like sticks. Grace : Do you think these diseases can cause death? Portia : Of course! Thats why our government should adopt a nutrition program for children.

diseases Famine


Natural Disasters


B. Write five sentences showing cause-effect relationships based on the diagrams you completed. Be sure to use some of the connectors you studied. Use another sheet of paper for this activity. C. Arrange these sentences to form a unified paragraph. Write your paragraph below and be ready to present it to the class.