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Photovoltaic Silicon Wafer | SUMCO CORPORATION

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Photovoltaic Silicon Wafer

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6/21/2012 4:38 PM

Photovoltaic Silicon Wafer | SUMCO CORPORATION

http://www.sumcosi.com/english/products/solar/index.html

Photovoltaic (PV) is one of the promising solutions to environmental and energy resource problems that have become more serious each year.

A solar cell is a type of semiconductor that directly converts sunlight into electricity by the photovoltaic effect.

Solar cells consist of many types depending on the materials and structures and are used in different ways depending on the characteristics.

The manufacturing methods and general structures of multi-crystalline silicon solar cells will be introduced.

SUMCO mass-produces high quality silicon wafers using a new proprietary technology known as the Electromagnetic Casting Method.

SUMCO wishes to contribute to human living and our environment through photovoltaic silicon wafers.

SUMCO CORPORATION is an EPIA Member European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) is the world's largest

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Why PV is attracting attention now ? | SUMCO CORPORATION

http://www.sumcosi.com/english/products/solar/why.html

Photovoltaic Silicon Wafer

The enormous number of automobiles and the number of electrical appliances in households and offices are increasing energy consumption. A large part of energy depends on fossil fuels, such as petroleum and coal, which generate CO2 (carbon dioxide) during combustion. The problem of global warming from CO2 emissions makes people to pay attention to the utilization of renewable energy, such as photovoltaic energy. The photovoltaic energy is acquired by a power generation system that directly converts sunlight into electricity using solar cells. Fossil fuels, such as petroleum and coal, have the problems of the emission of CO2 and the depletion of the natural resource. On the other hand, photovoltaic energy using the inexhaustible energy of sunlight is one of the promising solutions for environmental and energy resource problems that are becoming more serious every year. The advantages are the complete lack of CO2 emissions, which is believed to cause global warming, and cleanliness and friendliness to the earth. The photovoltaic energy system is a power generation system where demand is expected to increase most rapidly.

Fig.1 : Trends in total CO2 emissions and CO2 emissions per person in Japan In 2005, total CO2 emissions were 1,291 million tons, and CO2 emissions per person were 10.1 tons. These values show that total CO2 emissions increased by about 13% and CO2 emissions per person by about 9% in comparison with data from 1990. In order to protect our environment, the reduction of CO2 emissions may be the most urgent task.
Source: National Institute for Environmental Studies

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Why PV is attracting attention now ? | SUMCO CORPORATION

http://www.sumcosi.com/english/products/solar/why.html

Fig.2 : Total supply of primary energy in FY2007 in Japan It is said that the CO2 emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels such as petroleum is one of the causes of global warming. Our life is highly dependent on fossil fuels, which occupy about 85% of the total energy supply. Since resources such as petroleum are not limitless, we are concerned about the lack of such resources in the future. It is believed to be necessary to promote the introduction of renewable energy, such as photovoltaic energy, to decrease the degree of dependence on fossil fuels.
Source: Agency for Natural Resources and Energy

Japan's land area is about 380,000 km and occupies about 0.3% of the world's land area. If we were to pave all of the land area of Japan with solar cells, they would cover about 30% of the total power consumption in the world.

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6/21/2012 4:38 PM

Why PV is attracting attention now ? | SUMCO CORPORATION

http://www.sumcosi.com/english/products/solar/why.html

Copyright 2010 SUMCO CORPORATION All Rights Reserved.

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6/21/2012 4:38 PM

Mechanisms of photovoltaic energy | SUMCO CORPORATION

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Photovoltaic Silicon Wafer

A solar cell is a type of semiconductor that directly converts sunlight into electricity. Almost all semiconductors use single-crystalline silicon as the raw material, and many current solar cells now use crystalline silicon. SUMCO supplies silicon wafers for solar cells along with silicon wafers for semiconductors all over the world.

The most popular solar cells at present use silicon, which is also used for semiconductors. Exposure of silicon to light generates holes with an electrically positive property and electrons with a negative property. This is called the photovoltaic effect. However, simply generating electrons and holes does not allow taking out electricity, and they also disappear immediately. There are two types of silicon: p-type silicon in which holes gather and n-type silicon in which electrons gather. A solar cell consists of piled p- and n-type silicon layers. Therefore the generated holes is attracted by the p-type silicon layer, and the electrons is attracted by the n-type silicon layer. Thus the condition is the same as that of the + and - sides of a battery. Each surface of the p-type silicon and n-type silicon is provided with an electrode for taking out the electricity generated by the solar cell. The connection of electrical wires to the electrodes enables the use of electric energy. Although it may seem difficult to understand because of the unfamiliar terms, the mechanism is extremely simple where exposure to light generates electricity.

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6/21/2012 4:39 PM

Mechanisms of photovoltaic energy | SUMCO CORPORATION

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Copyright 2010 SUMCO CORPORATION All Rights Reserved.

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6/21/2012 4:39 PM

Types and features of solar cells | SUMCO CORPORATION

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Photovoltaic Silicon Wafer

Solar cells consist of many types in addition to those that use crystalline silicon, depending on the materials and structures; solar cells are used in different ways depending on the characteristics.

The most popular solar cells at present are crystal-based silicon solar cells using mono-crystalline or multi-crystalline silicon. Crystal-based silicon has been used in solar cells from the beginning. A silicon ingot is sliced into wafers as thin as about 0.2 mm on which the solar cells are created. Although mono-crystalline silicon has high conversion efficiency (efficiency to convert sunlight into electrical energy), the disadvantage is the high production cost. On the other hand, multi-crystalline silicon has the advantages that it is cheaper and suitable for mass production. SUMCO manufactures multi-crystalline silicon wafers proven to have high quality and stability for a long period of time.

Copyright 2010 SUMCO CORPORATION All Rights Reserved.

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6/21/2012 4:40 PM

How to manufacture silicon solar cells | SUMCO CORPORATION

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Photovoltaic Silicon Wafer

We will introduce methods for manufacturing multi-crystalline silicon solar cell.

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How to manufacture silicon solar cells | SUMCO CORPORATION

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6/21/2012 4:40 PM

How to manufacture silicon solar cells | SUMCO CORPORATION

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Multi-crystalline silicon wafer

Solar cell

Photovoltaic module (Solar panel)

Solar cell: Silicon wafer where solar cell functions are created. Photovoltaic module (Solar panel): Combined and arrayed solar cells protected by transparent resin and strengthened glass to make it an integral body. Also called a solar panel. Photovoltaic array: Combined and connected photovoltaic modules.

A photovoltaic energy system can be easily maintained and controlled because of the simple function of receiving light to generate power. In addition, it emits no exhaust gas or noise, but it can be installed only if the land receives a sufficient amount of sunlight. Further construction by combining modules allows changing the system size depending on the installation area.

Inverter/Protector: An inverter converts DC (direct current) from the solar cells to AC (alternative current). The

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How to manufacture silicon solar cells | SUMCO CORPORATION

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power company supplies AC power. Distribution Panel: Distributes power to the wiring in the house. Watt-hour meter: Measures power purchased from the power company and power sold to the power company. Generally, two meters are required for these cases.

Copyright 2010 SUMCO CORPORATION All Rights Reserved.

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6/21/2012 4:40 PM

SUMCO's unique technologies | SUMCO CORPORATION

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Photovoltaic Silicon Wafer

SUMCO has developed an electromagnetic casting method that enables stable manufacturing of high quality multi-crystalline silicon ingots. It is a quite unique technology which we are proud of. 1. Raw silicon Eleven-nines(purity 99.999999999%) silicon is used as a raw material

2. Electromagnetic casting method Raw silicon is molten from high frequency induction heating using induction coils. The high frequency induction heating system allows an object to induce electric current using the same principle as an IH heater. Since the electromagnetic force generated by the induction coil provides molten silicon with the force directed toward the center, the liquid silicon can maintain high purity without making contact with the crucible. By lowering the ingot slowly, the liquid silicon cools gradually and crystallizes.

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6/21/2012 4:42 PM

SUMCO's unique technologies | SUMCO CORPORATION

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3. Square multi-crystalline silicon ingots The ingot manufactured by the electromagnetic casting method is the largest silicon crystal for solar cells in the world with a length of 7,000 mm.

4. Multi-wire saw A multi-wire saw capable of cutting four silicon blocks simultaneously is used to ensure wafer quality and productivity that is state-of-the-art for the industry

5. Cleaning The sliced wafers are carefully washed in a two-step process consisting of an initial wash and a finishing wash. 6. Inspection To ensure that stringent customer standards are met, each wafer product is inspected by an experienced inspector who is a specialist in the field.

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6/21/2012 4:42 PM

SUMCO's unique technologies | SUMCO CORPORATION

http://www.sumcosi.com/english/products/solar/original.html

The electromagnetic casting method is a process by which high frequency induction inside a cooling crucible is conducted to melt raw silicon and use powerful electromagnetic energy to suspend the molten silicon and form ingots continuously. This enables high quality silicon ingots to be manufactured without the molten silicon ever coming in contact with the crucible. Advantages of silicon wafer manufactured by the electromagnetic casting method Continuous casting process improves uniformity and maintains quality. Small variations in the conversion efficiency can provide stable performance and quality. High resistance to breakage of the wafer enables a reduction in thickness, leading to the saving of raw materials. SUMCO's silicon wafers demonstrate these excellent features and are highly evaluated by the customer as easy-to-use wafers.

Copyright 2010 SUMCO CORPORATION All Rights Reserved.

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6/21/2012 4:42 PM

Expanding PV market | SUMCO CORPORATION

http://www.sumcosi.com/english/products/solar/market.html

Photovoltaic Silicon Wafer

Photovoltaic power generation uses an extremely clean, cheap power generation method and needs no fossil fuels as required in thermal power generation and emits no waste gas such as CO2 emissions during power generation. In the past, since fossil fuel was mined in large quantities and supplied at low cost, the relatively high cost of solar cells restricted the speed of growth. However, possible depletion of fossil fuel resources and price increases as well as serious environmental issues made people pay more attention to photovoltaic energy. The promotion of the expansion of the solar cell market will contribute to a reduction in the cost of solar cells, leading to a significant increase in demand.

Fig.3 : Shipments of solar cells by Japanese vendors

Source: Japan Photovoltaic Energy Association (JPEA)

Although environmental and energy resource issues are important, the problem with renewable energy in the form of photovoltaic energy is that the cost of introduction is high. In order to promote the use of photovoltaic energy, many countries are implementing a variety of support measures. The primary measures promoting the use of renewable energy are as follows:
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6/21/2012 4:43 PM

Expanding PV market | SUMCO CORPORATION

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Cash subsidies or loans at low interest rates as support for the purchase and installation of photovoltaic energy systems Purchase of generated power at favorable prices Cost of installation is tax deductable Obligatory installation in public buildings and large facilities Obligatory use of renewable energy such as photovoltaic energy In the face of the severe recession in the world economy, many countries will implement a policy to develop renewable energy and environmental technology in order to stimulate the economy and increase employment because the growth of renewable energy-related industries is expected to create jobs and have a positive effect on the economy. Primary measures for the use of renewable energy and environmental policy Measures for promoting the use of photovoltaic energy Cash subsidies for installation cost (70,000 yen per kilowatt per house and 50% of the cost for public institutions) along with an income tax deduction for part of the installation cost. Surplus photovoltaic power to be purchased at about 24 yen per 1 kWh. Studying the purchase of surplus power at a price nearly twice the current amount. Electric power suppliers are obliged to use renewable energy-related electric power at more than a specific ratio corresponding to the sold electric energy. Deduction of 30% of the cost of introduction of photovoltaic energy system from income or corporate tax, and cash subsidy for introduction in 38 states. Each state determines the introduction target or provides support and assistance measures. Purchasing generated power at a favorable price (feed-in tariff).

Environmental policies Cabinet council decided to implement a low carbon society creation action plan where the primary purpose is to increase the number of photovoltaic energy system installations to 40 times the current number by 2030. In addition, studying the promotion of investment in the development and use of energy-saving technologies and products to restrict CO2 emissions as well as the creation of targeted employment for more than 800,000 people in the next five years through the growth of environment-related industries.

Japan

United States

Proposal for the investment of 150 billion dollars in the environment and energy industries in the next 10 years to create employment for 5 million people.

Germany

The number of employees working in renewable energy-related industries,

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Expanding PV market | SUMCO CORPORATION

http://www.sumcosi.com/english/products/solar/market.html

Measures for promoting the use of photovoltaic energy

Environmental policies including photovoltaic energy, is currently 250,000. Further reductions in CO2 emissions, including the obligation to use green electric power to create employment for an additional 500,000 people.

Purchasing price is 35 to 47 euro cents per 1 kWh depending on system size and installers. Loan at low interest rate and tax deduction are also available.

* These information is correct as of March 2009

The amount of solar energy striking the earth is very large and inexhaustible. It would be wonderful if human beings could create electricity, which is very important for living comfortably, from clean solar cells. SUMCO wishes to contribute to human living and our environment through photovoltaic silicon wafers. Links European Environment Agency (EEA) (New Window) Agency for Natural Resources and Energy (ANRE) (New Window) Greenhouse Gas Inventory Office of JAPAN (New Window) New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) (New Window) European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) (New Window) Japan Photovoltaic Energy Association (JPEA) (New Window)

Copyright 2010 SUMCO CORPORATION All Rights Reserved.

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Product Lineup | SUMCO CORPORATION

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Product Lineup
SUMCO supplies all kinds of silicon products for the semiconductor industry, ranging from single crystal silicon ingots to polished, epitaxial and SOI wafers. The high quality products meeting our customers' needs are made from raw materials with ultra-high purity under attentive quality control. Single Crystal Silicon Ingots Polished Wafers (PW) Annealed Wafers Epitaxial Wafers (EW) Junction Isolated Wafers (JIW) Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Wafers Reclaimed Polished Wafers (RPW) Specifications of Silicon Wafers

Single Crystal Silicon Ingots


High quality silicon ingots are produced by the method of Czochralski (CZ) or Magnetic field applied Czochralski (MCZ) up to 300 mm in diameter.

Polished Wafers (PW)


Polished wafers have excellent flatness and cleanliness by polishing chemically and mechanically the wafers sliced out of silicon ingot. The external gettering layer could be produced on the back surface of the polished wafers as option.

Annealed Wafers
The polished wafers annealed in hydrogen or argon atmosphere have the improved crystalline perfection of surface.

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Product Lineup | SUMCO CORPORATION

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Epitaxial Wafers (EW)


A thin single silicon crystal layer is deposited on the polished wafer by chemical vapor deposition. Epitaxial wafers have superior crystalline perfection.

Junction Isolated Wafers (JIW)


Junction Isolated Wafers are epitaxial wafers with buried layers which are produced with the patterns of IC meeting customers' designs by using photolithography, ion-implantation, thermal diffusion technology and so on.

Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Wafers


Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers are developed to realize the new generation of semiconductor devices which require larger scale integration (LSI) level, lower power consumption, faster operating speed and/or higher reliability. Three types of SOI wafers are produced as follows.

Reclaimed Polished Wafers (RPW)


SUMCO has also reclaim-process for used wafers to return high-quality reclaimed wafers to customers.

Specifications of Silicon Wafers


Polished Annealed Epitaxial Junction

Type

SOI Wafer

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Product Lineup | SUMCO CORPORATION

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Wafer 100 125 150 200 300

Wafer 125 150 200 300

Wafer 100 125 150 200 300

Isolated Wafer 100 125 150 200 150 200

Diameter (mm)

Direction of crystal Elements added for type and resistivity control

<100> , <111> , <110>

B (Boron), P (Phosphorus), Sb (Antimony), As (Arsenic)

Copyright 2010 SUMCO CORPORATION All Rights Reserved.

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